Apple A7

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cyclone (microarchitecture))
Jump to: navigation, search
Apple A7
Apple A7 chip.jpg
The A7 processor
Produced From September 20, 2013 to Present
Designed by Apple Inc.
Common manufacturer(s)
Max. CPU clock rate 1.3[2] GHz to 1.4[3] GHz
Min. feature size 28 nm[1]
Instruction set ARMv8-A[4][5]
Microarchitecture Cyclone[6]
Product code S5L8960X[7][8]
Cores 2[2]
L1 cache Per core: 64 KB instruction + 64 KB data[6]
L2 cache 1 MB shared[6]
L3 cache 4 MB[3]
GPU PowerVR G6430 (four cluster) - unconfirmed[9]
Application Mobile
Predecessor

Apple A6

Apple A6X
Successor Apple A8

The Apple A7 is a 64-bit system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc. It first appeared in the iPhone 5S, which was introduced on September 10, 2013. Apple states that it is up to twice as fast and has up to twice the graphics power compared to its predecessor, the Apple A6.[10] While not the first 64-bit ARM CPU,[11] it is the first to ship in a consumer smartphone or tablet computer.[12]

Design[edit]

The A7 features an Apple-designed[2] 64-bit[4] 1.3[2]–1.4[3] GHz ARMv8-A[5][6] dual-core CPU,[2] called Cyclone.[6] The ARMv8-A instruction set doubles the number of registers of the A7 compared to the ARMv7 used in A6.[13] It has 31 general purpose registers that are each 64-bits wide and 32 floating-point/NEON registers that are each 128-bits wide.[4]

The A7 also integrates a graphics processing unit (GPU) which AnandTech believes to be a PowerVR G6430 in a four cluster configuration.[9]

The A7 has a per-core L1 cache of 64 KB for data and 64 KB for instructions, a L2 cache of 1 MB shared by both CPU cores,[6] and a 4 MB L3 cache that services the entire SoC.[3]

The A7 includes a new image processor, a feature originally introduced in the A5, used for functionality related to the camera such as image stabilizing, color correction and light balance.[14][15] The A7 also includes an area called the Secure Enclave that stores and protects the data from the iPhone 5s' Touch ID fingerprint sensor.[10] The security of the data in the Secure Enclave is probably enforced by ARM's TrustZone/SecurCore technology.[16][17] In a change from the Apple A6, the A7 SoC no longer services the accelerometer, gyroscope and compass. In order to reduce power consumption, this functionality has been moved to the new Apple M7 motion coprocessor [18][19] which appears to be a separate ARM-based microcontroller from NXP Semiconductors.[1]

The A7's branch predictor has been claimed to infringe on a 1998 patent.[20]

Apple A7 (APL0698)[edit]

Apple uses the APL0698 variant of the A7 chip in the iPhone 5S and the second-generation iPad Mini.[21] This A7 is manufactured by Samsung on a high-κ metal gate (HKMG) 28 nm process[1][22] and the chip includes over 1 billion transistors on a die 102 mm2 in size.[2] According to ABI Research the A7 drew 1100 mA during fixed point operations and 520 mA during floating point operations, while its predecessor, the A6 processor in the iPhone 5, drew 485 mA and 320 mA.[23] It is manufactured in a package on package (PoP) together with 1 GB of LPDDR3 DRAM with a 64-bit wide memory interface onto the package.[6][24]

Apple A7 (APL5698)[edit]

Apple uses the APL5698 variant of the A7 chip in the iPad Air. Its die is identical in size and layout to that of the first A7 and is manufactured by Samsung.[25] However, unlike the first version of the A7, the A7 used in the iPad Air is not a package-on-package (PoP), having no stacked RAM. Instead it uses a chip-on-board mounting, immediately adjacent DRAM, and is covered by a metallic heat spreader, similar to the Apple A5X and A6X.[25][26]

Products that include the Apple A7[edit]

Gallery[edit]

These images are illustrations only.

