Cyrenaica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cyrenaican)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Pentapolis (North Africa)" redirects here. For other uses, see Pentapolis.
"Barqa" redirects here. For other uses, see Barka.
Cyrenaica
برقة
self-declared autonomous region[1][2] of Libya
Flag of Cyrenaica
Flag
Cyrenaica as an administrative unit included all of eastern Libya from 1927 to 1963: Italian Cyrenaica from 1927 to 1937 and the Cyrenaica governorate until 1963.
Cyrenaica as an administrative unit included all of eastern Libya from 1927 to 1963: Italian Cyrenaica from 1927 to 1937 and the Cyrenaica governorate until 1963.
Semi-autonomy proclaimed 6 March 2012
Autonomy proclaimed 3 November 2013
Capital Benghazi[3]
Government
 • Body Cyrenaica Transitional Council[4] (declared)
General National Congress (de facto authority)
Area[5]
 • Total 855,370 km2 (330,260 sq mi)
Population (2006)[6]
 • Total 1,613,749
 • Density 1.9/km2 (4.9/sq mi)

Cyrenaica (/srɨˈn.ɨkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ə-kə; Ancient Greek: Κυρηναϊκή Kyrēnaïkḗ, after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقةBarqah;) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis in antiquity, it was part of the Creta et Cyrenaica province during the Roman period, later divided in Libia Pentapolis and Libia Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca.

Cyrenaica was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya from 1951 until 1963. In a wider sense, which is still used, Cyrenaica is composed of all of the eastern part of Libya, including the Kufra District. Cyrenaica is adjacent to Tripolitania in the northwest and Fezzan in the southwest. The region that used to be Cyrenaica officially until 1963 is now divided up into several shabiyat, the administrative divisions of Libya.

Cyrenaica was the birthplace of the Libyan civil war, and was largely under the control of the National Transitional Council for most of the war; their headquarters were in Benghazi.[7]

Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Libya with Cyrenaica on the right side, showing the green Mediterranean coast in the north and the large desert in the centre and south

Geologically, Cyrenaica rests on a mass of Miocene limestone that tilts up steeply from the Mediterranean Sea and falls inland with a gradual descent to sea level again.

This mass is divided into two blocks. The Jebel Akhdar extends parallel to the coast from the Gulf of Sidra to the Gulf of Bomba, and reaches an elevation of 872 meters. There is no continuous coastal plain, the longest strip running from the recess of Gulf of Sidra past Benghazi to Tolmeitha. Thereafter, except for deltaic patches at Susa and Derna, the shore is all precipitous. A steep escarpment separates the coastal plain from a relatively level plateau, known as the Marj Plain, which lies at about 300 meters elevation. Above the Marj Plain lies a dissected plateau at about 700 meters elevation, which contains the highest peaks in the range.[8]

The Jebel Akhdar and its adjacent coast are part of the Mediterranean woodlands and forests ecoregion, and have a Mediterranean climate of hot, dry summers and relatively mild and rainy winters.[9] The plant communities of this portion of Cyrenaica include forest, woodland, maquis, garrigue, steppe, and oak savanna. Garrigue shrublands occupy the non-agricultural portions coastal plain and coastal escarpments, with Sarcopoterium spinosum, along with Asphodelus microcarpus and Artemisia herba-alba, as the predominant species.[8][10] Small areas of maquis are found on north-facing slopes near the sea, becoming more extensive on the lower plateau. Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera and Ceratonia siliqua are common tree and large shrub species in the maquis.[8][10] The upper plateau includes areas of garrigue, two maquis communities, one dominated by Pistacia lentiscus and the other a mixed maquis in which the endemic Arbutus pavarii is prominent, and forests of Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus phoenicea, Olea europaea, Quercus coccifera, Ceratonia siliqua, and Pinus halepensis.[8]

Areas of red soil are found on the Marj Plain, which has borne abundant crops of wheat and barley from ancient times to the present day. Plenty of springs issue on the highlands. Wild olive trees are abundant, and large areas of oak savanna provide pasture to the flocks and herds of the local Bedouins.[11] Historically large areas of range were covered in forest. The forested area of the Jebel Akhdar has been shrinking in recent decades. A 1996 report to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that the forested area was reduced to 320,000 hectares from 500,000 hectares, mostly cleared to grow crops.[10] The Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority estimates that the forested area decreased from 500,000 hectares in 1976 to 180,000 hectares in 2007.[12]

