Chernivtsi

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This article is about the Ukrainian city. For the Israeli writer, see Yemima Avidar-Tchernovitz.
Chernivtsi
Чернівці (Ukrainian)
Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans
Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans
Flag of Chernivtsi
Flag
Coat of arms of Chernivtsi
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "Little Vienna"[1][2]
The Chernivtsi City Municipality (center) on the map of Chernivtsi Oblast.
The Chernivtsi City Municipality (center) on the map of Chernivtsi Oblast.
Chernivtsi is located in Ukraine
Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Location of Chernivtsi in Ukraine
Coordinates: 48°18′0″N 25°56′0″E / 48.30000°N 25.93333°E / 48.30000; 25.93333Coordinates: 48°18′0″N 25°56′0″E / 48.30000°N 25.93333°E / 48.30000; 25.93333
Country  Ukraine
Oblast  Chernivtsi Oblast
Municipality Chernivtsi City Municipality
First mentioned 1408
City rights 14th century
Subdivisions
Government
 • City Council Secretary Vitaliy Mykhailishyn[3]
Area
 • City 153 km2 (59 sq mi)
Elevation 248 m (814 ft)
Population (2013)
 • City 259,419
 • Density 1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
 • Metro 723,100
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 58000
Area code(s) +380 372
Vehicle registration CE/26
Sister cities Salt Lake City, Konin, Suceava, Nazareth Illit, Saskatoon, Klagenfurt, Podolsk
Website

www.city.cv.ua

www.chernivtsy.eu

Chernivtsi (Ukrainian: Чернівці́, /t͡ʃernʲiv̥ˈt͡sʲi/; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut. Chernivtsi is the administrative center of Chernivtsi Oblast (province) — the northern, Ukrainian part of the historical Moldavian region of Bukovina. At the time of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of the city was 240,600.[4]

Together with the city of Lviv, Chernivtsi is viewed at present to be a cultural center of western Ukraine. The city is also considered one of modern Ukraine's greatest cultural, educational and architectural centers. Historically in that role, Chernivtsi was even dubbed "Little Vienna,"[1][2] "Jerusalem upon the Prut". Chernivtsi is currently twinned with seven other cities around the world. The city is also a major point of railway and highway crossings in the region, and houses an international airport.

Name[edit]

Aside from Ukrainian, Chernivtsi is also known by many different names, which were used during times of rule by different countries throughout the city's history, or by the respective population groups at the time: Romanian: Cernăuți; German: Czernowitz; Polish: Czerniowce; Hungarian: Csernovic, Russian: Черновцы́, translit. Chernovtsy (until 1944: Чернови́цы, translit. Chernovitsy). In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality the city's name was Chern.

History[edit]

The city's coat of arms until 1918
The city's coat of arms from 1918 to 1940.

Archeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture,[5] the Corded Ware culture; artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city.

A fortified settlement located on the left (north-eastern) shore of Prut dates back to the time of the Principality of Halych and is thought to have been built by Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl.[6] Legendary accounts refer to this fortress-city as Chern’, or Black city; it is said to owe its name to the black color of the city walls, built from dark oak layered with local black-colored soil.[7] This early stronghold was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by the Burundai in 1259. However, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes; in the 17th century they were augmented with several bastions, one of which is still extant.

Map of the United States of Greater Austria, proposed in 1906, shows the city at the border of the areas inhabited by Romanians and Ukrainians.

Following the destruction of the fortress, later settlements in the area centered on the right (south-western) shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous, elevated location. In 1325, when Kingdom of Poland seized control of Galicia, and came into contact with the early Vlach (Romanian) feudal formations, a fort was mentioned under the name Țețina; it was defending the ford and crossing point on the Prut River. It was part of a group of three fortifications, the other two being the fortress of Hotin on the Dniester to the east, and a fort on the Kolachin River, an upriver tributary of Prut.

