|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
Clockwise from top left: Deity of Chandi temple in Cuttack, Uttareshwar Temple, Barabati stadium, Railway Bridge on Mahanadi river near Cuttack, Ravenshaw Collegiate School (Odisha High Court in background), Badambadi bus stand centre in Cuttack
|Founded by||Raja Markat Keshari|
|Named for||Ancient military cantonment of Utkal|
|• Type||self-governing city, elected mayor|
|• Body||Municipal Corporation|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Rabinarayan Nanda|
|• Mayor||Anita Behera|
|• Total||41 km2 (16 sq mi)|
|Elevation||36 m (118 ft)|
|• Density||4,382.23/km2 (11,349.9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Cuttack i// is the former capital and the second largest city in the state of Odisha, India. Also known as the 'Millennium City' or the 'Silver City', it is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 28 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha. It is the judicial capital of Odisha as the Orissa High Court is located here. It is also the commercial capital of Odisha with a very large number of trading and business houses in and around the city. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Katak that literally means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city developed. The city is spread across an area of 41 km2 (16 sq mi), centered on a spit of land between the Kathjori River and the Mahanadi River, bounded on the southeast by Old Jagannath Road. The city is part of the larger Cuttack Municipal Corporation which consists of 59 wards; in the south the CMC starts across the Kathjori at Phulnakhara (Ward 59) and runs north across the Mahanadi to Banki (Ward 49) on the Birupa River, while in the east it begins at Bidyadharpur (Ward 55) and runs west as far as Naraj (Ward 3).
The name Katak is derived from Sanskrit, and means a military establishment/cantonment/camp/bunker. The city was known as Bidanasi Katak (meaning Bidanasi Military Base) during the days when Barabati Fort was in existence. Bidanasi is now one of the neighbourhoods in Ward 1.
Established in 989 CE, Cuttack was the seat of government in Odisha for close to a thousand years before its burgeoning size forced the creation of a new capital at Bhubaneswar in 1948. The two cities are collectively referred to as the Twin Cities. Cuttack is famous for its unique silver filigree works (Tarakasi), and woven textiles. It is also famous for its Dussehra celebrations.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Culture
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Civic Administration
- 6 Economy
- 7 Media
- 8 Education and research
- 9 Notable people from or born in Cuttack
- 10 Transport
- 11 Sports and Entertainment
- 12 Gallery
- 13 References
- 14 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2013)|
The earliest written history of Cuttack may go back to the Keshari dynasty. As stated by the distinguished historian Andrew Stirling, present-day Cuttack was established as a military cantonment by king Nrupa Keshari of Keshari dynasty in 989 CE. Stirling based his opinion on the Madala Panji, a chronicle of the Jagannath temple of Puri. The reign of Markata Keshari was distinguished for the stone embank built to protect the new capital from flood in 1002 CE.
Historical and archaeological evidence suggests Cuttack becoming capital of a kingdom founded by Raja Anangabhimadeva III of Ganga dynasty in 1211 CE. After the end of Ganga rule, Odisha passed to the hands of the Suryavamsi Gajapati dynasty (1434-1541 CE) under whom Cuttack continued to be the capital of Odisha. After the death of Raja Mukunda deva, the last Hindu king of Orissa, Cuttack first came under Muslim rules and later under Mughals.
By 1750, Cuttack came under Maratha rules and it grew fast as a business centre being the convenient point of contact between the Marathas of Nagpur and the English merchants of Bengal. It was occupied by the British in 1803 and later became the capital of Orissa division in 1816. From 1948 onwards, when the capital was shifted to Bhubaneswar, the city remained the administrative headquarters for Orissa.
Remnants of an old fort called Barabati Killa still exist in the heart of Cuttack with the moat around the fort. Nearby is a modern stadium called the Barabati Stadium, host to many national and international cricket matches. Recently the stadium was upgraded with floodlights for facilitating Day and Night matches.
