2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cyclone Daphne (2012))
Jump to: navigation, search
2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season
Season summary map
First system formed November 13, 2011
Last system dissipated April 11, 2012
Strongest storm Jasmine – 937 hPa (mbar), 195 km/h (120 mph) (10-minute sustained)
Total disturbances 20
Total depressions 16
Tropical cyclones 3
Severe tropical cyclones 1
Total fatalities 13
Total damage > $17.2 million (2012 USD)
South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons
2009–10, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14
Related articles

The 2011–12 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with only three tropical cyclones occurring during the season. The season ran from November 1, 2011 to April 30, 2012, however, any tropical cyclones that form before June 30, 2012 will count towards the season total. Within the basin, tropical cyclones are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) in Wellington, New Zealand. RSMC Nadi attaches an F designation to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the South Pacific. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues unofficial warnings within the South Pacific, designating tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute and uses the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[1]

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Source
Record
Tropical
Cyclone
Severe
Tropical Cyclone
Ref
Record high: 1997–98: 16 1982–83:10 [2]
Record low: 2003–04: 3 2008–09: 0 [2]
RSMC Nadi: 5 –8 4 –5 [3]
NIWA: 5 –8  - [4]
Actual activity: 3 1
Region Chance of above
average activity
Average
number
Actual
activity
Western South Pacific 65% 5 4
Eastern South Pacific 40% 7 4
Source:BOM's Seasonal Outlooks for Tropical Cyclones.[5]

Ahead of the cyclone season, RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and various other Pacific Meteorological services, all contributed towards the Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook that was released in October 2011.[4] The outlook took into account analogue seasons and the La Nina conditions that were developing across the Pacific.[4] The outlook called for a below average number of tropical cyclones for the 2011–12 season, with five to eight named tropical cyclones, to occur between 135°E and 120°W compared to an average of around nine.[4] At least one these cyclones was expected to become either a category 3 or a category 4 severe tropical cyclone, while there was a reduced chance of a Category 5 severe tropical cyclone.[4] In addition to contributing towards the Island Climate Update outlook, RSMC Nadi and the BoM issued their own seasonal forecasts for the South Pacific region.[3][5]

The BoM issued 2 seasonal forecasts for the South Pacific region between 142.5°E and 120°W, one for the Western Southern Pacific region between 142.5°E and 165°E and one for the Eastern Southern Pacific region between 165°E and 120°W.[5] They noted that the tropical Pacific Ocean was currently experiencing neutral to borderline La Niña conditions which meant that a westward shift in tropical cyclone activity in the basin was favored.[5] As a result they predicted that the Western South Pacific region was predicted to have 65% chance of being above average, while the Eastern region had a 40% chance of being above average.[5] Within their outlook RSMC Nadi predicted that between five and eight tropical cyclones, would occur within the basin compared to an average of around 9 cyclones.[3] A single tropical cyclone was expected to become or exceede category 3 severe tropical cyclone status.[3] They also reported that the tropical cyclone genesis trough was expected to be located within the Coral Sea.[3] This was based on the expected and predicted ENSO conditions, and the existence of the Pacific warm pool of sub-surface temperature anomalies in this region.[3]

Risk forecasts[edit]

Both the Island Climate Update and RSMC Nadi's tropical cyclone outlooks assessed the risk of a tropical cyclone affecting a certain island or territory.[3][4] As the tropical cyclone genesis trough of low pressure was expected to be located to be located within the Coral Sea, RSMC Nadi predicted that island nations located to the west of the dateline had an elevated chance of above average activity.[3] There was a reduced chance of above average activity for the areas located to the east of the dateline, however, French Polynesia was thought to have an enhanced chance of a tropical cyclone later in the season.[3]


Seasonal summary[edit]

Cyclone Jasmine Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

During the first half of the season no tropical cyclone existed within the basin, which made the season only the second season since 1969–70 to have no named tropical cyclones before February.[6] On February 6, Cyclone Jasmine moved into RSMC Nadi's area of responsibility, and became the first named tropical cyclone since Tropical Cyclone Bune, the previous March, to exist in the South Pacific basin.

