|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||184.41 g mol−1|
|Melting point||154 °C (309 °F; 427 K)|
|Boiling point||192 °C (378 °F; 465 K)|
|Solubility in water||hydrolyzes|
|Solubility in organic solvents||soluble|
|EU classification||Very toxic (T+)
|R-phrases||R14, R22, R26, R34, R43|
|S-phrases||(S1/2), S26, S28, S36/37/39, S45, S46, S63|
|LD50||485 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
|Related triazines||Cyanuric acid
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Cyanuric chloride is an organic compound with the formula (NCCl)3. This white solid is the chlorinated derivative of 1,3,5-triazine. It is the trimer of cyanogen chloride. Cyanuric chloride is the main precursor to the popular but controversial herbicide atrazine.
In 2005, approximately 200,000 tonnes were produced.
It is estimated that 70% of cyanuric chloride is used in the preparation of the triazine-class pesticides, especially atrazine. Such reactions rely on the easy displacement of the chloride with nucleophiles such as amines:
- (ClCN)3 + 2 RNH2 → (RNHCN)(ClCN)2 + RNH3+Cl-
Cyanuric chloride is also used as a precursor to dyes and crosslinking agents. The largest class of these dyes are the sulfonated triazine-stilbene optical brighteners (OBA) or fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) commonly found in detergent formulas and white paper. Many reactive dyes also incorporate a triazine ring. They are also manufactured by way of the chloride displacement reaction shown above.
It is also used as a dehydrating agent and for the activation of carboxylic acids for reduction to alcohols. Heating with DMF gives "Gold's reagent" Me2NCH=NCH=NMe2+Cl-, which is a versatile source of aminoalkylations and a precursor to heterocycles.
- Cyanuric chloride at Chemicalland21.com
- Klaus Huthmacher, Dieter Most "Cyanuric Acid and Cyanuric Chloride" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_191.
- Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals, 3rd edition, 2011, pages 2495-8
- K. Venkataraman, and D. R. Wagle (1979). "Cyanuric chloride : a useful reagent for converting carboxylic acids into chlorides, esters, amides and peptides". Tet. Lett. 20 (32): 3037–3040. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)71006-9.
- Probst, D. A.; Hanson, P. R.; Barda, D. A. "Cyanuric Chloride" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2004, John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rn00320
- John T. Gupton; Steven A. Andrews (1990), "β-Dimethylaminomethylenation: N,N-Dimethyl-N'-p-tolylformamidine", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 7: 197
- Abdellatif Chouai and Eric E. Simanek (2008). "Kilogram-Scale Synthesis of a Second-Generation Dendrimer Based on 1,3,5-Triazine Using Green and Industrially Compatible Methods with a Single Chromatographic Step". J. Org. Chem. 73 (6): 2357–2366. doi:10.1021/jo702462t. PMID 18307354.
- Reagent: DIPEA, amine protective group: BOC
- WO application 03101980, "1,3,5-TRIAZINE DERIVATIVES AS LIGANDS FOR HUMAN ADENOSINE-A3 RECEPTORS", published 2003-12-11 (Reagent number two: norephedrine, base DIPEA)
- http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo015935s De Luca, L.; Giacomelli, G.; Procheddu, A. J. Org. Chem. 2001, 7907.