Cygnus OB2

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For technical reasons, "Cygnus OB2 #8A" redirects here. For this star, see Cygnus OB2-8A.
For technical reasons, "Cygnus OB2 #12" redirects here. For this star, see Cygnus OB2-12.
Cygnus OB2
CygOB2 med.jpg
Cygnus OB2 in the light of H-Alpha; 2.5° view
Credit: IPHAS
Observation data (J2000.0 epoch)
Constellation Cygnus
Right ascension 20h 33m 12s[1]
Declination 41° 19′ 00″
Distance 4.7 kly (1400 pc[2])
Apparent magnitude (V) 6.1
Apparent dimensions (V) 60.0′
Physical characteristics
Estimated age 1 to 7 million years
Notable features -
Short narrated video about Cygnus OB2 #9.

Cygnus OB2 is an OB association that is home to some of the most massive and most luminous stars known, including Cyg OB2 #8 and Cyg OB2 #12. It also includes one of the largest known stars, NML Cygni.[3] The region is embedded within a wider region of star formation known as Cygnus X, which is one of the most luminous objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. The region is approximately 1,400 parsecs from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus.[2]

The young cluster is one of the largest known, and the largest in the northern hemisphere with some authors formerly classifying it as a young globular cluster similar to those present in the Large Magellanic Cloud.[4]; today, however, is considered a massive, low-density stellar association[5] Although it is over ten times more massive than the famous Orion Nebula, Cygnus OB2 is much less well known due to its location behind a massive dust cloud known as the Cygnus Rift, which obscures many of the stars in it; this means that, despite the consensus of its large size, it's hard to determine its actual properties with its estimated number of massive stars ranging, according to different scientists, for example, from 50[6] to 100[4] of spectral type O and its total mass having been calculated as (4-10)*104[4] or 3*104 solar masses according to other investigations.[6]

Despite this, recent surveys ranging from radio to X-ray wavelengths have observed the region to incredible depths in an attempt to gain a better understanding of how the processes of star and planet formation occur on such large scales, compared to the small scales of nearby regions. These studies include observations with some of the world's premier astronomical observatories including the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory and the Gran Telescopio Canarias.

Prominent stars, including the first 12 Schulte stars
Star[7] Schulte number[7] Spectral type[8] Bolometric magnitude[8] Mass[8] (× solar)
59 #1 O8.5V −9.3 44
83[9] #2 B1I −7.4 18
#3 O6IV + O9III >17 + >8
217 #4 O7III((f)) −9.6 52
V729[10][11] #5 O7Ianfp + Ofpe/WN9 (+BoV:) −10.6 / −10.5 31 + 9
317 #6 O8V −9.2 42
457 #7 O3If −10.8 114
465[12] #8A O6If + O5.5III(f) −9.8/−9.4 44 + 37
462 #8B O6.5III(f) −10.4 80
483 #8C O5If −10.1 71
473 #8D O8.5V −8.4 31
431[11][13] #9 O5-5.5I + O3-4III ~−10/~−10 >34 + >30
457 #10 O9.5I −10.4 75
734[9] #11 O5If −10.0 58
304[14] #12 B3-4Ia+ −10.95 110
556 #18 B1Ib −9.0 33
417 #22 O3If + O6V(f) ~−10.4
516[9] (possible  binary[15]) O5.5V((f)) −11.1 100
771 O7V −10.6 90

