||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008)|
|Deputy President of the African National Congress|
18 December 2012
|Preceded by||Kgalema Motlanthe|
|Secretary General of the ANC|
|Preceded by||Alfred Baphethuxolo Nzo|
|Succeeded by||Kgalema Motlanthe|
17 November 1952|
|Political party||African National Congress|
|Spouse(s)||Dr. Tshepo Motsepe|
|Alma mater||University of South Africa|
|Occupation||Businessman, trade unionist, politician.|
Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician, businessman, activist, and trade union leader. He was elected as Deputy President of the African National Congress (ANC) at the ANC National Conference in Mangaung in December 2012. While Ramaphosa was previously a major figure in South African national politics, he has in recent years become a prominent figure in the business community.
Widely respected as a skilful and formidable negotiator and strategist, Ramaphosa is best known for building up the biggest and most powerful trade union in South Africa — the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) — as well as for the crucial role he played, with Roelf Meyer of the National Party, during the negotiations to bring about a peaceful end to apartheid and steer the country towards its first democratic elections in April 1994.
In recent times he has been criticised however for his business interests - including a seat on the board of Lonmin. On 15 August 2012 he called for action against striking platinum miners engaged in 'dastardly criminal' conduct.
He is married to Dr. Tshepo Motsepe and he has four children.
Early life and education
Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa was born in Soweto, Johannesburg on 17 November 1952. He is the second of the three children of Erdmuth and Samuel Ramaphosa, a retired policeman. He grew up in the south western Native Township (Soweto), attending a local primary school and Sekano-Ntoane High School, Soweto. In 1971 he matriculated from Mphaphuli High School in Sibasa, Venda.He subsequently registered to study law at the University of the North (Turfloop) in 1972.
While at university, Ramaphosa became involved in student politics and joined the South African Students Organisation (SASO), and the Black People's Convention (BPC). This resulted in him being detained in solitary confinement for eleven months in 1974 under Section 6 of the Terrorism act, for organising pro-Frelimo rallies. In 1976 he was detained for a second time, and held for six months. After his release, he became a law clerk for a Johannesburg firm of attorneys and continued his studies through the University of South Africa (UNISA), where he obtained his B. Proc. Degree in 1981.
Political activist and trade union leader
After obtaining his degree, Ramaphosa joined the National Council of Trade Unions (NCTU) as a legal advisor. In 1982, CUSA requested that Ramaphosa start a union for mineworkers; this new union was launched in the same year and was named the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM). Ramaphosa was arrested in Lebowa, on the charge of organising or planning to take part in a meeting in Namakgale which was banned by the local magistrate.
Fight Against Apartheid
In August 1982, Cusa resolved to form National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and in December Ramaphosa became its first secretary. Ramaphosa was conference organiser in the preparations leading to the formations of the Congress of South African Trade Union (COSATU). He delivered a keynote address at Cosatu’s launch rally in Durban in December 1985. In march 1986 he was part of COSATU’s delegation which met the African National Congress in Lusaka, Zambia.
Ramaphosa was elected as the first General Secretary of the union, a position he held until he resigned in June 1991, following his election as Secretary General of the African National Congress (ANC). Under his leadership, union membership grew from 6,000 in 1982 to 300,000 in 1992, giving it control of nearly half of the total black workforce in the South African mining industry. As General Secretary, he James Motlatsi (President of NUM) and Elijah Barayi (Vice President of NUM) also led the mineworkers in one of the biggest strikes ever in South African history.
In 1985, the NUM broke away from CUSA and helped to establish the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). When COSATU joined forces with the United Democratic Front (UDF) political movement against the National Party government of P. W. Botha, Ramaphosa took a leading role in what became known as the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM).
When Nelson Mandela was released from prison, Ramaphosa was on the National Reception Committee.
Subsequent to his election as Secretary General of the African National Congress in 1991, he became head of the negotiation team of the ANC in negotiating the end of apartheid with the National Party government. Following the first fully democratic elections in 1994, Ramaphosa became a member of parliament; he was elected the chairperson of its Constitutional Assembly on 24 May 1994 and played a central role in the government of national unity.
After he lost the race to become President of South Africa to Thabo Mbeki, he resigned from his political positions in January 1997 and moved to the private sector, where he became a director of New Africa Investments Limited. He came in first place in the 1997 election to the ANC's National Executive Committee.
The media continually speculated on Ramaphosa joining the race for the presidency of the ANC in 2007, before the 2009 South African presidential election.  However, he has stated that he is not interested in the presidency. On 2 September 2007, The Sunday Times reported that Ramaphosa was in the election race, but by that evening he had released a statement once again holding back on any commitment. 
In December 2007, he was again elected to the ANC National Executive Committee, this time in 30th place with 1,910 votes.
