Cyclone Rewa

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Severe Tropical Cyclone Rewa
Category 5 cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Rewa jan 16 1994 0555Z.jpg
Tropical Cyclone Rewa near its peak intensity
Formed 26 December 1993 (1993-12-26T0z)
Dissipated 23 January 1994 (1994-01-23T0Z)
(extratropical after 21 January)
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:
205 km/h (125 mph)
1-minute sustained:
230 km/h (145 mph)
Lowest pressure 920 mbar (hPa); 27.17 inHg
Fatalities 22 total
Areas affected Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and New Zealand
Part of the 1993–94 South Pacific and the Australian region cyclone seasons

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rewa affected six countries and caused 22 deaths on its 28-day journey across the South Pacific Ocean in December 1993 and January 1994. Cyclone Rewa developed from a tropical disturbance on 28 December south of Nauru. After forming, Rewa moved southwest through the Solomon Islands, crossing the 160th meridian east from the South Pacific basin into the Australian region. The cyclone began to strengthen steadily and turned southward, paralleling the eastern Australian coast through 31 December. Rewa reached its initial peak intensity as a Category 4 tropical cyclone on 2 January. It maintained this intensity for about 12 hours before an increase in wind shear induced its weakening by 3 January. The cyclone turned southeastward and moved back into the South Pacific basin on 4 January, before it passed over New Caledonia between 5–6 January. After affecting New Caledonia, Rewa weakened to a tropical depression and turned northwestward before re-entering the Australian basin on 10 January.

Over the following days, the cyclone showed signs of restrengthening and executed an elongated cyclonic loop to the southeast of Papua New Guinea. Rewa subsequently entered a phase of quick intensification while proceeding southeastward, peaking in intensity as a Category 5 severe tropical cyclone. It recurved toward the southwest while gradually weakening for several days. Although forecasters had predicted Rewa to make landfall near Mackay, Queensland, the cyclone began interacting with an upper-level trough on 18 January, causing it to divert to the southeast and move along the Queensland coast. Rewa transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on 20 January, with its remnants bringing heavy rain to New Zealand three days later.

The cyclone caused the deaths of 22 people on its course, affecting parts of the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and New Zealand. Nine people in a banana dinghy en route to Rossel Island went missing at the height of the storm; they were presumed drowned after wreckage from their boat turned up at the island. In Queensland, three people died in traffic accidents caused by the storm, and another fatality occurred when a boy became trapped in a storm pipe. One death took place in New Caledonia, while flooding caused eight drownings in Papua New Guinea. After this usage of the name Rewa, the name was retired.

Meteorological history[edit]

Track map of Tropical Cyclone Rewa, based on data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The centre line represents 160°E, which is where the border between the Australian and South Pacific basin lies.

During 26 December, the Fiji Meteorological Service's Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Nadi, Fiji (TCWC Nadi), started to monitor a tropical depression that had developed within the Intertropical Convergence Zone about 575 km (355 mi) to the south-east of Nauru.[1][2] Over the next few days the depression gradually developed and organised further, as it moved towards the west-southwest under the influence of a north-easterly steering flow.[1][3] During 28 December, the JTWC classified the depression as Tropical Cyclone 05P, before TCWC Nadi reported that the system had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale and named it Rewa.[4][5][6] Over the next few days, the system gradually intensified under the influence of favourable upper-level winds while it moved towards the south-southwest, passing through the Solomon Islands on 29 December and affecting the southeastern islands of Papua New Guinea.[3][7] As it moved through the Solomon Islands, Rewa moved out of the South Pacific basin and into the Australian region, where the Bureau of Meteorology's Brisbane tropical cyclone warning centre (TCWC Brisbane) took the primary warning responsibility for the system.[4][8]

On 30 December, the JTWC reported that Rewa had become equivalent to a category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS); early the next day TCWC Brisbane reported that the system had developed into a category 3 severe tropical cyclone, and an eye became visible on satellite imagery.[1][2][5] The system then abruptly turned and started to move towards the south parallel to the Queensland coast because of an interaction with an upper-level trough of low pressure.[3][4] On 2 January both the JTWC and TCWC Brisbane reported that Rewa had reached its peak intensity, with the JTWC reporting that Rewa had peaked with 1-minute windspeeds of 230 km/h (145 mph), equivalent to a category 4 tropical cyclone on the SSHS.[2][4] Meanwhile TCWC Brisbane reported that the system had peaked with 10-minute windspeeds of 205 km/h (125 mph) with a central pressure of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg), which made it a category 5 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian Scale.[4] When the data was reanalyzed, TCWC Brisbane lowered their estimate of the wind speed to 175 km/h (110 mph), which made Rewa a category 4 severe tropical cyclone.[5][9] Rewa remained at its peak intensity for 12 hours before the system started to weaken during 3 January, as strengthening upper level north-westerlies increased vertical wind shear over the system.[10][11] Throughout that day, the cyclone started to move towards the south-east, before it started to take a more eastwards track as it approached 160°E.[7]

