Wafer trapdoor spider
|Wafer trapdoor spiders|
|10 genera, c. 120 species|
The wafer trapdoor spiders (superfamily Cyrtauchenioidea, family Cyrtaucheniidae) are a widespread family of spiders that lack the thorn-like spines on tarsi and metatarsi I and II (the two outermost leg segments) found in true trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae).
Many, but not all, make wafer-like doors to their burrows, while others build the cork-like doors found commonly in the true trapdoor spiders. The biology of nearly all the species is poorly known.
The monotypic Angka hexops has only six eyes, with the posterior median eyes missing. It is up to 15 mm long in both sexes.
The family is well represented South America, and Africa. A currently undescribed genus in the western United States may hold an altitude record for the family, being found up to over 11,000 feet (3,300 meters). The genus Anemesia is found only in Central Asia, and Cyrtauchenius reaches from Algeria north to Italy, with one species found in the USA. Angka is endemic to the cloud forest of Doi Inthanon, Thailand.
The categorization into subfamilies follows Raven (1985). The Euctenizinae from the USA and Mexico were promoted to family Euctenizidae in 2012, and are now considered more closely related to Idiopidae.
- Aporoptychinae Simon, 1889
- Cyrtaucheniinae Simon, 1892
- Raven, R.J. 1985. The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1-180.
- Murphy & Murphy 2000
- Raven, Robert J. (1985): The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1-180.
- Murphy, Frances & Murphy, John (2000): An Introduction to the Spiders of South East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
- Platnick, Norman I. (2008): The world spider catalog, version 8.5. American Museum of Natural History.
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- Platnick, Norman I. (2014): The world spider catalog, version 14.5. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.iz.0001