Czech National Revival
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century. The purpose of this movement was to revive Czech language, culture and national identity. The most prominent figures of the revival movement were Josef Dobrovský and Josef Jungmann.
The oppression was connected also with the religion – up to 95% inhabitants of Bohemia were Protestants (See Hussite) when Habsburgs took power. Although they formerly promised freedom of religion, they started rampant anti-reformation and re-catholization efforts which made the most of Czech elites flee the country. This violent re-catholization is also one of the reasons behind today's Czech atheism.
During the two following centuries the Czech language had been more or less eradicated from state administration, literature, schools, Charles University and among the upper classes. Large number of books written in Czech were burned for confessional reasons – for example Jesuit Antonín Koniáš alone is credited with burning as many as 30,000 Czech language books. Gradually, the Czech language was reduced to a means of communication between peasants, who were often illiterate. Therefore, the Revival looked for inspiration among ordinary Czechs in the countryside.
Josef Dobrovský published his Czech grammar book in 1809. In 1817, Václav Hanka claimed to have discovered medieval Manuscripts of Dvůr Králové and of Zelená Hora, which were decades later proven as Hanka's forgeries.
Josef Jungmann published the five-volume Czech-German dictionary in 1834–1839. It was a major lexicographical work, which had a great formative influence on the Czech language. Jungmann used vocabulary of the Bible of Kralice (1579–1613) period and of the language used by his contemporaries. He borrowed words not present in Czech from other Slavic languages or created neologisms. He also inspired development of Czech scientific terminology, thus, making it possible for original Czech research to develop.
This work was published by the Matice česká, an institution created by František Palacký in 1831 as a branch of the National Museum. The Matice became an important istitution as it was at the time one of the few routes through which works in the Czech language could be published. In 1832 it took over the publication of the Journal of the Bohemian Museum. This journal was important as it provided a forum for the Czech Intelligentsia to publish their ideas in their own language, in contrast to the journal published by the Royal Bohemian Academy of Sciences which was published in German.
With the renaissance of language, Czech culture flourished. Czech institutions were established to celebrate the Czech history and culture. The National Theatre opened in 1883 and the National Museum in 1818.
Literature of the Revival
At the beginning of the Revival, written works focused more on developing the language and culture. Artistic works became more common towards the later phase of the Revival and it is in this period that some of the defining works of Czech Literature appeared.
Possibly as a consequence to the domination of urban society by the German-speaking population at the start of the century, Czech writers of the period often looked to the countryside for inspiration. In a similar fashion to how the Brothers Grimm recorded German folklore, Karel Jaromír Erben wrote Prostonárodní české písně a říkadla (Czech Folk Songs and Nursery Rhymes) which brought together various folktales. The countryside was looked to as the true Bohemia, where Czech folklore and traditions had survived away from the foreign influences of the cities. This can be seen in the work of Božena Němcová whose The Grandmother explores life in a rural Moravian village.
As a result, the Czech language has been restored as an official language in the Czech lands and is now used by the vast majority of Czechs, and serves as an official language in the Czech Republic. However, due to the Revivalists' reverence for the outdated language of the Kralice Bible, which they used as a model for their grammars and dictionaries, a gap emerged between the everyday, colloquial language, and the learned language of literature.
Institutions created by the Revival