The introduction of the Sharadiya Utsav tradition in the city dates back to the visit of Saint Chaitanya in the 16th century when the consecration of the idol of Durga by using the mask pattern was conducted in his presence at Binod Behari Devi Mandap.
Recent growth of the city has resulted in expansion across the river Kathjori and a newer township towards the head of the delta formed between the tributary Kathjori river and the main river Mahanadi has come up by the name of Markat Nagar (popularly known as CDA by the local residents) which is spread across 2000 acres. CDA has 11 residential sectors & has population around 1,50,000. Jagatpur & Mahanadi vihar are two other township in the City. Mahanadi Vihar is the first satellite city project in Odisha. Cuttack is referred to as a city with Baaban Bazaar, Teppan Galee i.e. this is the city of 52 markets and 53 streets which is told by people of Odisha for the largeness of this city. Naranpur is another satellite township coming up near Trishulia near Bhubaneswar
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Cuttack is located at  and has an average elevation of 36 metres (118 ft). Located at the apex of the Mahanadi delta, the city is surrounded by the river Mahanadi and its tributaries from almost all the sides. The tributaries include the Kathjori, the Kuakhai and the Birupa. Cuttack features a tropical wet and dry climate. The summer season is from March to June when the climate is hot and humid. Thunderstorms are common at the height of the summer. The monsoon months are from July to October when the city receives most of its rainfall from the South West Monsoon. The annual rainfall is around 144 cm. The winter season from November to February is characterised by mild temperatures and occasional showers. Temperatures may exceed 40 °C at the height of summer and may fall to below 10 °C in winter.
Due to the proximity to coast, the city is prone to cyclones from the Bay of Bengal. One such cyclone struck Cuttack in 1971, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Summer thunderstorms also cause a lot of damage.
The Mahanadi provides much of the drinking water to the city. There are also numerous ponds (pokharis) in the city that store rain water. The river is also used as a dumping zone for sewage produced in the city.
|Climate data for Cuttack|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.2
|Average low °C (°F)||15.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||41.3
|Source: Cuttack Weather|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2013)|
There are religious establishments often built within close proximity of each other in Cuttack.
- Katak Chandi Temple: The temple of goddess Katak Chandi is probably the most famous religious establishment of city. With Katak Chandi being worshiped as the main goddess, the temple has smaller temples of other Gods and goddesses in its small compound. Not far away is the Gada Chandi temple which is inside the Barabati Fort. There is a temple of Lord Shiva on the banks of Mahanadi River, and near the fort, known as Gada Gadia temple.
- Paramahansa Nath Temple: Cuttack also hosts the Paramahansa Nath temple (near Biribati, 14 km from the city center), Bhattarika Temple, Dhabaleswar temple, Panchamukhi Hanuman temple and the most oldest temple is Paramahansanatha others. The Barabati fort houses the Gada Chandi temple which is one of the oldest temples in Cuttack. The Dhabaleswar temple is located on an island in the river Mahanadi and is connected to the mainland by a long hanging bridge. The pillar less hanging bridge is unique of its kind in India.
- Daatan Sahib Gurdwara: A holy historical Sikh shrine, the Gurdwara Daatan Sahib is where the first Sikh Guru, Shree Guru Nanak Dev, halted on his way to Puri. It is believed that a tree branch planted by him after using it as a tooth cleaner still flourishes here, hence the name Daatan Sahib. Cuttack houses several churches that include holy Rosary church, Oriya Baptist church, etc. Cuttack town enjoyed for a pretty long time the honour of being the seat of political authority of the Muslims in Odisha. During this period numerous Muslim monuments were built in Cuttack. It has various mosques, like Qadam-E-Rasool, Juma Masjid, etc.
- Jama Masjid: Jama means big, and this is the oldest, biggest masjid of Cuttack. It was built during the Mughal era.. Earlier there used to be a Madrasa in this mosque. However, since last 10 years, the Madrasa is shifted out. The neighbourhoods surrounding the Juma Masjid are inhabited both by Hindus and Muslims.
