|Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta|
Cycas is the type genus and the only genus recognised in the family Cycadaceae. About 95 species are accepted. Cycas circinalis, a species endemic to India was the first cycad species to be described and was the type of the generic name, Cycas. The best-known Cycas species is Cycas revoluta, widely cultivated under the name "sago palm" due to its palm-like appearance, although it is not a true palm.
The genus is native to the Old World, with the species concentrated around the equatorial regions - eastern and southeastern Asia including the Philippines with 10 species (9 of which are endemic), eastern Africa (including Madagascar), northern Australia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. Australia has 26 species, while the Indo-Chinese area has about 30. India has 9 species. The northernmost species (C. revoluta) is found at 31°N in southern Japan. The southernmost (C. megacarpa) is found at 26°S in southeast Queensland. Due to the occurrence of large number of Cycas species in China and Australia, both the countries are considered as two centres of diversity of Cycas.
The plants are dioecious, and the family Cycadaceae is unique among the cycads in not forming seed cones on female plants, but rather a group of leaf-like structures called megasporophylls each with seeds on the lower margins, and pollen cones or strobilus on male individuals.
The caudex is cylindrical, surrounded by the persistent petiole base. Most species form distinct branched or unbranched trunks but in some species the main trunk can be subterranean with the leaf crown appearing to arise directly from the ground. There are two types of leaves-foliage leaves and scaly leaves. The foliage leaves are pinnate (or more rarely bipinnate) and arranged spirally, with thick and hard keratinose. They are not permanent and fall off leaving back leaf-bases. The leaflets are articulated, have midrib but lack secondary veins. The scaly leaves are persistent, brown in colour and protective in function. Megasporophylls are not gathered in cones.Pollination takes place by air.
Often considered a living fossil, the earliest fossils of the genus Cycas appear in the Cenozoic although Cycas-like fossils that may belong to Cycadaceae extend well into the Mesozoic. Cycas is not closely related to other genera of cycads, and phylogenetic studies have shown that Cycadaceae is the sister-group to all other extant cycads.
The plant takes several years to grow, sexual reproduction takes place after 10 years of exclusive vegetative growth which occurs by bulbils arising at the base of the trunk.
Cycas species are threatened worldwide and almost all the species are listed in IUCN Redlist. Cycas beddomei is the only species of the genus Cycas listed in Appendix I of CITES. Cycas rumphii and Cycas pectinata have the most widespread distribution.
- Kramer, K.U.; (illustrations), P.S. Green ; assisted by E. Götz (1990). Kramer, K.U.; Green, P.S, ed. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 370. ISBN 978-3-540-51794-8.
- Hill, Ken; Leonie Stanberg and Dennis Stevenson. "The Cycad Pages". Genus Cycas. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney. Retrieved 6 September 2013. Check date values in:
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
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- David J. de Laubenfels & F. Adema (1998) "A taxonomic revision of the genera Cycas and Epicycas Gen. Nov. (Cycadaceae)", Blumea 43()351-400.
- K.D. Hill (1998–2004) The Cycad Pages, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/index.html
- Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia edited by the Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida
- David J. de Laubenfels, Cycas Taxonomy
- Ken D. Hill, Dennis W. Stevenson & Roy Osborne (2004) "The World List of Cycads". The Botanical Review, 70(2)274–298 doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2004)070%5B0274:TWLOC%5D2.0.CO;2
- Rita Singh & Khuraijam Jibankumar Singh (2013-) Cycads of India. http://www.cycadsofindia.in/
- Lindstrom, Anders J. and Ken D. Hill (2007) "The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in India". Telopea 11(4) : 463-488.
- Singh, R., & Radha P. (2006). Cycas annaikalensis, A new species of Cycas from the Malabar Coast, Western Ghats, India. Brittonia 58 (2): 119-123.
- Terrence Walters & Roy Osborne (eds.) (2004), Cycad Classification: Concepts and Recommendations, CABI publishing, ISBN 0-85199-741-4