Other noteworthy stars, not included in the Massey et al paper, include BD+40° 4210, a blue supergiant and Luminous blue variable candidate, as well as the massive runaway star BD+43° 3654.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SIMBAD Astronomical Database". Results for Cygnus OB2. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  2. ^ a b Rygl, K; Brunthaler, A.; Sanna, A.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Honma, M.; Torstensson, K. J. E.; Fujisawa, K. (March 2012). "Parallaxes and proper motions of interstellar masers toward the Cygnus X star-forming complex. I. Membership of the Cygnus X region". A&A 539: A79. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118211. 
  3. ^ Schuster, M. T.; Marengo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Humphreys, R. M.; Gehrz, R. D.; Hinz, P. M.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Hoffmann, W. F. (2009). "Imaging the Cool Hypergiant NML Cygni's Dusty Circumstellar Envelope with Adaptive Optics". The Astrophysical Journal 699 (2): 1423. arXiv:0904.4690. Bibcode:2009ApJ...699.1423S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/699/2/1423.  edit
  4. ^ a b c Bibcode2000A&A...360..539K
  5. ^ Bibcode2014MNRAS.438..639W
  6. ^ a b Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.; Vink, J. S. (2010). "The Massive Star-Forming Region Cygnus OB2. II. Integrated Stellar Properties and the Star Formation History". The Astrophysical Journal 713 (2): 871. arXiv:1003.2463. Bibcode:2010ApJ...713..871W. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/713/2/871.  edit
  7. ^ a b Massey, P.; Thompson, A. B. (1991). "Massive stars in CYG OB2". The Astronomical Journal 101: 1408. Bibcode:1991AJ....101.1408M. doi:10.1086/115774.  edit
  8. ^ a b c Massey, P.; Degioia-Eastwood, K.; Waterhouse, E. (2001). "The Progenitor Masses of Wolf-Rayet Stars and Luminous Blue Variables Determined from Cluster Turnoffs. II. Results from 12 Galactic Clusters and OB Associations". The Astronomical Journal 121 (2): 1050. arXiv:astro-ph/0010654. Bibcode:2001AJ....121.1050M. doi:10.1086/318769.  edit
  9. ^ a b c Herrero, A.; Puls, J.; Najarro, F. (2002). "Fundamental parameters of Galactic luminous OB stars VI. Temperatures, masses and WLR of Cyg OB2 supergiants". Astronomy and Astrophysics 396 (3): 949. arXiv:astro-ph/0210469. Bibcode:2002A&A...396..949H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021432.  edit
  10. ^ Rauw, G.; Vreux, J. ‐M.; Bohannan, B. (1999). "The Interacting Early‐Type Binary BD +40o4220 (V729 Cyg): Modeling the Colliding Winds Region". The Astrophysical Journal 517: 416. Bibcode:1999ApJ...517..416R. doi:10.1086/307185.  edit
  11. ^ a b Kiminki, D. C.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Ewing, I.; Bagley Kiminki, M. M.; Lundquist, M.; Alexander, M.; Vargas-Alvarez, C.; Choi, H.; Henderson, C. B. (2012). "Additional Massive Binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association". The Astrophysical Journal 747: 41. arXiv:1112.3383. Bibcode:2012ApJ...747...41K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/747/1/41.  edit
  12. ^ De Becker, M.; Rauw, G.; Sana, H.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Pittard, J. M.; Blomme, R.; Stevens, I. R.; Van Loo, S. (2006). "XMM-Newton observations of the massive colliding wind binary and non-thermal radio emitter CygOB2#8A [O6If + O5.5III(f)]". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 371 (3): 1280. Bibcode:2006MNRAS.371.1280D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10746.x.  edit
  13. ^ Nazé, Y.; Mahy, L.; Damerdji, Y.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Pittard, J. M.; Parkin, E. R.; Absil, O.; Blomme, R. (2012). "The 2.35 year itch of Cygnus OB2 #9". Astronomy & Astrophysics 546: A37. arXiv:1209.5622. Bibcode:2012A&A...546A..37N. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219442.  edit
  14. ^ Clark, J. S.; Najarro, F.; Negueruela, I.; Ritchie, B. W.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Howarth, I. D. (2012). "On the nature of the galactic early-B hypergiants". Astronomy & Astrophysics 541: A145. arXiv:1202.3991. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A.145C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117472.  edit
  15. ^ Kiminki, D. C.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Kinemuchi, K.; Irwin, J. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Berrington, R. C.; Uzpen, B.; Monson, A. J.; Pierce, M. J.; Woosley, S. E. (2007). "A Radial Velocity Survey of the Cyg OB2 Association". The Astrophysical Journal 664 (2): 1102. arXiv:astro-ph/0609772. Bibcode:2007ApJ...664.1102K. doi:10.1086/513709.  edit

External links[edit]