Cyathea

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Cyathea
Cyathea-med3.jpg
Cyathea medullaris growing in New Zealand
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Pteridopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Cyatheaceae
Genus: Cyathea
J. E. Smith, 1793
Subgenera and sections
Synonyms
  • Acanthea Lindig, 1861
  • Alsophila R. Brown, 1810
  • Amphicosmia Gardner, 1842
  • Chlamydia Moore, 1857
  • Chnoophora Kaulfuss, 1824
  • Cormiophyllum Newman, 1856
  • Cyatheopsis Karsten, 1858
  • Dichorexia Presl, 1847
  • Dicranophlebia Martius, 1834
  • Disphenia Presl, 1836
  • Eatoniopteris Bommer, 1873
  • Eleutheria Kunze, 1844
  • Fourniera Bommer, 1873
  • Gymnopremnon Lindig, 1861
  • Gymnosphaera Blume, 1828
  • Halophlebia Martius, 1834
  • Hymenophyllopsis Goebel, 1929
  • Nephelea Tryon, 1970
  • Notocarpia Presl, 1836
  • Notophoria Presl, 1848
  • Sarcopholis
  • Schizocaena W. J. Hooker, 1838
  • Schizocaena J. E. Smith, 1838
  • Sclephropteris P. G. Windisch
  • Sphaeropteris Bernhardi, 1801
  • Thysanobotrya Alderwerelt, 1918
  • Trachypremnon Lindig, 1861
  • Trichipteris Presl, 1822
  • Trichopteris Spreng., orth. var.

Cyathea is a genus of tree ferns, the type genus of the fern order Cyatheales. They are mostly terrestrial ferns, usually with a single tall stem. Rarely, the trunk may be branched or creeping. Many species also develop a fibrous mass of roots at the base of the trunk. The genus has a pantropical distribution, with over 470 species. They grow in habitats ranging from tropical rain forests to temperate woodlands.

The genus name Cyathea is derived from the Greek kyatheion, meaning "little cup", and refers to the cup-shaped sori on the underside of the fronds.

The best[according to whom?] known species include[citation needed]:

Classification[edit]

The classification below follows the findings of Conant et al. in 1996[citation needed]. Conant concluded, based on molecular cpDNA and morphological evidence, that a system of three clades — Alsophila, Cyathea and Sphaeropteris, whereby Alsophila is most basal and Cyathea and Sphaeropteris are derived sister groups — is the most accurate reflection of evolutionary lineages within the Cyatheaceae.

Uncertain or dubious taxa[edit]

Misassigned taxa[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ranil, R.H.G., D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara, T. Janssen, D.S.A. Wijesundara & D.U.M.B. Dhanasekara 2010. Cyathea srilankensis Ranil: a new tree fern species from Sri Lanka. American Fern Journal 100(1): 39–44. doi:10.1640/0002-8444-100.1.39
  2. ^ Cyathea gardneri (W. J. Hooker) Lellinger 1987, not C. gardneri W. J. Hooker 1844.
  3. ^ Cyathea microphylla (Klotzsch) Tryon 1970, not C. microphylla Mettenius 1856.
  4. ^ Cyathea parva (Maxon) Tryon 1976, not C. parva Copeland 1942.

References[edit]

  • Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2009). New combinations and an overview of Cyathea subg. Hymenophyllopsis (Cyatheaceae). Phytotaxa 1: 37-42.
  • Large, M.F. and J.E. Braggins (2004). Tree Ferns. Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-630-2
  • Lehnert, M. (2006). New species and records of tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Pteridophyta) in the northern Andes. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 6: 321-322, electronic supplement 13: 1-11.
  • Lehnert, M. (2009). Three new species of scaly tree ferns (Cyathea-Cyatheaceae) from the northern Andes. Phytotaxa 2: 43-56.
  • The International Plant Names Index

External links[edit]