Storms[edit]

Tropical Disturbance 01F[edit]

Tropical disturbance (Australian scale)
Duration November 13 – November 16
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1004 mbar (hPa)

On November 13, an area of low pressure located within the South Pacific convergence zone started to rapidly develop further.[7][8] RSMC Nadi then declared the low pressure area: Tropical Depression 01F later that day, while it was located about 400 km (250 mi) to the north of Suva, Fiji.[9] During the next day, the disturbance moved towards the southwest and onto the main Fijian Islands before convection surrounding the system started to weaken due to land interaction. The disturbance remained over the Fijian Islands until November 16, before RSMC Nadi issued their final advisory on the system as 01F had dissipated.[10] Within Fiji, torrential rainfall was experienced on November 14, over the whole of the Fijian islands, which lead to widespread flooding of low lying areas, while strong winds prevailed over the Lau and Lomaiviti group of islands during the next day as the rain gradually eased.[7]

Tropical Depression 02F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration December 28 – January 1
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1002 mbar (hPa)

Early on December 28, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 02F had developed within an area of moderate windshear, about 140 km (90 mi) to the southeast of Alofi on the island of Niue.[11] During the next day, the disturbance moved towards the east, before it developed into a tropical depression during the next day.[12]

Tropical Disturbance 03F[edit]

Tropical disturbance (Australian scale)
Duration January 7 – January 8
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1001 mbar (hPa)

On January 7, RSMC Nadi started to monitor a tropical disturbance that had developed about 240 km (150 mi), to the southeast of Lifuka, Tonga.[13] Over the next 24 hours the disturbance persisted in a weekly sheered environment to the southeast of an upper level outflow centre.[13] However late the next day, RSMC Nadi reported that the disturbance was not expected to develop any further and issued their final advisory on the system, since convection had been irregularly surrounding the system during that day.[14]

Tropical Depression 04F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration January 8 – January 9
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1000 mbar (hPa)

On January 8, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 04F had developed, about 465 km (290 mi) to the west of Papeete on the French Polynesian island of Tahiti.[14] 04F had an exposed low level circulation centre and was situated to the east of a trough of low pressure and to the west of an area of enhanced convection.[14] Over the next 24 hours, convection surrounding the system became increasingly displaced to the far east of the exposed low level circulation centre because of strong vertical windshear.[15] As a result, RSMC Nadi issued their final warning on 04F, late on January 9.[15]

Tropical Disturbance 05F[edit]

Tropical disturbance (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration January 8 – January 10
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1000 mbar (hPa)

Late on January 8, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 05F had developed within a trough of low pressure, about 460 km (285 mi) to the southeast of Apia, Samoa.[14] Over the next few days the disturbance did not develop any further, before RSMC Nadi issued their final advisory on the disturbance during January 10.

Tropical Depression 06F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration January 19 – January 25
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1001 mbar (hPa)

On January 19, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 06F, had developed along an active trough of low pressure to the north of Fiji.[16] Over the next couple of days, the disturbance moved towards the south before it developed into a tropical depression and moved across Vanua Levu during January 21.[16] Over the next few days the depression, remained near stationary over central parts of the country and caused widespread heavy rainfall and strong winds, over Fiji's Northern and Eastern divisions which lead to flooding.[16] The depression was last noted on January 25, as it weakened and moved off Fiji and started to move towards the southeast.[16]

Tropical Depression 07F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration January 26 – February 2
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  994 mbar (hPa)

The RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical disturbance formed near Vanuatu on January 26, and strengthened into a tropical depression on January 29. But on February 1, 07F rapidly became disorganized, and as it began an extratropical transition, the RMSC Nadi issued their last advisory on the storm.[17] On February 2, 07F completed its extratropical transition, and thus it was dropped from the RMSC Nadi's advisories.

Tropical Depression 08F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Clockwise vortex
Duration January 25 – January 28
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1001 mbar (hPa)

On January 25, RSMC Nadi reported that a shallow tropical depression, had developed over the northern Lau Islands, within a weak surface trough of low pressure.[16][18] Over the next couple of days the depression moved southwards through the Lau and Lomaiviti islands and moved into an area of moderate to high vertical windshear.[16][19] The depression was last noted by RSMC Nadi on January 28, as it moved out of the Fijian archipelago.[16]

Tropical Depression 09F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration January 30 – January 31
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

On January 30, RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical depression had developed about 250 km (150 mi) to the northeast of Port Vila, in Vanuatu. On January 31, RSMC Nadi issued their last advisory on 09F, as the system rapidly became disorganized.[20]

Between February 1 and 4, a convergence zone associated with the remnants of Tropical Depression 09F, affected Fiji and caused widespread rainfall over the islands.[21]

Tropical Depression 10F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration February 2 – February 6
Peak intensity 35 km/h (25 mph) (10-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

On February 2, the RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical depression had formed east of New Caledonia. For the 4 few days, 10F began to accelerate towards the southeast. However, late on February 6, the storm weakened below tropical disturbance intensity, and the RSMC Nadi issued their last advisory on the storm.