During 4 January, Rewa moved back into the South Pacific basin and continued eastward as a weakening category 3 severe tropical cyclone, with TCWC Nadi estimating the 10-minute sustained windspeeds at 150 km/h (90 mph).[5] During the next day, its eye became obscured after the mountains of New Caledonia affected Rewa's circulation by creating a hot and dry Foehn wind.[1] TCWC Nadi reported that the system had weakened into a category 2 tropical cyclone, while the JTWC reported that Rewa had become a tropical storm.[2][7] The system subsequently made landfall in the vicinity of Saint Vincent Bay on New Caledonia's south-western coast, before it emerged near Thio from the east coast during 6 January.[1][7] By 7 January, Rewa's circulation had become exposed under the influence of upper level north-westerlies; as a result both the JTWC and TCWC Nadi reported that Rewa had weakened into a depression.[2][7] Over the next 3 days, the residual low-level circulation was steered towards the northwest and Papua New Guinea in a southeasterly trade wind flow generated by a powerful area of high pressure located between New Zealand and Kermadec Islands.[1][11] During 10 January, Rewa's remnants moved out of the South Pacific basin and back into the Australian region while starting to re-intensify into a tropical cyclone, as a mid to upper level trough over eastern Australia increased in size.[7][11]

As moved into the Australian region, Rewa began to move in a long arc to the northwest and then to the north, and on 13 January, both the JTWC and TCWC Port Moresby reported that the system had reintensified into a tropical cyclone around Papua New Guinea's southern islands.[2][7] Later that day, Rewa executed a sharp clockwise turn near Tagula Island and started to move towards the southeast and TCWC Brisbane's area of responsibility while gradually intensifying further.[7] During 15 January, TCWC Brisbane reported that the system had reintensified into a category 3 severe tropical cyclone while the JTWC reported that Rewa had become equivalent to a category 1 tropical cyclone again.[2][5] Later that day, the system started to rapidly intensify as an upper level trough approached the system. During the next day the JTWC reported that the system had peaked with 1-minute sustained windspeeds of 230 km/h (145 mph).[2][7] TCWC Brisbane then reported later that day, that Rewa had peaked with 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 205 km/h (125 mph), which made it a category 5 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale.[9] After it had peaked in intensity the system recurved towards the south-southwest, and started to gradually weaken.[2] By 18 January the JTWC reported that Rewa had weakened into a tropical storm while throughout that day TCWC Brisbane assessed Rewa as a category 3 severe tropical cyclone.[2][7] During the next day, TCWC Brisbane reported that Rewa had weakened into a category 2 tropical cyclone as it recurved and started to move towards the south-east about 265 km (165 mi) to the east of Mackay, Queensland.[7][5] Over the next couple of days the system moved towards the south-southeast along the Queensland coast while maintaining its intensity.[5] During 21 January, TCWC Brisbane and the JTWC reported that Rewa had weakened below cyclone strength, as the system moved back into the South Pacific basin for the third and final time.[4][6] Rewa's remnants were last noted late on 23 January, by TCWC Wellington, bringing heavy rain to New Zealand, while dissipating over water about 400 km (250 mi) to the east of Wellington, New Zealand.[4][5][11]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Twenty-two people lost their lives in accidents caused by Cyclone Rewa, while it affected parts off the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and New Zealand.[12] Due to the impact of this storm, the name Rewa was retired.[13]

The Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and New Zealand[edit]

The Solomon Islands were affected by the developing tropical cyclone between 28 – 30 December and was the first Island country to be impacted by Rewa.[14] As it developed into a tropical cyclone on 28 December, the system passed to the north of the outer lying atolls of Malaita Province in the Solomon Islands. Rewa then passed over the southern tip of Malaita Island, before passing to the south of Guadalcanal Island and the north of Rennell Island during 29 December.[2][7]

