Cyrillic numerals

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The Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late tenth century. It was used by the First Bulgarian Empire and by South and East Slavic peoples. The system was used in Russia as late as the early 18th century when Peter the Great replaced it with Arabic numerals. The Cyrillic numerals may still be found in books written in the Church Slavonic language.

General description[edit]

Tower clock with Cyrillic numerals in Suzdal

The system is quasi-decimal, being basically the Ionian numeral system written with the corresponding graphemes of the Cyrillic script—the order is based on the original Greek alphabet, and doesn't correspond to the different standard alphabetical orders of Cyrillic. A separate letter is assigned to each unit (1, 2, ... 9), each multiple of ten (10, 20, ... 90), and each multiple of one hundred (100, 200, ... 900).

The numbers are written as pronounced in Slavonic, generally high value position to low value position, with the exception of numbers 11 through 19 which are pronounced and written units before tens. For example, 17 is "седмьнадесять", "s'edm'-na-d'es'at'" ("seven-on-ten", compare English seven-teen). In order to cipher a Cyrillic number, one has to add all the figures. To distinguish numbers from text, a titlo  ҃ ) is drawn over the numbers. If the number exceeds 1,000, the thousands sign ( ҂ ) is drawn before the figure, and the thousands figure are written with a letter assigned to the units. To produce larger numbers, a numeral can be enclosed in a modifying sign: a ten-thousands sign (    ⃝ ), a hundred-thousands sign (    ҈ ), a millions sign (    ҉ ), a ten-millions sign (    ꙰ ), a hundred-millions sign (    ꙱ ) or a billions sign (    ꙲ ).

Slavonic-numerals-en.svg
Examples of Cyrillic numbers

Examples:

  • ҂АѰЅ – 1706
  • ҂ЗРИІ – 7118

Glagolitic numerals work similarly, except numeric values are assigned according to the native alphabetic order of the Glagolitic alphabet, rather than inherited from the order of the Greek alphabet.

Computing codes[edit]

character  ҃ ҂  ⃝  ҈
Unicode name COMBINING CYRILLIC
TITLO
CYRILLIC
THOUSANDS SIGN
COMBINING
ENCLOSING CIRCLE
(Cyrillic combining
ten thousands sign)
COMBINING
CYRILLIC HUNDRED
THOUSANDS SIGN
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1155 0483 1154 0482 8413 20DD 1160 0488
UTF-8 210 131 D2 83 210 130 D2 82 226 131 157 E2 83 9D 210 136 D2 88
Numeric character reference ҃ ҃ ҂ ҂ ⃝ &#20DD; ҈ ҈
character  ҉   ꙰  ꙱   ꙲
Unicode name COMBINING
CYRILLIC MILLIONS
SIGN
COMBINING
CYRILLIC TEN
MILLIONS SIGN
COMBINING
CYRILLIC HUNDRED
MILLIONS SIGN
COMBINING
CYRILLIC THOUSAND
MILLIONS SIGN
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1161 0489 42608 A670 42609 A671 42610 A672
UTF-8 210 137 D2 89 234 153 176 EA 99 B0 234 153 177 EA 99 B1 234 153 178 EA 99 B2
Numeric character reference ҉ ҉ ꙰ ꙰ ꙱ ꙱ ꙲ ꙲

See also[edit]

References[edit]