Tropical Cyclone Cyril[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration February 5 – February 8
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

On February 5, RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical disturbance had developed about 310 km (190 mi) to the southeast of Nadi, Fiji.[22][23] During that day the disturbance moved towards the northeast and passed through the Fijian islands, while convection surrounding the system increased and organized before it was declared a tropical depression early the next day.[21][24] Later that day as the system started to move towards the southeast it rapidly consolidated further with the JTWC and RSMC Nadi both reporting that the depression had developed into a tropical cyclone, with the later naming it Cyril as it moved south-eastwards through the Tongan islands.[25][26] Early on February 7 after Cyril had moved through Tonga, the JTWC reported that Cyril had peaked with 1-minute windspeeds of 100 km/h (65 mph), which made it equivalent to a tropical storm.[27]

RSMC Nadi subsequently reported later that day that Cyril had become a category 2 tropical cyclone, with 10-minute peak windspeeds of 95 km/h (60 mph).[25][28] Later that day as the system moved below 25S and out of RSMC Nadi's area of responsibility, Cyril started to weaken and became a category 1 tropical cyclone.[25][29] During February 8, Cyril transitioned into an extratropical cyclone and became embedded in the westerlies, before the system was last noted by TCWC Wellington during the next day while located over 3,500 km (2,175 mi) to the northeast of Wellington, New Zealand.[23][30] Within the Fijian Islands, Cyril caused heavy rain, high seas, strong and gusty winds, before it brought gale force winds and torrential rain to Tonga.[21][31][32] As a result some flooding and minor damage to vegetation and plantations was reported in parts of the Vava'u group of islands with fruit bearing trees such as breadfruit and banana trees, severely affected.[25][32]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Jasmine[edit]

Main article: Cyclone Jasmine
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHS)
Duration February 6 (entered basin) – February 19
Peak intensity 195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  937 mbar (hPa)

Cyclone Jasmine was a long–lived annular tropical cyclone that affected several countries, particularly Vanuatu and Tonga, over a 19 day span. Cyclone Jasmine developed from an area of disturbed weather on February 1 in the Gulf of Carpentaria.[33] Initially, the storm moved towards the east and across the Cape York Peninsula.[34] As it moved across the South Pacific, earlier existing wind shear conditions lessened, and Jasmine began to strengthen at a faster rate. Steadily intensifying, Erica reached peak intensity on February 8 as a Category 4 equivalent on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, while beginning to show annular characteristics. The next day Jasmine entered an area of vertical wind shear, which consequently weakened the cyclone and caused its eye to expand. A high pressure area south of Jasmine later steered the weakening cyclone to the northeast on February 12.[35] Although it entered an area of warmer sea surface temperatures, Jasmine subsequently entered extratropical transition and later degenerated into an extratropical cyclone on February 16, before dissipating completely on February 19.[36]

Cyclone Jasmine effected five countries during its existence. The predecessor to Jasmine brought heavy rainfall to areas of extreme northern Queensland.[34] Jasmine also brought rainfall to areas of the Solomon Islands. As a result, pest infestations occurred across the region.[37] In Vanuatu, heavy rains and wind from Jasmine destroy numerous crops. Banana trees in particular are affected by the cyclone.[38] Cyclone Jasmine inundated areas of Tonga that had already been affected by Cyclone Cyril just a week prior.[39] Nuku'alofa recorded half of its average monthly rainfall in a 24–hour span due to rains associated with the cyclone.[40] After the season, the name Jasmine was retired.[41]

Tropical Depression 14F[edit]

Subtropical depression (SSHS)
Duration March 16 – March 18
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1003 mbar (hPa)

On March 16, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 14F had developed about 525 km (325 mi) to the south of Vanuatu's Tanna Island.[42] However during the next day, it was dropped from RSMC Nadi's warnings as it moved south, into TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility.[42][43] As the depression left RSMC Nadi's area of responsibility, it degenerated into a subtropical depression, before degenerating further into a deep mid-latitude baroclinic low pressure system during March 18, as it affected New Zealand's North Island.[44] During 14F's time at New Zealand, the storm killed a total of 5 people.