Cuttack, being the aesthetic capital of Odisha for a long period, celebrates festivals from all religions with much fanfare and devotion.
- Dusshera, the festival of goddess Durga, is very popular in Cuttack. There are thousands of idols are worshiped in many streets and localities. In this city, Dussehra is famous for its Chandi o Sona Medhas, in which the idols are adorned with huge amounts of gold and silver, with localities trying to outsmart each other by constructing more attractive idols. Cuttack comes to a standstill on Astami, Navami and in Dashami burning of effigy of the demon Ravana (the eighth, ninth and tenth days of Dussehra) as people travel all over the city appreciating the idols put forth by the neighbourhoods.
- Kali puja: Just after Durga puja gets over, Cuttackis gear up with all their vigour to celebrate Kali puja. On the auspicious day of Diwali amidst the bursting of firecrackers on the banks of Mahanadi (called Gadgadia ghat) people celebrate the victory of good over evil and pay tribute to the goddess Kali.
- But the festival which Cuttackis look forward to most is the Bali Yatra. Bali Yatra is supposedly the second largest trade festival in Asia. In olden times, merchants used to trade with South-East Asian countries. Whatever items they brought from those places after trading Oriya goods used to be put up for sale in the capital (which was then Cuttack). People from all over the state and beyond used to come to Cuttack to buy these items. Bali Yatra is the festival of continuing this ancient tradition. It is held every year in November on the banks of the Mahanadi. "Bali Yatra" literally means a festival to celebrate the trade that the ancient Oriyas had with the island of Bali in the ancient days. Many stalls are set up selling both local and exotic goods. People from all over Odisha come to the Baliyatra to buy items, as was the custom back in those days.
- Kartikeshwar puja: The organized puja committees in charge of carrying out the worship of the deity of Cuttack get ready for Kartikeswar Puja. Kartikeshwar is the eldest son of Lord Shiva. Nowhere else except Sabarimala is the Kartikeswar puja carried out with so much elan.
- Kite flying is celebrated with much enthusiasm and energy in the city. Kite-flying culminates with the Makar Sankranti, with kite-flying competitions being held all over.
Oriya is the primary language used in the city, and Hindi is widely spoken and understood. There are people who also speak Kosali, Santali, Bengali, Marwari, Telugu, Gujarati, Punjabi, Urdu, etc. English is used in commercial and writing purposes. Most of the banners are written in Oriya, English and Hindi.
As of 2011[update] India census, Cuttack had a population of 606,007. Males constituted 52% of the population and females 48%. Cuttack has an average literacy rate of 77% with male literacy at 86% and female literacy at 67%. 29% of the population is under 14 years of age.
Cuttack has been the seat of Odisha politics since a long time. In the Indian parliament, Cuttack parliamentary constituency is represented by Mr. Bhartruhari Mahatab of Biju Janata Dal (BJD).
Cuttack City is divided into three constituencies viz. Barabati-Cuttack, Choudwar-Cuttack and Cuttack Sadar. Cuttack Sadar is represented by Mr. Kalindi Behera of (BJD) Biju Janata Dal whereas Cuttack Barabati is represented by Mr. Debasish (Rishi) Samantaray of BJD at the State Legislative Assembly while Choudwar-cuttack is represented by Mr. Pravat Biswal (BJD).
Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, under the control of Commissioner of Police, looks after the law enforcement in Cuttack.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2013)|
Cuttack is widely known as the commercial capital of Odisha. It is believed to have the largest GDP among all cities in Odisha due to its large business houses and wide range of industries ranging from ferrous alloys, steel and logistics to agriculture and traditional industries like textiles and handicrafts. There are many trading houses in the city renowned nationally and internationally. The Port of Paradip around 85 km from the city facilitates the process.