Between 1359 and 1775, the city and its surroundings were part of the Principality of Moldavia; the city being the administrative center of the homonymous ţinut (county).[8] The name Cernăuţi/Chernivtsi is first attested in a document by Alexander the Good on October 8, 1408.[9] In Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as "Çernovi".

In 1775, the northwestern part of the territory of Moldavia was annexed by the Habsburg Empire; this region became known as Bukovina. The city became the region's capital, which in 1849 was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city received Magdeburg rights.[10] The city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration. He invited many merchants, craftsmen and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses. Saint Peter's Fairs (July 1–15) had given a new vibrant impulse to the market development from 1786. In the late 19th century the German language—due to the Habsburgian and the very important Jewish influence—became the lingua franca and more and more newspapers were edited in German, also a remarkable literary production in German began in this period, featuring most prominently Karl Emil Franzos.[11]

During the 19th and early 20th century, Chernivtsi became a center of both Romanian and Ukrainian national movements. In 1908, it was the site of the first Yiddish language conference, the Czernowitz Conference, coordinated by Nathan Birnbaum. When Austria-Hungary dissolved in 1918, the city and its surrounding area became part of the Kingdom of Romania.[12] In 1930, the city reached a population of 112,400: 26.8% Jews, 23.2% Romanians, 20.8% Germans, 18.6% Ukrainians, the remainder Poles and others. It was one of the five university centers of interwar Romania.

In 1940, the Red Army occupied the area; the area around the city became known as Chernivtsi Oblast, and was allotted to the Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union.[12] The city's large Romanian intelligentsia found refuge in Romania; while the Bukovina Germans were repatriated according to a Soviet-Nazi agreement. This prompted Romania to switch from an ally of France and Britain to one of Nazi Germany; in July 1941, the Romanian Army retook the city as part of the Axis attack on the Soviet Union during World War II. In August 1941, Romanian military dictator Ion Antonescu ordered the creation of a ghetto in the lowland part of the city, where 50,000 Bukovina Jews were crammed, two-thirds of whom would be deported to Transnistria in October 1941 and partly in early 1942, where the majority perished. Romanian mayor of the city Traian Popovici managed to persuade Antonescu to raise the number of Jews exempted from deportation from 200 to 20,000.

In 1944, when Axis forces were driven out by the Red Army, the city was reincorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. Over the following years, most of the Jews left for Israel; the city was an important node in the Berihah network. Bukovina Poles were also repatriated by the Soviets after World War II. The city became a predominantly Ukrainian one.

Since 1991, Chernitvtsi has been a part of independent Ukraine. In May 1999, Romania opened a consulate general in the city. Contemporary Chernivtsi is an important regional center, which is situated on the picturesque banks of the Prut River and occupies an area of about 150 square kilometres (58 sq mi).

Geography and climate[edit]

Chernivtsi is located in the historic region of Bukovina, which is currently shared between Romania (south) and Ukraine (north). The city lies 248 meters above sea level, and is surrounded by forests and fields. The River Prut runs through the city's landscape.

Climate data for Chernivtsi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
21.3
(70.3)
24.6
(76.3)
30.7
(87.3)
33.5
(92.3)
35.6
(96.1)
37.4
(99.3)
37.7
(99.9)
36.3
(97.3)
31.0
(87.8)
23.8
(74.8)
17.9
(64.2)
37.7
(99.9)
Average high °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
1.7
(35.1)
7.2
(45)
14.5
(58.1)
20.4
(68.7)
23.1
(73.6)
25.1
(77.2)
24.6
(76.3)
19.6
(67.3)
13.8
(56.8)
6.1
(43)
0.9
(33.6)
13.1
(55.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.7
(36.9)
9.2
(48.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.8
(67.6)
19.1
(66.4)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
8.6
(47.5)
Average low °C (°F) −5.7
(21.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
4.6
(40.3)
9.8
(49.6)
13.3
(55.9)
15.1
(59.2)
14.4
(57.9)
9.9
(49.8)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
4.7
(40.5)
Record low °C (°F) −30.7
(−23.3)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−13.6
(7.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
3.0
(37.4)
7.4
(45.3)
3.4
(38.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−17.5
(0.5)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−30.7
(−23.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
30
(1.18)
32
(1.26)
47
(1.85)
75
(2.95)
88
(3.46)
97
(3.82)
75
(2.95)
50
(1.97)
36
(1.42)
32
(1.26)
33
(1.3)
621
(24.45)
Avg. rainy days 7 7 11 16 17 18 15 13 13 13 12 9 151
Avg. snowy days 14 15 10 3 0.03 0 0 0 0 1 7 13 63
 % humidity 83 81 75 69 69 71 71 73 75 79 84 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65 75 123 162 219 233 247 246 188 141 68 53 1,820
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: NOAA(sun only)[14]