Tropical Disturbance 15F[edit]

Tropical disturbance (Australian scale)
Duration March 19 – March 20
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1004 mbar (hPa)

During March 19, Tropical Disturbance 15F developed in an area of moderate to high vertical windshear, about 580 km (360 mi) to the northwest of Noumea, New Caledonia.[45] During that day, the system moved towards the southeast before it was last noted during the next day as it moved into TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility.[46]

Tropical Disturbance 16F[edit]

Tropical disturbance (Australian scale)
Duration March 23 – March 27
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1003 mbar (hPa)

On March 23, RSMC Nadi reported that a tropical disturbance had developed within a trough of low pressure near the Samoan Islands, and gave it the identification 16F. During the next few days, the storm slowly moved towards Fiji, eventually moving southeastwards, just east of Fiji. During the next 2 days, the storm looped back northwestwards, as the system began to weaken. During the rest of the storm's duration, 16F accelerated towards the southeast, as it continued to fall apart. Late on March 27, RSMC Nadi issued their last advisory on Tropical Disturbance 16F, weakened below tropical disturbance intensity, which was now located to the far south of Niue. Early on March 28, the storm was drawn into a neightboring extratropical cyclone, to the east of 16F. Early on March 29, the remnant of 16F was completely absorbed by the extratropical cyclone.

Tropical Depression 17F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration March 25 – March 31
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1000 mbar (hPa)

On March 25, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 17F, had developed within a trough of low pressure about 100 km (60 mi) to the northwest of Rotuma.[47] Over the next few days, the depression moved towards the southwest before it moved on to Northern Fiji during March 28. After moving onto Fiji, 17F rapidly developed further which prompted RSMC Nadi to declare the system a tropical depression.

As the storm rapidly developed further, it triggered widespread rainfall and thunderstorms in Fiji, which led to flooding within Fiji. Within the next few days, 17F slowly left Fiji, with 5 people dead, and slowly moved towards the south. On April 1 the Fijian government announced that at least three people have been killed and almost 4,000 forced into evacuation centers after record floods hit the island nation.[48] The next day these numbers rose to at least five dead and more than 8,000 in evacuation shelters.[49] On March 30, 17F left Fiji, and began moving south-southeastward. Within the next day, Tropical Depression 17F turned to the southwest, and later accelerated towards the southeast again, before dissipating late on March 31.

Tropical Cyclone Daphne[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Duration March 31 – April 3
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

On March 31, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 19F had developed about 410 km (255 mi), to the south of Honiara on the Solomon Island of Guadalcanal.[50] This low gradually strengthened and on April 2, it strengthened into a tropical cyclone and RSMC Nadi named it Daphne. Daphne moved southeastwards rapidly and moved into TCWC Wellington's area of responsibility late on April 2. The next day, the storm moved into the mid-latitudes and became extratropical.

Power to the main island of Viti Levu and Nadi International Airport had been cut as thousands of stranded tourists scrambled to leave for home.

Despite not affecting Fiji directly squally outer rain bands associated with the system, caused strong winds, torrential rain and flooding over Fiji's western division.[23] As a result five lives were lost while three people were listed as missing while thousands of tourists were stranded as a result.[23]

Tropical Depression 20F[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Duration April 9 – April 11
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1009 mbar (hPa)

On April 9, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Disturbance 20F had developed in the vicinity of New Caledonia. As the storm moved southeast, over New Caledonia, 20F began to intensify. On April 10, RSMC Nadi reported that 20F had strengthened into a tropical depression.[51] Later on the same day, 20F reached its peak intensity.[52] On April 11, Tropical Depression 20F turned to the southwest, and exited New Caledonia. Soon afterwards, the storm turned eastwards, and began to weaken, due to the moderate wind shear displacing 20F's convection, to the east of the storm.[53] As the storm continued moving eastwards, the wind shear eroded away more of the storm's convection. Late on April 11, RSMC Nadi issued their last advisory on 20F as the storm dissipated.

Other systems[edit]

The following weak tropical disturbances and depressions were also monitored by RSMC Nadi, however all of these systems were either short lived or did not develop significantly.