The southward slopes of the Jebel Akhdar occupied by the Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, a transitional ecoregion lying between the Mediterranean climate regions of North Africa and the hyper-arid Sahara Desert.[13]

The lower Jebel el-Akabah lies to the south and east of the Jebel Akhdar. The two highlands are separated by a depression. This eastern region, known in ancient times as Marmarica, is much drier than the Jebel Akhdar, and here the Sahara extends to the coast. Historically, salt-collecting and sponge fishing were more important than agriculture. Bomba and Tobruk have good harbors.[11]

South of the coastal highlands of Cyrenaica is a large east-west running depression, extending eastward from the Gulf of Sidra into Egypt. This region of the Sahara is known as the Libyan Desert, and includes the Great Sand Sea and the Calanshio Sand Sea. The Libyan Desert is home to a few oases, including Awjila (ancient Augila) and Jaghbub.

History[edit]

Berber people[edit]

The oldest known people that inhabited the area in recorded history were the Berber people. Most of the inhabitants of this Libyan territory today are considered Berber by origin and their ancestors spoke an ancient Berber language. Today, remnants of the Berber language of this area are found in Awjila-Berber language in the Awjila oasis.

Ancient Berbers founded a number of cities and settlements in the area on the coast and in the internal oases.

Greek cities[edit]

During the Ramesside period (thirteenth century BC), the Libu and the Meshwesh were tribes of the area of Cyrenaica which are mentioned in Egyptian records as making frequent incursions into the New Kingdom of Egypt, and as later controlling the 21st through 24th dynasties.

Cyrenaica was colonized by the Greeks beginning in the 7th century B.C. The first and most important colony was that of Cyrene, established in about 631 BCE by colonists from the Greek island of Thera. They had left their island because of a severe famine.[14] Their commander Aristoteles took the Libyan name Battos.[15] His dynasty, the Battaid, persisted in spite of heavy resistance by the Greeks in neighboring cities.

The east of the province was called Marmarica (no major city), but the important part was in the west, comprising five cities, hence known as the Pentapolis: Cyrene (near the modern village of Shahat) with its port of Apollonia (Marsa Susa), Arsinoe or Taucheira (Tocra), Euesperides or Berenice (near modern Benghazi), Balagrae (Bayda) and Barce (Marj) – of which the chief was the eponymous Cyrene.[14] The term "Pentapolis" continued to be used as a synonym for Cyrenaica. In the south the Pentapolis faded into the Saharan tribal areas, including the pharaonic oracle of Ammonium.

The region produced barley, wheat, olive oil, wine, figs, apples, wool, sheep, cattle, and silphium, an herb that grew only in Cyrenaica and was regarded as a medicinal cure and aphrodisiac.[16] Cyrene became one of the greatest intellectual and artistic centers of the Greek world, famous for its medical school, learned academies, and architecture, which included some of the finest examples of the Hellenistic style. The Cyrenaics, a school of thinkers who expounded a doctrine of moral cheerfulness that defined happiness as the sum of human pleasures, were founded by Aristippus of Cyrene[17] Other notable natives of Cyrene were the poet Callimachus and the mathematicians Theodorus and Eratosthenes.[16]

In 525 BCE, after taking Egypt, the Persians took the Pentapolis. They were followed by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE, who received tribute from these cities after he took Egypt.[14] The Pentapolis was formally annexed by Ptolemy I Soter and it passed to the diadoch dynasty of the Lagids, better known as the Ptolemaic dynasty. It briefly gained independence under Magas of Cyrene, stepson of Ptolemy I, but was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic empire after his death. It was separated from the main kingdom by Ptolemy VIII and given to his son Ptolemy Apion, who, dying without heirs in 96 BCE, bequeathed it to the Roman Republic.

Roman province[edit]

Creta et Cyrenaica within the Roman Empire in the 2nd century
Map of      Cyrenaica and      Marmarica in the Roman era (Samuel Butler, 1907)

The Latin name Cyrenaica dates to the 1st century BCE. Although some confusion exists as to the exact territory Rome inherited, by 78 BCE it was organized as one administrative province together with Crete. It became a senatorial province in 20 BC, like its far more prominent western neighbor Africa proconsularis, and unlike Egypt itself which became an imperial domain sui generis (under a special governor styled praefectus augustalis) in 30 BC.