Government and subdivisions[edit]

Chernivtsi is the administrative center of the Chernivtsi Oblast (province) and the city itself has own government within the oblast under direct subordination to oblast.

The territory of Chernivtsi is divided into three administrative city raions (districts):

No. Name in Ukrainian Population
1 Pershotravnevy Raion Першотравневий район 69,370
2 Sadhora Raion Садгірський район 28,227
3 Shevchenko Raion[15] Шевченківський район 139,094

The mayor of Chernivtsi is Mykola Fedoruk, who has held the position since 1994.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1775 2,300 —    
1794 5,000 +117.4%
1832 11,000 +120.0%
1869 34,000 +209.1%
1890 54,200 +59.4%
1910 87,100 +60.7%
1930 112,400 +29.0%
1941 78,800 −29.9%
1970 187,000 +137.3%
1984 238,000 +27.3%
1989 295,000 +23.9%
2001 240,600 −18.4%
2005 242,300 +0.7%
2011 253,843 +4.8%
2013 259,897 +2.4%

According to the latest All-Ukrainian population census in 2001, the population of Chernivtsi was approximately 240,600 people of 65 nationalities.[4] Among them, 189,000 (79.8%) are Ukrainians; 26,700 (11.3%) Russians; 10,500 (4.4%) Romanians; 3,800 (1.6%) Moldovans; 1,400 (0.6%) Polish; 1,300 (0.6%) Jews; 2,900 (1.2%) other nationalities.[7]

Based on the last available Soviet data, the population of the city, as of January 1, 1989, was approximately 295,000 residents. Among these, there are some 172,000 Ukrainians, 46,000 Russians, 16,000 Romanians, 13,000 Moldovans, 7,000 Poles and others.

The Romanian population in Chernivtsi started decreasing rapidly after 1950. Many Romanians fled to Romania or were deported to Siberia (where most of them died), and the remaining Romanian population quickly became a minority and assimilated with the majority. Nowadays, the Romanian minority in Chernivtsi is still decreasing as a result of cultural assimilation and emigration to Romania.[citation needed]

Chernivtsi once had a Jewish community of over 50,000, less than a third of whom survived World War II. Romanian lawyer and reserve officer Theodor Criveanu, as well as the then city mayor Traian Popovici, supported by General Vasile Ionescu saved 19,689 Jewish people. Initially, Governor of Bukovina Corneliu Calotescu allowed only 190 Jewish people to stay, but Traian Popovici, after an incredible effort, obtained from the then dictator of Romania Marshal Ion Antonescu an allowance of 20,000.[16] After World War II, the city was a key node in the Berihah network, which helped Jews to emigrate to the then Mandate Palestine from the difficult conditions after the War. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the majority of the remaining Jewish population emigrated to Israel and the United States. A famous member of this latter emigration is the actress Mila Kunis.[17]

Chernivtsi was inhabited by Ukrainians, Romanians, Poles, Ruthenians, Jews, Roma, and Germans. During its affiliation with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Chernivtsi enjoyed prosperity and culture as the capital of the Bukovina crown land. After the World War II, the Shoah and Porajmos, and the resettlement and expulsion of the whole ethnic groups, including Germans and Romanians, this status was diminished. Today, the Ukrainians are the dominant population group.