There are 11 large-scale industries in and around Cuttack mostly in Choudwar and Athagarh and many more in the pipeline. These industries include steel, power, automobile, alloys, fireclay, etc. Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys (IMFA), the country's largest producer of ferrous alloys is in Choudwar, Cuttack. A mega-auto complex is in implementation stages on the city's outskirts.
The city is second largest hub for textiles in eastern India after Raipur. The city's annual textile trade generates over a billion dollars. A large textile park is planned by giving a facelift to the erstwhile Orissa Textile Mills on city outskirts. Cuttack is famous for its glory of craftsmanship of handicraft work in silver filigree. These fine and unique handicraft works add significantly to the local economy.
Logistics and other industries
The number of medium- and small-scale industries concentrated around Cuttack is by far the largest among the cities in the state. The industrial estates in and around Cuttack numbers around eight. Jagatpur and Khapuria are industrial estates inside the city. A large chunk of these serve as ancillary industries for the big industrial houses in Odisha and other states.
Cuttack occupies a very significant place in the logistics map of the country. It connects the upper mineral-advanced districts and states to the Kolkata-Chennai corridor at the meeting point of NH-42 and NH-5 at Manguli Square.
The proximity to Paradip Port comes as an added advantage. OSL Group, one of the leading stevedore firms of the country is headquartered in Cuttack. Cuttack, being the largest business hub of the state is the nodal point of trade and transport. It also has the largest wholesale commodities market of the state at Malgodown and Chatrabazaar catering to the whole state.
Primary and service sector
Agriculture is a mainstay of Cuttack's economy. The nearby villages are known for their high-quality and surplus production of crops, vegetables and fruits. These are usually sold at the largest mandi of the state at Chatrabazaar inside the city. The presence of Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), the largest rice research institute in Asia, adds to the importance of Cuttack in the agricultural map of the country.
Being the former capital of the state and a big business hub, many central and state government and corporate offices are in Cuttack. The service sector is quite large. The people of nearby districts are heavily depended on the city for their livelihood, contributing to the service sector and, thus, the floating population. The presence of Odisha High Court and the SCB Medical & College, the largest medical institution in the state, further nourishes the service sector. The odia film industry, Ollywood, is based in Cuttack and adds to its economy. Education is a major industry due to large number of universities, colleges, schools and coaching centres and caters to the neighboring districts.
Cuttack has a Doordarshan centre which telecasts Oriya programs. All India Radio's Cuttack station, started post-independence in 1948, broadcasts programmes in AM as well as FM bandwidth catering the whole state. At present BIG 92.7 FM, RED 93.5 FM, Radio Choklate 104 FM and Rainbow 101.3 FM are available in the twin cities.
Among several print media houses located at Cuttack, the Oriya newspapers published here includes The Samaja (founded by Pandit Gopabandhu Das), Prajatantra (founded by Harekrushna Mahatab, former Chief Minister of Odisha and former Governor of Maharashtra) and the Matrubhasha to name a few.
Education and research
Primary and secondary schools
The state government or private schools in Cuttack are affiliated with the Board of Secondary Education, Odisha (BSE).
- Ravenshaw Collegiate School (RCS): The oldest school of Odisha which proudly boasts many eminent personalities in its alumni including Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, Biju Patnaik, Harekrishna Mahtab, etc.
- Ravenshaw Girls High School
- Secondary Board High School (SBHS)
- Ranihat High School
- Odisha Police High School
- Christ Collegiate School
- Jobra High School
- Kamalakanta Vidayapitha
- Peary Mohan Academy
- Badambadi New Colony High School
- Saraswati Sishu Mandira
- CRRI High School
Cuttack houses an excellent public schools in Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) and the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) boards:
- Kendriya Vidyalaya
- Stewart School
- New Stewart School
- [Netaji's School]
- St. Xavier's High School, Barabati Stadium
- St. Joseph's Girl's High School
- D.A.V. Public School, C.D.A. (Sector 6)
- L.R. D.A.V Public School
- S.C.B. Medical Public School
- Cambridge School
- D.P.S. Kalinga
- Sri Satya Sai School
- Queen Mary's School, Rajabagicha
- Ravenshaw University came into existence on the 15 November 2006. It was an upgradation of Ravenshaw College established in 1868, one of the oldest and largest colleges in India also for Odisha.