Roman ruins of Ptolemais, Cyrenaica

The Tetrarchy reforms of Diocletian in 296 changed the administrative structure. Cyrenaica was split into two provinces: Libya Superior or Libia Pentapolis comprised the above-mentioned Pentapolis with Cyrene as capital, and Libya Inferior or Libia sicca the Marmarica (only significant city now the port Paraetonium), each under a governor of the modest rank of praeses. Both belonged to the Diocese of the Orient with its capital at Antioch in Syria and from 370 to the Diocese of Egypt, within the praetorian prefecture of Oriens. Its western neighbor Tripolitania, the largest split-off from Africa proconsularis, became part of the Diocese of Africa, subordinate to the prefecture of Italia et Africa. After the earthquake of 365, the capital was moved to Ptolemais. After the Empire's division, Cyrenaica became part of the East Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), bordering Tripolitania. It was briefly part of the Vandal Kingdom to the west, until its reconquest by Belisarius in 533.

The Tabula Peutingeriana shows Pentapolites to the east of Syrtes Maiores, indicating the cities of Bernice, Hadrianopolis, Tauchira, Ptolomaide, Callis, Cenopolis, Balacris and Cyrene.[18]

Christianization[edit]

According to Synoptic Gospels, Simon of Cyrene carried the cross of Jesus Christ to the crucifixion.

According to one tradition, Saint Mark the Evangelist was born in the Pentapolis, and later returned after preaching with Saint Paul in Colosse (Col 4:10) and Rome (Phil 24; 2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[19]

Early Christianity spread to Pentapolis from Egypt; Synesius of Cyrene (370–414), bishop of Ptolemais, received his instruction at Alexandria in both the Catechetical School and the Museion, and he entertained a great deal of reverence and affection for Hypatia, the last pagan Neoplatonist, whose classes he had attended. Synesius was raised to the episcopate by Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, in AD 410. Since the First Council of Nicaea in AD 325, Cyrenaica had been recognized as an ecclesiastical province of the See of Alexandria, in accordance with the ruling of the Nicaean Fathers.The patriarch of the Coptic Church to this day includes the Pentapolis in his title as an area within his jurisdiction.[20]

The Eparchy of the Western Pentapolis was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria as the Pope of Alexandria was the Pope of Africa, The most senior position in The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church after the Pope was the Metropolitan of Western Pentapolis, but since its demise in the days of Pope John VI of Alexandria as a major Archiepiscopal Metropolis and now being held as a Titular See attached to another Diocese.

After often being destroyed and then restored, during the Roman period it became a mere borough but was, nevertheless, the site of a diocese. Its bishop, Zopyrus (Zephyrius is a mistake), was present at the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The subscriptions at Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451) give the names of two other bishops, Zenobius and Theodorus.

Although it retained the title "Pentapolis", the ecclesiastic province actually included all of the Cyrenaica, and not just the five cities and Pentapolis remains included in the title of both Popes of the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Arab and Ottoman rule[edit]

Cyrenaica was conquered by Muslim Arabs during the tenure of the second caliph, Omer Bin Khattab, in 643/44,[21] and became known as Barqah after its provincial capital, the ancient city of Barce. After the breakdown of the Ummayad caliphate, it was essentially annexed to Egypt, although still under the same name, first under the Fatimid caliphs and later under the Ayyubid and Mamluk sultanates. Ultimately, it was annexed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1517. It was part of the Tripolitania Vilayet. Its main cities became Benghazi and Derna.

Italian rule[edit]

Emir Idris as-Senussi (left), and behind him (from left) Hussein Maziq, Muhammad Sakizli, and Mustafa Ben Halim formed the government of Cyrenaica in late 1940s
Flag of the short-lived emirate of Cyrenaica, 1949–1951.
Littorio Palace in Benghazi was the seat of the Cyrenaican assembly

The Italians occupied Cyrenaica during the Italo-Turkish War in 1911 and declared it an Italian protectorate on 15 October 1912. Three days later, the Ottoman Empire officially ceded the province to the Kingdom of Italy. On 17 May 1919, Cyrenaica was established as an Italian colony, and, on 25 October 1920, the Italian government recognized Sheikh Sidi Idriss as the leader of the Senussi, who was granted the rank of Emir until in 1929. In that year, Italy "derecognized" him and the Senussi. On 1 January 1934, Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan were united as the Italian colony of Libya.

The Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch as a form of an imperial triumphal arch at the border between Cyrenaica and Tripolitani near the coast.