Chernivtsi's change in demographic diversity is demonstrated by the following population statistics. Once, Romanians and Ukrainians formed the majority of the population. However, after 1870, Yiddish- or German-speaking Jews surpassed the Romanians as the largest population group of the town. After 1880, the Ukrainians surpassed the Romanians as the second largest population group.[citation needed]

Jews in Chernivtsi
according to Austrian-Hungarian Census[18]
Year total pop. Jews  % Jews
1857 ca. 22,000 4,678 21.6%
1869 ca. 34,000 9,552 28.2%
1880 ca. 46,000 14,449 31.7%
1890 ca. 54,000 17,359 32.0%
1900 ca. 68,000 21,587 31.9%
1910 ca. 87,000 28,613 32.8%
Chernivtsi (City) Chernivtsi (Suburbs)
Year Romanians Ukrainians Romanians Ukrainians
1860 9,177 4,133 20,068 6,645
1870 5,999 5,831 28,315 35,011
1880 6,431 8,232 8,887 23,051
1890 7,624 10,385 11,433 34,067
1900 9,400 13,030 13,252 25,476
1910 13,440 15,254 18,060 22,351

Culture[edit]

Architecture[edit]

There are many places which attract citizens of Chernivtsi and the visitors: Drama Theatre, Regional Philharmonic Society, Organ and Chamber Music Hall, puppet-theatre, Museum of Local Lore, History and Economy, Museum of Fine Arts, Bukovynian Diaspora Museum, Museum of Folk Architecture and Way of Life, memorial museums of writers, the Central Palace of Culture.

Theatre Square of Chernivtsi

The city of Chernivtsi has a lot of architecturally important buildings. Many historic buildings have been preserved, especially within the city's center. However, after years of disrepair and neglect, the buildings are in need of major restoration.[citation needed]

As Chernivsti was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was closely related to the empire's culture, including architecture.[citation needed] Main architectural styles present within the city include Vienna Secession and Neoclassicism, Baroque, late Gothic architecture, and fragments of traditional Moldavian and Hungarian architecture, Byzantine architecture as well as Cubism.[19] The city is sometimes dubbed Little Vienna, because its architecture is reminiscent of the Austro-Hungarian capital Vienna.[1][2]

Central Square of Chernivtsi

The main architectural attractions of the city include: the Chernivtsi Drama Theater (1905); the Chernivtsi UniversityUNESCO World Heritage Site (1882); the Regional Museum of Fine Arts—the former savings bank (1900); the Regional Council—former Palace of Justice (1906); and the Chernivtsi Palace of Culture—former Jewish National House (1908); among many others. The magnificent Moorish Revival Czernowitz Synagogue was heavily damaged by fire in 1941, the walls were used to create the "Chernivtsi" movie theater.[citation needed]

Chernivtsi University

The Czech architect Josef Hlávka designed, in 1864–1882, the buildings that currently house the Chernivtsi State University. They were originally the residence of the Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans. The Romanesque and Byzantine architecture is embellished with motifs of Ukrainian folk art; for example, the tile roof patterns duplicate the geometric designs of traditional Ukrainian embroidery.

Education[edit]

Sports[edit]

The most popular kinds of sports in Chernivtsi include arching, judo, field hockey, karate, power-lifting and orienteering.[20] Chernivtsi's baseball, hockey, and football clubs (FC Bukovyna Chernivtsi) are participants of the Ukrainian national championships.

Chernivtsi has a large number of sports establishments and facilities, including 5 stadiums, 186 sports grounds, 2 tennis courts, 11 football fields, 5 skating rinks, 21 shooting galleries, 3 swimming pools, 69 gyms, 62 gyms with special training equipment and an international motorcycle racing track.[20]

Over 7,950 inhabitants are members of sport clubs within the city, and more than 50,000 people participate in various sport activities.[20] Currently, 8 sportsmen from the city are the members of national teams and 12 are members of national youth teams.[20] 3 athletes from Chernivtsi were prize-winners in various world tournaments, 2 were winners of European and 42 of national championships in 2002.[20]