Cyclone Rewa started to affect New Caledonia on 5 January, before it passed over Grand Terre Island later that day.[15] Rewa dumped over 300 mm (12 in) of rain on parts of the archipelago, which made all of the major rivers overflow and burst their banks.[15][16] Several landslides and a death were recorded within New Caledonia, while on the Loyalty Island of Mare, waves from Rewa partially destroyed the harbour wall at Tadine's port.[15]

The system had no effect on Vanuatu while it passed through the Solomon Islands between 28 – 30 December; however the southern islands of Vanuatu were affected by the cyclone after it had passed through New Caledonia during 5 January.[17] As it moved towards the north-west between 6–8 January, Rewa brought strong winds that were near gale force to parts of the Tafea Province.[17] Rewa also brought strong north-westerly winds and high seas to Efate Island between 8–9 January as it passed about 175 km (110 mi) to the southeast of Port Vila causing damage to the intertidal zone of the city's harbour.[17]

Between 19–24 January, Rewa's remnants, a slow moving weather front over Fiordland and a southerly brought widespread rainfall and flooding to New Zealand's South Island.[18] In Westland, Fiordland and the Southern Lakes, landslides and flooding occurred on 21 January, while several roads and bridges were damaged.[18]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Cyclone Rewa affected Papua New Guinea on two separate occasions while it was active, with the cyclone first affecting the archipelago between 28 December and 1 January, before grazing the archipelago between 12-14 January.[7][19] Before Rewa affected the country, cyclone alerts and warnings were issued for Sudest, Rossel and Samarai islands, while authorities urged people not to go to beaches.[12][20][21] As it affected the archipelago, Rewa brought heavy rainfall, high seas, and wind gusts of up to 100 km/h (60 mph) to parts of the archipelago including Sudest, Rossel and Samarai islands.[12][22] The hardest hit areas were communities near major river systems, with the cyclone blocking roads, destroying a church, bridges, homes and gardens with vital crops such as coffee and copra destroyed.[21][23] In total, Cyclone Rewa left around 3500 people homeless and caused 17 deaths, 8 of which were due to flooding.[21][23] Nine other people went missing while travelling to Rossel Island after their boat was caught up in high seas associated with Rewa.[22] They were later presumed dead by the National Disaster and Emergency Service, after a local search and rescue mission found wreckage of the boat.[12][22] At 00:00 UTC on 30 December, the automatic weather station at Jingo on Rossel island recorded a maximum sustained wind of 55 km/h (35 mph).[24]

Australia[edit]

During the opening days of 1994, Rewa moved southwards parallel to the Queensland coast; however, because it was located about 600 km (370 mi) to the north-east of Mackay, it was too far away from the coast for there to be any direct impact on Queensland.[5][25] The only indirect impact was higher surf, from which several people had to be rescued from before the cyclone started to move towards New Caledonia during 4 January.[16][25] As Rewa affected Queensland for the second time, watches and warnings were issued for various parts of Queensland by TCWC Brisbane, who predicted a landfall near Mackay.[8][26] On 18  January local disaster committees met to consider evacuating people, while people who were on vacation in national parks were alerted about Rewa by a helicopter.[26] A military training exercise that was due to take place in Shoalwater Bay had to be cancelled, with army personal evacuated to Rockhampton to avoid being cut off by flood waters.[26] Along the coast, several ports including Gladstone were shut with large vessels told to head to sea and small vessels told to batten down and prepare for the storm.[26]

