Cynodon dactylon (syn. Panicum dactylon, Capriola dactylon), also known as dūrvā grass, Dhoob, Bermuda grass, bermudagrass, dubo, dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, and scutch grass, is a grass native to north and east Africa, Asia, Australia and southern Europe. Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. It is presumed to have arrived in North America from Bermuda, resulting in its common name.
The blades are a grey-green colour and are short, usually 2–15 cm (0.79–5.9 in) long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm (0.39–12 in) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour. The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm (0.79–2.0 in) long. It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 m deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 cm under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground and roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, runners, and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F); in winter, the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks.
Cultivation and uses 
C. dactylon is widely cultivated in warm climates all over the world between about 30° S and 30° N latitude, and that get between 625 and 1,750 mm (24.6 and 69 in) of rainfall a year (or less, if irrigation is available). It is also found in the US, mostly in the southern half of the country and in warm climates. It is fast-growing and tough, making it popular and useful for sports fields, as when damaged it will recover quickly. It is a highly desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates, particularly for those regions where its heat and drought tolerance enable it to survive where few other grasses do. It has a relatively coarse-bladed form with numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements. It is also highly aggressive, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, and has become a hard-to-eradicate weed in some areas. This weedy nature leads some gardeners to give it the name of "devil grass".
Bermuda grass has been cultivated on saline soils in California's Central Valley which are too salt-damaged to support agricultural crops; it was successfully irrigated with saline water and used to graze cattle.
The hybrid variety 'Tifton 85', like some other grasses (e.g. sorghum), produces cyanide under certain conditions, and has been implicated in several livestock deaths (note that in several places this variety has been incorrectly reported as a genetically modified strain; actually it is a conventionally bred F1 hybrid).
Use in alternative medicine 
C. dactylon has been studied at the University of Allahabad in India, and is reported to have serum glucose-lowering and antidiabetic effects, antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and has been suggested for treatment of urinary tract infections, prostatitis, syphilis, and dysentery. Additional research is being conducted on C. dactylon involving its glycemic potential, which is involved in the treatment of diabetes. In laboratory rats treated with the ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon, blood glucose levels of the tested population showed nearly a 50% drop when the proper dosage was administered. This suggests the potential for C. dactylon to become an alternative to current diabetes medications. This grass is given significant importance in Hinduism due to its medicinal values and dedicated especially to Lord Ganesha, and is used in traditional cultures for toothache and amibiasis (dysentery).
See Also 
- Walker, Karen; Burrows, Geoff; McMahon, Lynne (2001). 'Bidgee bush : an identification guide to common native plant species of the south western slopes of New South Wales. Yarralumla, Australian Capital Territory: Greening Australia. p. 82. ISBN 1-875345-61-2.
- Kaffka, S. (2009). Can feedstock production for biofuels be sustainable in California? California Agriculture 63:4.
- Kaffka, S., et al. Bermuda Grass Yield and Quality in Response to Different Salinity and N, Se, Mo, and B Rates in West San Joaquin Valley UC Center for Water Resources.
- T.L. Provin and J.L. Pitt. "Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages". Texas A&M University System. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- CBS News (June 23, 2012). "GM grass linked to Texas cattle deaths". CBS News. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Glenn W. Burton, Roger N. Gates, and Gary M. Hill. "TIFTON 85 BERMUDAGRASS". University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Santosh Kumar Singh, Prashant Kumar Rai, Dolly Jaiswal, and Geeta Watal. "Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon".
Media related to Cynodon dactylon at Wikimedia Commons