S5L8960
The 28 nm A7 APL0698 introduced in September 2013. 
S5L8965
The 28 nm A7 APL5698 introduced in October 2013. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Tanner, Jason; Morrison, Jim; James, Dick; Fontaine, Ray; Gamache, Phil (September 20, 2013). "Inside the iPhone 5s". Chipworks. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Lal Shimpi, Anand (September 17, 2013). "The iPhone 5s Review: A7 SoC Explained". AnandTech. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d Lai Shimpi, Anand (October 29, 2013). "The iPad Air Review: iPhone to iPad: CPU Changes". AnandTech. Retrieved October 30, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c Lal Shimpi, Anand (September 17, 2013). "The iPhone 5s Review: The Move to 64-bit". AnandTech. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "[LLVMdev] A7 processor support?". LLVM Developers Mailing List. September 10, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Lal Shimpi, Anand (September 17, 2013). "The iPhone 5s Review: After Swift Comes Cyclone". AnandTech. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  7. ^ Gurman, Mark (July 31, 2013). "Apple's upcoming A7 iPhone chip will have Samsung components, code inside iOS 7 reveals". 9to5Mac. Retrieved September 13, 2013. 
  8. ^ Klug, Brian (October 24, 2013). "iPad Air and iPad Mini with Retina Display include Qualcomm's MDM9615 baseband". AnandTech. Retrieved November 17, 2013. "It isn't news, but I've also confirmed that there are the appropriate references to Apple's S5L8960X SoC (otherwise known as Apple's A7) in the iPad Air and iPad mini with Retina Display software bundles, same as the iPhone 5s." 
  9. ^ a b Lal Shimpi, Anand (September 17, 2013). "The iPhone 5s Review: GPU Architecture". AnandTech. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Apple Announces iPhone 5s—The Most Forward-Thinking Smartphone in the World" (Press release). Apple. September 10, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013. 
  11. ^ "AppliedMicro Showcases World’s First 64-bit ARM v8 Core" (Press release). AppliedMicro. October 27, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2014. 
  12. ^ Lai Shimpi, Anand (September 10, 2013). "Apple Announces A7, World's First 64-bit Smartphone SoC". AnandTech. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  13. ^ Cunningham, Andrew (September 10, 2013). "Apple unveils 64-bit iPhone 5S with fingerprint scanner, $199 for 16GB". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 12, 2013. 
  14. ^ "iPhone 5s - Design". Apple. September 10, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013. 
  15. ^ Panzarino, Matthew (September 12, 2013). "A Photographer’s Take On The iPhone 5S Camera". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 13, 2013. 
  16. ^ Roemmele, Brian (September 11, 2013). "What is Apple’s new Secure Enclave and why is it important?". Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ Mogull, Rich (September 23, 2013). "Investigating Touch ID and the Secure Enclave". Securosis. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  18. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand (September 17, 2013). "The iPhone 5s Review: M7 Motion Coprocessor". AnandTech. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  19. ^ Lawler, Richard (September 10, 2013). "iPhone 5s packs M7 motion-sensing chip, CoreMotion API for more accurate tracking". Engadget. Retrieved September 11, 2013. 
  20. ^ Chirgwin, Richard (4 February 2014). "Cupertino copied processor pipelining claims Wisconsin U". www.theregister.co.uk. The Register. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "iPad Mini Retina Display Teardown". IFixit. November 12, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Chipworks Confirms Apple's A7 is Built On Samsung's 28nm HK+MG Process". AnandTech. Retrieved October 23, 2013. 
  23. ^ Google/Motorola Mobility’s Moto X Outpaces Competition with New Innovations, ABI Research
  24. ^ "Quick Turn Teardown of the Apple iPhone 5s". TechInsights. September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  25. ^ a b "Inside the iPad Air". Chipworks. November 1, 2013. 
  26. ^ "iPad Air Teardown". IFixit. November 1, 2013.