Cyprinodon

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Cyprinodon
Death Valley Pupfish spawning in Salt Creek.jpg
Death Valley pupfish (C. salinus) spawning
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cyprinodontiformes
Family: Cyprinodontidae
Genus: Cyprinodon
Lacépède, 1803
Type species
Cyprinodon variegatus
Lacépède, 1803
Synonyms
  • Encrates Gistel, 1848
  • Lebia Oken, 1817
  • Prinodon Rafinesque, 1815
  • Trifarcius Poey, 1860

Cyprinodon is a genus of small pupfishes found in fresh, brackish and salt water. The genus is primarily found in Mexico, the Caribbean Islands and southern United States (Arizona, California, Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas), but C. variegatus occurs as far north as Massachusetts and along the entire Gulf of Mexico coastline, C. artifrons occurs in Belize, and C. dearborni and C. variegatus are found in northern South America.

While most species have separate distributions, six (C. beltrani, C. labiosus, C. maya, C. simus, C. suavium and C. verecundus) are endemic in Lake Chichancanab in Quintana Roo, Mexico,[1] and two (C. brontotheroides and C. desquamator) are endemic to the hypersaline lakes on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas.[2]

Most species in the genus have very small distributions and many are seriously threatened. C. ceciliae, C. inmemoriam, C. latifasciatus and an undescribed species popularly known as the "Perrito de Sandia" are already extinct,[3][4][5][6] while C. alvarezi and C. longidorsalis only survive in captivity.[7][8]

Cyprinodon are small; the largest reaches 10 cm (3.9 in) in length and most other species only reach half that.[9]

Species[edit]

There are currently 49 recognized species in this genus:[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Contreras Balderas, S., and W. Bussing (2013). Yucatan. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  2. ^ Martin, C. H., and P. C. Wainwright (2013). Multiple Fitness Peaks on the Adaptive Landscape Drive Adaptive Radiation in the Wild. Science 339(6116): 208-211.
  3. ^ Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). "Cyprinodon ceciliae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). "Cyprinodon inmemoriam". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). "Cyprinodon latifasciatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  6. ^ Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). "Cyprinodon spp.". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  7. ^ Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). "Cyprinodon alvarezi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  8. ^ Contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P. (1996). "Cyprinodon longidorsalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Cyprinodon in FishBase. August 2013 version.
  10. ^ a b c Martin, C.H. & Wainwright, P.C. (2013): A Remarkable Species Flock of Cyprinodon Pupfishes Endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 54 (2): 231–240.