On 20 May 2012, prominent Afrikaner ANC member Derek Hanekom asked Ramaphosa to run for President of the ANC, stating that "We need leaders of comrade Cyril's calibre. I know Cyril is very good at business, but I really wish he would put all his money in a trust and step up for a higher and more senior position". Although it is unknown whether or not Ramaphosa will run for President of the ANC, he attempted to quiet the speculation by responding to Hanekom's comment by stating "You can't read anything [into what he said]. He was joking".
He officially became a candidate for the Deputy Presidency on 17 December 2012 and entered the race with the strong backing of the Zuma Camp, on 18 December 2012, he was elected deputy president of the ANC. Cyril Ramaphosa received 3 018 votes, while Mathews Phosa received 470 votes and Tokyo Sexwale received 463 votes.
Among other positions, he is executive chairman of Shanduka Group, a company he founded. Shanduka Group has investments in the Resources Sector, Energy Sector, Real Estate, Banking, Insurance, and Telecoms (SEACOM). He is also chairman of The Bidvest Group Limited, and MTN. His other non-executive directorships include Macsteel Holdings, Alexander Forbes, Standard Bank and SABMiller. In March 2007 he was appointed Non-Executive joint Chairman of Mondi, a leading international paper and packaging group, when the company demerged from Anglo American plc.
The Marikana massacre, as referred to in the media, occurred when police broke up an occupation by striking Lonmin workers of a 'koppie' (hilltop) near Nkaneng shack settlement in Marikana on Thursday, 16 August 2012. As a result of the police shootings, 34 miners died and an additional 78 miners were injured causing anger and outcry against the police and South African government. Further controversy emerged after it was discovered that most of the victims were shot in the back and many victims were shot far from police lines. The violence on 16 August 2012 was the single most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since the end of the apartheid era.
During the Marikana Commission, it also emerged that Lonmin management solicited Lonmin shareholder and ANC heavyweight, Cyril Ramaphosa, to coordinate "concomitant action" against "criminal" protesters and is seen by many as therefore being responsible for the massacre.
Honorary doctorates and awards
Among others, Ramaphosa has received honorary doctorates from the University of Natal, the University of Port Elizabeth, the University of Cape Town, the University of the North, the National University of Lesotho, the University of Massachusetts Amherst and the University of Pennsylvania. In October 1991, he was a visiting Professor of Law at Stanford University.
In 2004, he was voted 34th in the Top 100 Great South Africans.
In his role as a businessman, Ramaphosa is a member of the Coca-Cola Company International Advisory Board as well as the Unilever Africa Advisory Council. He was also the first deputy chairman of the Commonwealth Business Council.
Along with the ex-president of Finland, Martti Ahtisaari, he was appointed an inspector of the Irish Republican Army weapons dumps in Northern Ireland. Ramaphosa is the Honorary Consul General for Iceland in Johannesburg, South Africa.
In the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis, which followed the disputed re-election of President Mwai Kibaki in December 2007, Ramaphosa was unanimously chosen by the mediation team headed by Kofi Annan to be the chief mediator in charge of leading long-term talks; however, Kibaki's government expressed dissatisfaction with the choice of Ramaphosa, saying that he had business links with Kibaki's opponent Raila Odinga, and on 4 February Annan accepted Ramaphosa's withdrawal from the role of chief mediator. According to Ramaphosa, Odinga had visited him in 2007, but he did not have any "special interest" that would lead him to favor one side or the other; however, he said that he could not be an effective mediator without "the trust and confidence of all parties" and that he therefore felt it would be best for him to return to South Africa to avoid becoming an obstacle in the negotiation process.
- The Guardian 24 October 2012
- Brendan Boyle, "Winnie Mandela tops ANC election list", The Times (South Africa), 21 December 2007.
- http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21576655-black-economic-empowerment-has-not-worked-well-nor-will-it-end-soon-fools-gold South Africa: Fool’s gold
- "South Africa's ANC to discuss mine shootings row". BBC News. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Striking South African miners 'were shot in the back', The Daily Telegraph, 27 August 2012
- The murder fields of Marikana: the cold murder fields of Marikana, by Greg Marinovich, The Daily Maverick, 8 September 2012
- "South African police open fire as striking miners charge, killing and wounding workers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Cyril Ramaphosa: The true betrayl, by Ranjeni Munusamy, The Daily Maverick, 25 October 2012
- 'Ramaphosa must say sorry', iAfrica.com, 24 October 2012
- "Kenya rejects S African mediator", Al Jazeera, 4 February 2008.
- Fiona Forde, "Ramaphosa denies bias in Kenyan crisis", The Star (South Africa), 4 February 2008, page 4.
- "Question mark over Ramaphosa's Kenya's links", AFP (IOL), 4 February 2008.