There was heavy fighting in Cyrenaica during World War II between the Allies and the Italian Army and the Nazi German Afrika Korps. In late 1942, the armed forces of the British Empire overran Cyrenaica, and the United Kingdom administered all of Libya through 1951, when the Kingdom of Libya was established and granted independence.[22]

Emirate of Cyrenaica[edit]

Main article: Emirate of Cyrenaica

In 1949, Idris as-Senussi, with British backing, proclaimed Cyrenaica as an independent emirate called the Emirate of Cyrenaica. This emirate soon became part of the Kingdom of Libya when it was established and an independent kingdom on 24 December 1951, with Idris as-Senussi becoming King Idris I.

Gaddafi rule[edit]

Since 1 September 1969, when the Senussi dynasty was overthrown by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, Cyrenaica occasionally experienced nationalist activity against Gaddafi's military dictatorship, including a military rebellion at Tobruk in 1980.[23]

In 2007, the Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority, headed by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, announced a regional plan for Cyrenaica, developed by the firm Foster and Partners. The plan, known as The Cyrene Declaration, aimed to revive Cyrenaica's agriculture, create a national park, and develop the region as a cultural- and eco-tourism destination. The announced pilot projects included plans for three hotels, including the Cyrene Grand Hotel near the ruins of Cyrene.[24]

For much of the Libyan civil war, Cyrenaica was largely under the control of the National Transitional Council while Tripolitania and Fezzan remained under Gaddafi's government control. Some proposed a "two-state solution" to the conflict, with Cyrenaica becoming an independent state,[25] but this concept was strongly rejected by both sides, and the three regions were united again in October 2011, as rebel forces took Tripolitania and Fezzan and the government collapsed.

Post-Gaddafi federalism[edit]

Although a historical region, Cyrenaica has not had an official central government of its own for decades. Its individual provinces have reported directly to the central government in Tripoli.

On 20 July 2011, The First National Conference for Federalism proposed the idea for the first time after the Libyan Civil War as a key solution to quickly reach to stability in the country after the fall of the Gaddafi government. Dr. Abubakr Mustafa Buera was the head of the preparatory committee, and then was elected as the first president for the National Federal Block; the First Political Group that called for federalism.[citation needed]

Benghazi, Venice HAll, 20 July 2011
Movement for Federal Libya (November 2nd, 2012)
First Cyrenaica Council - March 6th, 2012

On 6 March 2012, a relative of King Idris, Ahmed al-Senussi, was appointed as the leader of the self-declared Cyrenaica Transitional Council, a meeting of tribal and military leaders.[26][27][28] According to the Council, Cyrenaica extends from the central coastal city of Sirte to the Egyptian border.[29] In October 2013, "transitional" was dropped and the Council was renamed as "Council of Cyrenaica in Libya" (CCL). According to CCL, there would be further announcements relating to setting up a local parliament and a Shura Council. Struggle for a federal system was also emphasized to take place purely through legal channels.[30]

On 2 November 2012, the federal approach was about to evaporate after serious conflicts between the self-declared Cyrenaica Transitional Council lead by Ahmed al-Senussi and the National Transitional Council, but a new initiative by pro-Cyrenaican motivated youth leaders who resurrected the movement by a successful rally organized by Muheddine Mansury, Osama Buera, and Salem Bujazia the founders of Movement for Federal Libya which focused on organizing numerous rallies and campaigns in addition to distributing a number of 10,000 flags to rebound the Cyrenaican people to their identity's symbol.

In a competing turn of events, Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi was appointed as the head of the "Government of Cyrenaica" on 6 November 2013, supported by a local military leader Ibrahim Jathran and also without the consent of the central government.[31] Based on the appointed posts at the PBC, the government of al-Barassi plans to cover all functions except for foreign affairs and defense.[32] On 11 November 2013, PBC announced formation of its own oil company, further straining relations with the Tripoli government.[33]

CCL says that they attempted to present a united front with Jadhran, but that he had proved inflexible and intent on pursuing his own agenda.[34]

Population[edit]

Cyrenaica's population grew throughout years along with the overall growth in Libya's population.

Year Population Percent of
Libya's
population
1954 291,236 27
1964 450,954 29
1973 661,351 29
1984 1,033,534 28
1995 1,261,331 26
2006 1,613,749 29

Cities and towns of Cyrenaica[edit]

The city of Benghazi was traditionally the centre of Cyrenaica

Episcopal sees[edit]

Ancient episcopal sees of the Roman province of Libya Superior or Libya Pentapolitana listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees:[35]

For the ancient sees of Libya Inferior see Marmarica. For those of Creta see Byzantine Crete.