Chernivtsi has been host to the Sidecross World Championship a number of times,[21] most recently in June 2010.[22]

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Air[edit]

Chernivtsi is served by the Chernivtsi International Airport (CWC) located south of the city centre.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns—Sister cities[edit]

Chernivtsi is twinned with:

Country City/Town County / District / Region / State
Austria Austria AUT Klagenfurt COA.svg Klagenfurt Flag of Carinthia (state).svg Carinthia
Canada Canada Saskatoon Flag.svg Saskatoon Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan
Israel Israel Nazareth Illit COA.png Nazareth Illit North District
Poland Poland POL Konin COA.svg Konin POL powiat koniński COA.svg Konin County
Romania Romania ROU Suceava COA.png Suceava Actual Suceava county CoA.png Suceava County, Bucovina
Romania Romania Actual Iasi CoA.png Iași Actual Iasi county CoA.svg Iași County, Moldavia
Russia Russia Flag of Podolsk (Moscow oblast).png Podolsk[23] Flag of Moscow Oblast.png Moscow District
United States United States Salt Lake City Flag of Utah.svg Utah

Notable people[edit]

Natives[edit]

Residents[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Bukovyna Week in Austria". Den. Zhytariuk, Natalia. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  2. ^ a b c "Bukovina. The beech tree land". Ukraine Cognita. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  3. ^ Чернівецька міська рада (Chernivtsi City Council)
  4. ^ a b About number and composition population of CHERNIVTSI REGION by data All-Ukrainian Population Census '2001 at the Wayback Machine (archived December 26, 2005)
  5. ^ "Trypillya — a culture that was contemporaneous with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia". Welcome to Ukraine. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  6. ^ "City of Chernivtsi – History". The Komkon Site. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  7. ^ a b c "History". Chernivtsi City Official Site. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  8. ^ (Romanian) Cetatea Ţeţina – Cernăuţi, Astra, 3 (13), 1998
  9. ^ (Romanian)Cernăuţi-600 de ani de atestare documentară internă, Astra, 4 (54), 2008, p.3
  10. ^ "Chernivtsi". Ukrainian heraldry. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  11. ^ Ion Lihaciu, Czernowitz 1848-1948. Das kulturelle Leben einer Provinzmetropole, Parthenon Verlag, Kaiserslautern und Mehlingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-942994-00-2
  12. ^ a b "Bukovina". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  13. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  14. ^ "CERNOVCY Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  15. ^ The raion was formerly named Lenin Raion. The raion was renamed in accordance with the Rivne Oblast Council's decision. [1]
  16. ^ "Righteous Among the Nations Ceremony from Romania Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 2009-04-21. [dead link]
  17. ^ Міла Куніс зіграє у трилері "Чорний лебідь", Gazeta.ua (August 13, 2009) (Ukrainian)
  18. ^ Ergebnisse der Volkszählungen der K. K. Statistischen Central-Kommission u.a., in: Anson Rabinbach: The Migration of Galician Jews to Vienna. Austrian History Yearbook, Volume XI, Berghahn Books/Rice University Press, Houston 1975, S. 46/47 (Table III)
  19. ^ "Sport & Tourism II". Chernivtsi City Official Site. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  20. ^ a b c d e "Sport & Tourism". Chernivtsi City Official Site. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  21. ^ VENUES USED IN GP 1971–2005 The John Davy Pages, accessed: 2 November 2009
  22. ^ FIM Sidecarcross World Championship—2010 Calendar FIM website, accessed: 30 October 2009
  23. ^ "Podolsk sister cities". Translate.google.com. Retrieved 2010-04-29. 
  24. ^ Ukrainian Jews, Bible Discovered
  25. ^ (Ukrainian) Міла Куніс зіграє у трилері ”Чорний лебідь”, Gazeta.ua (August 13, 2009)
  26. ^ 'EXTRACT' STAR MILA KUNIS ON HER RUSSIAN ROOTS on YouTube

External links[edit]