Cyprus Mines Corporation
The Cyprus Mines Corporation was an early twentieth century American mining company based in Cyprus. In 1914, Charles G. Gunther began prospecting in the Skouriotissa area after reading in ancient books that the island was rich in copper and noticing promising ancient Roman slag heaps in the area. The company was established in 1916 by Colonel Seeley W. Mudd and his son, Harvey Seeley Mudd.
Initially the mine struggled, but eventually obstacles were overcome and the mine produced money. Turkish and Greek Cypriots were hired, and the town of Skouriotissa became a hub because so many miners moved there. The corporation took an old-style, paternalistic attitude towards workers, building a company town around the mine.
The Cyprus Mines Corporation provided copper to Nazi Germany right up until the start of the World War II. Although it is clear they knew they were giving aid to the Nazi military, the owner of the mine claims he didn't want to put the Cypriots out of jobs by cutting sales to Germany. They were, however, disturbed by Hitler's policy of Jewish persecution, and in late 1938, CMC established a relief fund along with their agent to help former business associates get out of Germany.
||This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (December 2010)|
Long strikes took place in 1948, organized by the Pancyprian Federation of Labour and the Turkish Cypriot trade unions. After extending the initial five-day strike, the union asked for government intervention. The government declared that they could not start an inquiry since wages were not substandard.
One of the operating mines and the company's processing plant fell north of the cease-fire line in Turkish-occupied Cyprus following the Turkish invasion in 1974, whilst the rest of the companies mines were the other side of the Green Line. Given this insurmountable problem, the Cyprus Mines Corporation pulled out of Cyprus and the Mavrovouni mine and processing plant remained in an area not controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus.
As in most mines, the tailings, waste left over from processing ore, are a problem, and as of 2006, there are no plans to clean up the tailings. The people of Cyprus are left with neither the income from the mines nor the use of the now polluted land surrounding those mines because they have no way to pay for the cleanup. Local farmers claim that citrus crop yields have been lowered by contaminated dust blowing in. Studies of local fruit have found high heavy metal levels and decreased fruit size and quality. The effect of the mine is a growing issue for Cypriot environmentalists and NGOs.
- In 1979 Cyprus Mines Corporation was acquired by Amoco Corporation. Amoco expanded Cyprus into a diversified worldwide mining company.
- Amoco spun off Cyprus Minerals Company in 1985. In 1986, Cyprus acquired the Sierrita copper and molybdenum mine near Tucson, Arizona.
- In July 1988, Cyprus Minerals bought the Inspiration mine and smelting complex in Miami, Arizona.
- With the expiry of an agreement to purchase electricity at a favorable rate from the Salt River Project, Cyprus Minerals installed an ISASMELT™ furnace in its copper smelter. This was the first large-scale installation of the ISASMELT™ process, which was developed jointly by Mount Isa Mines Limited and the Australian government's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ("CSIRO").
- In 1993, AMAX merged with the Cyprus Minerals Company to form Cyprus Amax Minerals Company. Cyprus-Amax was the world's leading producer of molybdenum and lithium, and a leading producer of copper and coal. The company had operations in 24 states and on six continents.
- In late 1999, Cyprus Amax Minerals was acquired by Phelps Dodge Corporation, which in turn was acquired by Freeport-McMoRan (NYSE: FCX) in 2007, forming the world's largest copper producer.
- David Sievert Lavender (1962). The story of the Cyprus Mines Corporation. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library. p. 264. LCCN 61014054.
- David Sievert Lavender. The story of the Cyprus Mines Corporation. p. 296.
- Fethi Doğan (November 1999). "The environmental and public health problems due to tailing ponds of copper mine in Lefke, Cyprus". Proceeding of the European Union Environmental Policy and the Case of Cyprus Mines. Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- "Company History: Cyprus Amax Minerals Company". Funding Universe. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- G W LaChapelle and J S Dyas, "Cyprus Miami property overview and mine modernization," Mining Engineering, 45(4), April 1993, 344–346.
- R R Bhappu, K H Larson and R D Tunis, ‘Cyprus Miami Mining Corporation – smelter modernization project summary and status,’ in: EPD Congress 1994, Ed. G Warren (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society: Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 1993), 555–570.
- P S Arthur and S P Hunt, ‘ISASMELT™ – 25 years of continuous evolution,’ in: The John Floyd International Symposium on Sustainable Developments in Metals Processing, Melbourne, 3–6 July 2005, Eds. M Nilmani and W J Rankin (NCS Associates (Australia) Pty Ltd, 2005), 73–94.
- Pantelis Varnavas (1998). The common labour struggles of Greek and Turkish Cypriots: Events through history. Nicosia: Pancyprian Federation of Labour. ISBN 9963-7677-3-7.
- European Union Environmental Policy and Cyprus Mines
- What is CMC?
- Company History: Cyprus Amax Minerals Company