See also[edit]

1950 postage due stamps of independent Cyrenaica

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/11/east-libya-declares-self-government-2013113195259621122.html
  2. ^ a b "Eastern Libyan leaders declare semi-autonomy". CNN. 7 March 2012. 
  3. ^ [1] Alarabiya
  4. ^ The battle for federalism in Libya's east Al Jazeera, 3 July 2012
  5. ^ Abdel Aziz Tarih Sharaf, “Jughrafia Libia”, Munsha’at al Ma’arif, Alexandria, 2nd ed., 1971, pp.232-233.
  6. ^ 2006 census, based on the sum of population of districts Al Wahat, Kufra, Benghazi, Al Marj, Jebel Akhdar, Derna, Al Butnan
  7. ^ "Endgame in Tripoli". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d Gimingham, C. H., and K. Walton (1954). "Environment and the Structure of Scrub Communities on the Limestone Plateaux of Northern Cyrenaica." Journal of Ecology, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul., 1954
  9. ^ "Mediterranean woodlands and forests". WWF Scientific Report [2]. Accessed March 27, 2011
  10. ^ a b c El-Darier, S. M. and F.M. El-Mogaspi (2009). "Ethnobotany and Relative Importance of Some Endemic Plant Species at El-Jabal El-Akhdar Region (Libya)". World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (3): 353-360, 2009, pp 353-360.
  11. ^ a b "Cyrenaica", from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, 1911
  12. ^ The Report: Libya 2008, p. 134. Oxford Business Group.
  13. ^ "North Saharan steppe and woodlands" WWF Scientific Report [3]. Accessed March 27, 2011.
  14. ^ a b c Ring, Trudy et al. (1996) "Cyrene (Gebel Akhdar, Libya)" International Dictionary of Historic Places: Volume 4: Middle East and Africa Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, p. 194, ISBN 1-884964-03-6
  15. ^ Details of the founding are contained in Book IV of Histories, by Herodotus of Halicarnassus
  16. ^ a b Ring, Trudy, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda (1996). "Cyrene (Gebel Akhdar, Libya)" in International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 4: Middle East and Africa. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago and London.
  17. ^ "Cyrenaica and the Greeks" from The Library of Congress Country Studies: Libya. 2001. [4]. Accessed March 27, 2011.
  18. ^ Agricole Joseph F.X.P.E.S.P.A. Fortia d'Urban (marq. de), Bénigne Emmanuel C. Miller, Recueil des itinéraires anciens, comprenant l'itinéraire d'Antonin, la table de Peutinger, et un choix des périples grecs, 1845, p. 286
  19. ^ "St. Mark the Apostle, the Founder of the Coptic Church", Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States, accessed 19 May 2009
  20. ^ "Atiya, Aziz S. "The Copts and Christian Civilization Coptic.net
  21. ^ "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades". Tulane.edu. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  22. ^ Stewart, John (1996) "Cyrenaica" The British Empire: an encyclopedia of the Crown's holdings, 1493 through 1995 McFarland & Co., Jefferson, North Carolina, p. 125, ISBN 0-7864-0177-X
  23. ^ Associated Press, 'Libyan Opposition to Khadafy Growing but Fragmented Says Expert,' 17 April 1986.
  24. ^ Rose, Steve. "Gadafy's green vision". The Guardian 12 September 2007. Accessed April 2, 2011.[5]
  25. ^ "Two-state solution for Libya?". BBC Today programme. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  26. ^ http://www.trust.org/alertnet/news/libyan-leader-says-autonomy-call-a-foreign-plot/
  27. ^ "Eastern Libya declares autonomy". Russia Today. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  28. ^ "Eastern Libya declares semiautonomous region". The Associated Press. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  29. ^ "Libya: Semi-autonomy declared by leaders in east". BBC. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  30. ^ Federalist head distances himself from Jadhran, announces new Council of Cyrenaica. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  31. ^ East Libya movement launches government, challenges Tripoli. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  32. ^ Eastern Libyans Declare Autonomous Government. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  33. ^ Jadhran launches new Cyrenaican oil company, mocks Zeidan’s ten-day deadline. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  34. ^ Jadhran swears in his new Cyrenaican “cabinet”. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  35. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013
  • Westermann Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German).

Further reading[edit]

  • Cyrenaica in Antiquity (Society for Libyan Studies Occasional Papers). Graeme Barker, John Lloyd, Joyce Reynolds ISBN 0-86054-303-X

External links[edit]