- National Law University, Orissa is a premier law university established by the National Law University Orissa Act of 2008 and is a member of the National Law Universities of India. It also has the Madhu Sudan Law College, named after Madhusudan Das.
- Sri Sri University is being established by the Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Vidya Mandir Trust, conceptualized and under the guidance of Sri Sri Ravi Shankar at Naraj, Cuttack. The legal process of establishing the University was completed on January 2010. It will be functional from academic year 2011-12. Sri Sri Institute of Management Studies, the first college of SSU, will induct the first batch of students in June 2011.
Cuttack has high-level colleges giving education in science, social science, and humanities. The colleges teach +2 (intermediate) and +3 (bachelor) classes. Some of the prominent colleges are:
- Jatia Kabi Bira Kishore (J.K.B.K.) College
- Sailabala Women's College
- Stewart Science college
- Christ College
- Sri Aurobindo Institute of Higher Studies & Research
- Sri Ram Chandra Bhanja (S.C.B.) Medical College & Hospital is named after Raja "Ram Chandra Bhanja" the former king of Mayurbhanj. It is one of the largest medical institution in Odisha, proudly associates its origin to the Silver city Cuttack. S.C.B. Medical College has a dental college which gives bachelors degree in dental surgery.
The twin cities house around 117 engineering colleges. Cuttack is home to several technical institutions which includes:
- Biju Patnaik Institute of Film and Television
- Textile Engineering College, Chowdwar
- Dhaneshwar Rath Institute of Engineering & Management Studies (DRIEMS)
- Bhubananda Orissa School of Engineering (BOSE), the first technical school of Orissa
- Image Institute of Technology & Management (IITM)
- Ajay Binay Institute of Technology (ABIT)
Cuttack hosts several national research laboratories such as the Central Rice Research Institute, in Bidyadharpur.
- Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI)
- Regional Spinal Injury Centre (RSIC) has been functioning inside the S.C.B. Medical College Campus since 2001. RSIC is an autonomous organization under the administrative and financial control of Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Odisha and is headed by the director of the RSIC. This is one of the institutions which provide rehabilitation measures to persons with disabilities especially spinal injury.
- Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Centre (AHRCC), the only one of its kind in east India, carries out high-end research and treatment in cancer.
Notable people from or born in Cuttack
- Madhusudan Das- Odisha's ever 1st Graduate, Lawyer, Minister and Industrialist
- Subhas Chandra Bose- Prominent Figure of Indian independence movement activism and reorganizing and leading the Indian National Army in 2nd world war
- Samuel Tickell- British army officer, artist and ornithologist in India and Burma
- Biju Patnaik- Indian politician and former Chief Minister of Odisha
- Giridharilal Kedia- Former working president of KVK, Cuttack; Past district governor of Lions Club International 322C and former Chairman of IITM, Cuttack
- Annapurna Maharana- Indian pro-independence activist
- Akshaya Mohanty- Oriya playback singer, music composer and music director
- Anubhav Mohanty- Oriya actor
- Sabyasachi Mishra- Oriya actor
- Sona Mohapatra- Singer, producer, founding partner of OM Grown Music
- Koovarji Karsan Rathor- Businessman and philanthropist
- Navin Patnaik- Present chief minister of Odisha, son of Biju Patnaik
The nearest airport is the Biju Patnaik Airport at Bhubaneswar, about 28 km away. A domestic airport, it has flights to almost all major Indian cities. The Charbatia Air Base located in Cuttack is for the exclusive use of the Indian Air Force.
