Czechowice-Dziedzice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Czechowice-Dziedzice
John Paul II Square
John Paul II Square
Flag of Czechowice-Dziedzice
Flag
Coat of arms of Czechowice-Dziedzice
Coat of arms
Czechowice-Dziedzice is located in Poland
Czechowice-Dziedzice
Czechowice-Dziedzice
Coordinates: 49°54′46.65″N 19°0′22.72″E / 49.9129583°N 19.0063111°E / 49.9129583; 19.0063111Coordinates: 49°54′46.65″N 19°0′22.72″E / 49.9129583°N 19.0063111°E / 49.9129583; 19.0063111
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Silesian
County Bielsko
Gmina Czechowice-Dziedzice
Government
 • Mayor Marian Błachut
Area
 • Total 32.98 km2 (12.73 sq mi)
Population (2012)
 • Total 35,498
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 43-502, 43-503, 43-500
Car plates SBI
Website http://www.czechowice-dziedzice.pl

Czechowice-Dziedzice [t͡ʂɛxɔˈvit͡sɛ d͡ʑɛˈd͡ʑit͡sɛ] ( ) is a town in Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland with 35,498 inhabitants (2012). It lies on the northeastern edge of the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. With four stations, it is a large rail junction,[1] located at the intersection of two major lines - east-west (Trzebinia - Zebrzydowice), and north - south (Katowice - Bielsko-Biala).

History[edit]

The village of Czechowice was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as two settlements:[2]

Item in Chothowitz theutonico fertones
Item in Chothowitz polonico decima more polonico, valet I) marcam

Chotowitz theutonico (German Czechowice) was presumably established under German rights (iure theuthonico) on the ground of the older Chotowitz polonico, which was continuously ruling itself under Polish traditional rights (iure polonico).[3] The declared size of a tithe paid by villagers was also suggesting that it was an old and quite developed community.[4] It belonged then to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290, since 1327 a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia. In 1430 the village was first mentioned under the current name of Czechowice rather than Chatowice. Dziedzice were first mentioned in 1465. The other medieval village that was later absorbed by Czechowice was Żebracz, first mentioned in 1443.[5]

The village of Czechowice became a seat of a Catholic parish, mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among 50 parishes of Teschen deanery as Czechowicz.[6]

After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. The villages as two separate municipalities were subscribed to the political and legal district of Bielsko. In 1855 a local line of the important Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway was opened to traffic with a station in Dziedzice. This led to a rapid industrialization of Dziedzice and Czechowice, especially in the late 19th century.

According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of Czechowice grew from 2804 in 1880 to 7056 in 1910 with a dwindling majority being native Polish-speakers (from 96.6% in 1880 to 86.7% in 1910) accompanied by a growing German-speaking minority (from 95 or 3.4% in 1880 to 611 or 8.9% in 1910) and Czech-speaking (from 33 or 1.1% in 1890 to 290 or 4.3% in 1910), in terms of religion in 1910 majority were Roman Catholics (94.1%), followed by Protestants (231 or 3.3%), Jews (176 or 2.5) and 9 people adhereing to yet another faith.[7] Whereas in case of Dziedzice the population of the municipality grew from 1011 in 1880 to 2436 in 1910 with a majority being native Polish-speakers (between 748 or 78% in 1880 and 1994 or 85.1% in 1910, at most 938 or 92.1% in 1890) accompanied by a German-speaking minority (189 or 19.7% in 1880, then at most 266 or 11.4% in 1910) and Czech-speaking (at most 81 or 3.5% in 1910), in terms of religion in 1910 majority were Roman Catholics (88.6%), followed by Jews (185 or 7.6%) and Protestants (93 or 3.8%).[7]

After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, they became a part of Poland. They was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. During the Oil Campaign of World War II, the oil refinery at "Czechowice" was bombed on August 20, 1944. The Tschechowitz I & II subcamps of Auschwitz in Czechowice-Dziedzice provided forced labor for the SOCONY-Vacuum oil plant.[8] After the war they were restored to Poland.

In 1951 Dziedzice were merged with Czechowice, concurrently the expanded gmina was given town rights.[9] However the name of the new town was Czechowice, which disappointed the citizens of Dziedzice. After complaints in 1958 the town was given the name of Czechowice-Dziedzice.[10]

From 1975 to 1998 it was located in the Katowice Voivodeship, and since 1999 in Silesian Voivodeship.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns - Sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Urząd Miejski w Czechowicach-Dziedzicach: Rozwój miasta
  2. ^ Panic, Idzi (2010). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528) [Cieszyn Silesia in Middle Ages (until 1528)] (in Polish). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. p. 297. ISBN 978-83-926929-3-5. 
  3. ^ I. Panic, 2010, p. 401
  4. ^ I. Panic, 2010, p. 402
  5. ^ I. Panic, 2010, p. 313
  6. ^ "Registrum denarii sancti Petri in archidiaconatu Opoliensi sub anno domini MCCCCXLVII per dominum Nicolaum Wolff decretorum doctorem, archidiaconum Opoliensem, ex commissione reverendi in Christo patris ac domini Conradi episcopi Wratislaviensis, sedis apostolice collectoris, collecti". Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte und Alterthum Schlesiens (in German) (Breslau: H. Markgraf) 27: 361–372. 1893. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Piątkowski, Kazimierz (1918). Stosunki narodowościowe w Księstwie Cieszyńskiem (in Polish). Cieszyn: Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego. pp. 257, 276. 
  8. ^ "Sub-Camps of Auschwitz Concentration Camp". Auschwitz-Birkenau: Memorial and Museum. auschwitz.org.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  9. ^ Rozporządzenie Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 14 grudnia 1950 r. w sprawie zniesienia gminy Dziedzice, zmiany granic niektórych gmin oraz nadania ustroju miejskiego gminie Czechowice., Dz. U. z 1950 r. Nr 57, poz. 514
  10. ^ Zarządzenie nr 231 Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 13 listopada 1958 r. w sprawie zmiany nazw niektórych miejscowości w województwach katowickim, poznańskim, wrocławskim i lubelskim., M.P. z 1958 r. Nr 89, poz. 496
  11. ^ "Žilina - oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá Žiliny [Žilina: Official Partner Cities]". 2008 MaM Multimedia, s.r.o. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 

External links[edit]