On 19 January Rewa started to affect Queensland with torrential rain and storm force windspeeds which caused some damage along the coast.[7] However it did not make its predicted landfall near Mackay, instead it recurved to the south-southeast and came to within 100 km (60 mi) of the coast.[7][27] Two men off Yeppoon's coast were rescued from a fishing trawler by an army Black Hawk helicopter after high seas damaged the trawler's propeller and snapped its heavy anchor chain, leaving it drifting helplessly in the cyclone's path.[27][28] The worst affected island was Lady Elliot as it bore the brunt of the wind, while on Heron Island, several rare trees and bird rookeries were either destroyed or severely damaged. As Rewa interacted with an upper trough of low pressure on 19 January, heavy rainfall and thunderstorms were observed in parts of Brisbane and the Gold Coast.[29] Brisbane received over 144 mm (5.7 in) in just six hours, which led to some localised flash flooding in parts of the city and four deaths.[28][29] Three of the deaths were from people crashing their cars, while the other death occurred when a person went surfing Brisbane's flood water and got trapped in a storm drain.[28][30] Within Brisbane, 100 homes and 20 cars were damaged by the flood waters, while a Sheffield Shield cricket match between Western Australia and Queensland was delayed, after The Gabba resembled a small lake.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Detachment; National Climatic Data Center (25 June 1996). Tropical Cyclone Rewa, 26 December 1993 - 21 January 1994 (Global tropical/extratropical cyclone climatic atlas). Indiana University. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. http://www.webcitation.org/6Ety848NB. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Joint Typhoon Warning Center (17 December 2002). "JTWC Tropical Cyclone 05P (Rewa) Best Track Analysis". United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (1994). "December 1993". Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement (Australian Bureau of Meteorology) 12 (12): 3. ISSN 1321-4233. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Hanstrum, Barry N; Smith K.J.; Bate, Peter W (2 June 1996). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1993–94". Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal (Australian Bureau of Meteorology) (45): 137–147. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre, TCWC Brisbane, TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. United States: International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  6. ^ a b Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (1995). "1994 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report". United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tropical Cyclone Rewa (Individual Tropical Cyclone Reports). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/history/rewa.shtml. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  8. ^ a b Dolan, Chris; May, Peter (1995). "Rewa: Diary of a tropical cyclone". Hazard-Wise. Emergency Management Australia. p. 59. ISBN 0-642-22435-8. 
  9. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Rewa Australian region Best Track Analysis". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2007. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  10. ^ Paterson, Linda A; Hanstrum, Barry N; Davidson, Noel E; Weber, Harry C (2005). "Influence of Environmental Vertical Wind Shear on the Intensity of Hurricane-Strength Tropical Cyclones in the Australian Region". Monthly Weather Review 133 (12): 3644. doi:10.1175/MWR3041.1. 
  11. ^ a b c d Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (1994). "January 1994". Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement (Australian Bureau of Meteorology) 13 (1): 2. ISSN 1321-4233. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Cyclone ravages Australia". Reading Eagle. Australian Associated Press. 20 January 1994. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  13. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (23 May 2011). "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  14. ^ "Tropical Cyclones/Depressions that passed through Solomon Islands Region". Solomon Islands Meteorological Service. 13 September 2009. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c New Caledonia Meteorological Office. "Cyclone Passes Entre 1950 et 1995: Rewa". Météo-France. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  16. ^ a b Newmann, Steve (9 January 1994). "Earthweek: a diary of the planet for the week ending 7 January 1994". The Sunday Gazette. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c Tropical cyclones in Vanuatu: 1847 to 1994. Vanuatu Meteorological Service. May 19, 1994. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/VUT_TC_1847_1994.pdf. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
  18. ^ a b "January 1994 South Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Rewa". New Zealand Historic Weather Events Catalog. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. 10 March 2013. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  19. ^ Terry, James P (29 October 2007). Tropical cyclones: climatology and impacts in the South Pacific. Springer. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-387-71542-1. 
  20. ^ "Nine Missing In Cyclone". The Associated Press. 31 December 1993.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  21. ^ a b c "PNG floods: death toll eases but thousands more homeless.". The Canberra Times (National Library of Australia). 31 December 1993. p. 6. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c "Nine missing after cyclone hits png". Xinhua News Agency. 19 January 1994.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  23. ^ a b "Floods Kill at Least 8, More than 1,000 Homeless". The Australian Associated Press. 30 December 1993.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  24. ^ Beven II, John L (7 January 1994). "Tropical Cyclone Weekly Summary #126 (26 December 1993 – 2 January 1994)". Florida State University. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  25. ^ a b Smith, A (5 January 1994). "No relief near for heat-weary state". Nationwide News Pty Limited. Courier-Mail.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  26. ^ a b c d "Queensland on Cyclone Rewa alert". The Adelaide Advertiser (Nationwide News Pty Limited). 19 January 1994.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  27. ^ a b Tom, Emma (20 January 1994). "QLD battered as cyclone eases". Sydney Morning Herald. p. 4.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  28. ^ a b c Callaghan, Jeff (12 August 2004). Tropical Cyclone Impacts along the Australian east coast from November to April 1858 to 2000. Australian Severe Weather. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  29. ^ a b Queensland Hydrology Section (2010). "Queensland Flood Summary 1990 – 1999". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  30. ^ Tom, Emma (21 January 1994). "New threat as cyclone whirls out to sea". The Age. p. 6. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  31. ^ Attorney-General's Department (5 May 2011). "Disasters Database: Disaster Event Details: Cyclone Rewa". Australian Government. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 

External links[edit]