Cuttack is an important station on the Howrah-Chennai mainline of the East Coast Railway and falls under the Khurda Road division. A branch line to Paradeep starts from Cuttack. It is connected to all parts of India through trains run by the Indian Railways.The Cuttack Railway station is selected to be developed as a multi-functional railway station with food courts shopping plaza, theaters to be developed . Other railway stations in the city are Baranga, Balikuda, Kathjori, Kendrapara road, Nirgundi and Naraj.
National Highway 5 passes through the city. A part of the Golden Quadrilateral project, this highway runs from Chennai to Kolkata. Feeder state highways connect Cuttack to Jajpur, Paradeep, Talcher, Angul, Kendrapara and nearby towns in Cuttack district. Intra city transport is primarily through Cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws. Nowadays DTS city buses ply in two routes in the city to join different places in the city and the state capital Bhubaneswar. Cuttack is a major junction connecting all the major parts of the state. The bus terminus at Cuttack is known as Badambadi, and is one of the largest bus terminus in India, and thousands of private and government buses ply to hundreds of destinations everyday.
Sports and Entertainment
Modern Cuttack is the home to Barabati Stadium, an important venue for international cricket matches. Cuttack also possesses Satyabrata stadium, DRIEMS cricket stadium at Tangi and Jawaharlal Nehru indoor stadium along with some very good playgrounds like Nimpur, Bidanasi, Sunshine, Ravenshaw ground, SCB medical ground, etc. The 18th and 24th National Games were held at Cuttack in 1958 and 1970 respectively.
Cuttack has a branch of sports authority of India (SAI) training centres, which was established on 26 March 1987, under Sports Hostel Scheme at Barabati Stadium, Cuttack. Government of Odisha has provided accommodation facility at Barabati stadium for boys and at Jawaharlal Nehru indoor stadium for girls. The centre gives training for athletics, basketball, football, volleyball, and gymnastic. There is an athletic track at the Satyabrata stadium, near Barabati stadium.
Theaters (Performing and Cinema)
Cuttack had been the centre of art and literature in the past. The Arnapurna theater, Group-B is one of the oldest theater of Odisha and is situated in Buxi Bazaar, Cuttack. Cuttack has several movie theaters playing movie in Oriya, Hindi, and English languages. To cater to the needs of a large Telugu audience in Cuttack, a few theatres also play Telugu movie. Some of the well-known theaters are Ananda, Brindaban, Durga Talkies, Ganesh Talkies, Jayshree, Kalyani Talkies, Nishamani, Samrat and Sangam.
Cuttack has a deer park, near Barabati stadium, overseeing the beautiful Mahandi river. The park has about 60 deers. There are other city parks like CDA Sector-6 park, Khannagar park, Kathajodi river view park, Jobra park, Biju-Pattnaik park at Bidanasi, etc.
Freedom Fighter's Memorial
It was inaugurated by Honorable Chief Minister of Odisha Mr. Naveen Patnaik on January 23, 2010, on the occasion of Netaji Jayanti (Netaji Subas Chandra Bose Birthday). It is situated at the Old Jail complex (near Big Bazar), Dargha Bazar, Cuttack.
Cuttack takes pride in being the birthplace of the prominent Indian statesman, independence leader and freedom-fighter Subhas Chandra Bose. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose studied in an Anglo school till standard six which is now known as Stewart School and then shifted to Ravenshaw Collegiate school of Cuttack. The birthplace of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose which is known as Janakinath Bhawan in Oriya Bazar has now been converted to a museum named Netaji Birth Place Museum where original letters written by Netaji along with other Netaji's important materials are exhibited.
Oriya Film Industry
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuttack.|
- Cuttack Municipal Corporation
- Cuttack Development Authority (CDA)
- Official website of Cuttack district
- Cuttack travel guide from Wikivoyage