Cynoglossum officinale

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Cynoglossum officinale
Cynoglossum officinale W.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: (unplaced)
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Cynoglossum
Species: C. officinale
Binomial name
Cynoglossum officinale
L.
Flowers and leaves

Cynoglossum officinale[1][2] (houndstongue, houndstooth, dog's tongue, gypsy flower, and rats and mice due to its smell) is a herbaceous plant of the family Boraginaceae, found in most parts of Europe, and also North America where it was accidentally introduced.[3]

Growth[edit]

It can be either annual or biennial, with reddish-purple flowers blooming between May and September. It lives in wet places, waste land and hedges.

Folklore[edit]

The name houndstongue comes from the belief that it could ward off dog attacks if a leaf was worn in the shoe.[citation needed]

Herbalism[edit]

Herbalists use the plant as a treatment for piles, lung diseases and persistent coughs.[4] Houndstongue ointment is said to cure baldness and be used for sores and ulcers.[4] These uses are not supported by scientific evidence.[4]

In 1725, houndstooth was presented in the family dictionary, Dictionaire oeconomique, as part of a cure for madness.[5] In that book, madness was viewed as "a distemper, not only of the understanding, but also of the reason and memory, proceeding from a cold, which drys up everything it meets with that is humid in the brain."[5] To cure madness, Dictionaire oeconomique noted:

You must shave the head of the unhappy patient, and after that, apply to it a pidgeon, or a hen quite alive; or else bathe it with some brandy distilled with rosemary, elder, hounds tooth, and the roots of bugloss[disambiguation needed], or with the oyl of elder flowers: they rub their heads and wash their feet with a decoction of the flowers of camomile, melilot, balm gentle and laurel; they put into their noses the juice of comfrey, with either two or three spoonfuls of honey-water, broth, or white-wine, wherein wormwood[disambiguation needed] and sage are infus'd ; or else they do for five and twenty days together, mix with their broth in the morning, halt a dram of the allies of tortoise, and they put into the pot bugloss, borage, with a pinch of rosemary to season it.[5]

In the 1830s, houndstooth was known in France to be made into an emollient and diuretic for daily use in inflammatory diseases, especially of the urinary organs.[6] To prepare as a diuretic, the houndstooth leaves were mashed, and then boiled in water to extract oils, volatile organic compounds, and other chemical substances.[6] The mix could be sweetened with liquoriee to create Ptisan of Dog's-grass.[6] After decoction, the herbal tea was taken internally a cupful at a time.[6] In 1834, the Hospital of Paris provided a formula of 2/3 ss—J to Oij of water for houndstooth tea.[6] By the end of the 1830s, doctors in England were using houndstooth as an antiaphrodisiac to combat venereal excesses.[7]

In 1891, the U.S. state of Michigan identified hounds tooth, along with flea-bane, rag weed, burdock, cockle-bur, and stickseed, as some of the worst weeds in the state.[8]

Toxicity[edit]

Cynoglossum officinale contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[9]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Cynoglossum officinale". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  2. ^ Cynoglossum officinale at USDA PLANTS Database
  3. ^ "Invasive Species: Houndstongue". United States National Agricultural Library. 
  4. ^ a b c Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p.161
  5. ^ a b c Chomel, Noel; Richard Bradley (1725). Dictionaire oeconomique: or, The family dictionary. Printed for D. Midwinter. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Ryan, Michael (1835). "Collection of Formula of the Civil and Military Hospitals of France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain and Ireland". London Medical and Surgical Journal (G. Henderson) 7: 527. OCLC 13350693. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
  7. ^ Ryan, Michael (1839). Prostitution in London, with a comparative view of that of Paris and New York, with an account of the nature and treatment of the various diseases, caused by the abuses of the reproductive function. H. Bailliere. p. 385. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
  8. ^ Michigan Dairymen's Association (1891). Seventh Annual Report of the Secretary of the Michigan Dairymen's Association. Robert Smith & Co. p. 23. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ Fu, P.P., Yang, Y.C., Xia, Q., Chou, M.C., Cui, Y.Y., Lin G., "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-tumorigenic components in Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 198-211 [1]

References[edit]

External links[edit]