Early on February 14, Tropical Depression 13F developed within an area of low vertical windshear about 850 km (530 mi) to the northwest of Nouméa, New Caledonia.[54] During that day the depression moved towards the east-southeast, before during the next day it slowly moved towards the west-southwest.[54][55][56] The final advisory on Tropical Depression 13F was then issued on February 17, as the depression was moving into the Australian region and was not expected to develop into a tropical cyclone.[57]

During March 30, RSMC Nadi reported that Tropical Depression 18F had developed within an area of high to moderate vertical windshear, about 200 km (125 mi) to the northeast of Port Vila, Vanautu.[58] During that day, the depression moved slowly towards the southeast before it was last noted during the next day.[59][60]

Season effects[edit]

This table lists all the storms that developed in the South Pacific to the east of longitude 160°E during the 2011–2012 season. It includes their intensity on the Australian Tropical cyclone intensity scale, duration, name, landfalls, deaths, and damages. All data is taken from RSMC Nadi and/or TCWC Wellington, and all of the damage figures are in 2012 USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
windspeeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
01F November 13 – 16 Tropical Disturbance Not Specified 1004 Fiji None
02F December 28 – January 1 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1002 None None None
03F January 7 – 8 Tropical Disturbance Not Specified 1001 None None None
04F January 8 – 9 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1000 None None None
05F January 8 – 10 Tropical Disturbance Not Specified 1000 None None None
06F January 20 – 24 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1001 Fiji 17.2 million 8 [16]
07F January 26 – February 2 Tropical Depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 994 Vanuatu, Fiji, New Caledonia None None
08F January 25 – 28 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1001 Fiji None None
09F January 30 – 31 Tropical Depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 998 Vanuatu, Fiji, New Caledonia None None
10F February 2 – 6 Tropical Depression 35 km/h (25 mph) 991 Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga None None
Cyril February 5 – 8 Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 Fiji, Tonga Minor None [32]
Jasmine February 6 – 19 Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 942 Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Tonga None None
13F February 13 – 17 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1005 New Caledonia, Vanuatu None None
14F March 16 – 18 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1005 New Zealand 5
15F March 19 – 20 Tropical Disturbance Not Specified 1004 New Caledonia None None
16F March 22 – 27 Tropical Disturbance Not Specified 1003 Fiji
17F March 25 – 30 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1000 Fiji
18F March 30 – 31 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1004 New Caledonia
Daphne March 31 – April 3 Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 Vanuatu, Fiji [23]
20F April 9 – 11 Tropical Depression Not Specified 1009 New Caledonia None None
Season Aggregates
20 systems November 13 – April 11   185 km/h (115 mph) 942 hPa (27.82 inHg)   >17.2 million 13


See also[edit]

  • Atlantic hurricane seasons: 2011, 2012
  • Pacific hurricane seasons: 2011, 2012
  • Pacific typhoon seasons: 2011, 2012
  • North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 2011, 2012

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Southwest Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean". RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee. World Meteorological Organization. March 10, 2009. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Climate Services Division; RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 26, 2010). Tropical Cyclone Guidance for Season 2010/11 for the Fiji and the Southwest Pacific (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/65kvh9FwY. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 27, 2011). "2011-12 Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook in the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (RSMC Nadi – TCC) Area of Responsibility (AOR)". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook: Below average numbers likely, but increased activity in the late season near North Queensland and French Polynesia". New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. October 18, 2011. Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e National Climate Centre (October 2011). "2011-12 South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  6. ^ RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 29, 2007). Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Summary 2000–2001 season (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 1. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. http://www.met.gov.fj/documents/TC_Seasonal_Summary_00-011188357007.pdf. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  7. ^ a b Climate Services Division (December 6, 2012) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary November 2011 Volume 32 Issue 11 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1326082174379234. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  8. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Significant Tropical Weather Outlook for the Western and South Pacific Ocean November 14, 2011 02z". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  9. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (November 13, 2011). "Tropical Disturbance Summary November 13, 2011 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on November 14, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  10. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Significant Tropical Weather Outlook for the Western and South Pacific Ocean November 16, 2011 06z". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  11. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (December 28, 2011). "Tropical Disturbance Summary December 28, 2011 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  12. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (December 29, 2011). "Tropical Disturbance Summary December 29, 2011 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on December 29, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 7, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 7, 2012 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 8, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 8, 2012 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  15. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 9, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 9, 2012 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 9, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Climate Services Division (February 8, 2012) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary January 2012 Volume 33 Issue 1 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/65OukuhPQ. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  17. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 1, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory Number A11 February 1, 2012 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Retrieved February 1, 2012. 
  18. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 26, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 26, 2012 03z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  19. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 27, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary January 27, 2012 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  20. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (January 31, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory Number B3 January 31, 2012 06z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Retrieved February 1, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c Climate Services Division (March 7, 2012) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary February 2012 Volume 33 Issue 2 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/660iWGseS. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  22. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 5, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 5, 2012 12z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Climate Services Division (May 28, 2013). Annual Climate Summary 2012. Fiji Meteorological Service. http://www.met.gov.fj/Summary2.pdf. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
  24. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 6, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 6, 2012 00z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c d Tonga Meteorology and Coast Watch Services (February 11, 2012). Meteorological report on Tropical Cyclone "Cyril" (Report). Tonga Ministry of Transport. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/65S548fAY. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  26. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (February 6, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone 11P Warning February 6, 2012 15z". United States Air Force, United States Navy. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  27. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (April 10, 2013). "Tropical Cyclone 11P (Cyril) best track analysis". United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  28. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 7, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory February 7, 2012 00z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2012. 
  29. ^ TCWC Wellington (February 7, 2012). "Pacific High Seas Gale Warning 150 February 7, 2012 18z". Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited. Archived from the original on February 8, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2012. 
  30. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (February 8, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone 11P Warning February 8, 2012 03z". United States Air Force, United States Navy. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  31. ^ Lorrey, Andrew M; Fauchereau, Nicholas; Chappel, Petra; Diamond, Howard J. "4. The Tropics: 6) Southwest Pacific Basin". (State of the Climate 2012). pp. 96–100. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b c United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (February 8, 2012). Summary of TC Jasmine and TC Cyril and flooding in the region (Report). Pacific Disaster.net. pp. 4. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/OCHA_2012_FL_TCJasmine_Cyril.pdf. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  33. ^ Queensland Regional Office/Brisbane tropical cyclone warning centre. Tropical Cyclone Jasmine Impacts (Individual Tropical Cyclone Reports). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on November 25, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6CRsx0SCs. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  34. ^ a b Queensland Climate Services Centre (2012). February 2012 (Queensland Monthly Weather Review). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on August 3, 2013. http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/mwr/qld/mwr-qld-201202.pdf. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  35. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Tropical Cyclone Jasmine". Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
  36. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 16, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory Number B31". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Bad Weather [TC Jasmine] Si NDMO/NEOC Situation Report Number 3". Honiara: National Disaster Council. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
  38. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (February 10, 2012). "Cyclone recovery begins in Vanuatu". ReliefWeb. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
  39. ^ "Vanuatu & Tonga · Tropical Cyclone Jasmine Situation Update No. 1". United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. February 17, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Tonga Cyclone Brings 2 Weeks of Rain in One Day". Nuku'alofa, Tonga: East–West Center. February 16, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012. 
  41. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (December 12, 2012) (PDF). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2012). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B-1 - 2B-4 (23 - 26). Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP24_RAVOpPlan_2012.pdf. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  42. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 16, 2012 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  43. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre. "Tropical Cyclone 3-Day Outlook March 17, 2012 03z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  44. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Western and Southern Pacific Ocean March 18, 2012 06z". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on March 18, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  45. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 19, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 19, 2012 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  46. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 19, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 19, 2012 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  47. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 25, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 25, 2012 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Tourists flee in frantic scenes as devastating floods hit Fiji". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 2, 2012. 
  49. ^ "5 dead, thousands displaced in Fiji floods". CNN. April 3, 2012. 
  50. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 31, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Advisory March 31, 2012 00z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 
  51. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/66qKTv38J
  52. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/66qKTqfDC
  53. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/66qKTla5a
  54. ^ a b RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 14, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 14, 2012 00z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  55. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 14, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 14, 2012 21z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  56. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 15, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 15, 2012 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  57. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (February 17, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary February 17, 2012 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  58. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 30, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 30, 2012 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 30, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  59. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 31, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 31, 2012 09z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  60. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 31, 2012). "Tropical Disturbance Summary March 31, 2012 23z". Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 

External links[edit]