Departments of France
This article is part of the series on
Administrative divisions of France
(incl. overseas regions)
(incl. overseas departments)
Others in Overseas France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (French: département, pronounced: [depaʁtəmɑ̃]) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the region and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, which also are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 342 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the latter two have no autonomy and are used for the organisation of public services and sometimes elections.
France's departments are administered by elected general councils (conseil général) and their presidents, whose main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school (collège) buildings and technical staff, of local roads and school and rural buses, and a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the State administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; however, regions have gained importance in this regard since the 2000s, with some department-level services merged into region-level services.
The departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces in view of strengthening national unity; almost all of them are therefore named after rivers, mountains or coasts rather than after historical or cultural territories, unlike regions, and some of them are commonly referred to by their two-digit postal code number, which was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates. They have inspired similar divisions in many of France's former colonies.
In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish general councils by 2020, which would maintain the departments as administrative divisions, but transfer their powers to other levels of governance.
- 1 History
- 2 General characteristics
- 3 Future
- 4 Maps and tables
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées (Bridges and Highways) infrastructure administration.
Before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties.
The modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure. Their boundaries served two purposes:
- Boundaries were deliberately chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation.
- Boundaries were set so that any settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after an area's principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine.
The number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire (see Provinces of the Netherlands for the annexed Dutch departments). Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size; the number of departments was reduced to 86, as three of the original departments had been split. In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department. The 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order.
The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle, Vosges and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin remained French, however, and became known as the Territoire de Belfort, and the remaining parts of Meurthe and Moselle were merged into a new Meurthe-et-Moselle department. When France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not reintegrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department. Likewise, the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original limits, and a new Moselle department was created on the regained territory, with slightly different limits than the pre-war department of the same name.
The reorganisation of Île-de-France (1968) and the division of Corsica (1975) added six more departments, raising the total to 96. Counting the five overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion and Mayotte) the total comes to 101 departments. In 2011, the overseas collectivity of Mayotte became the 101st department.
The departmental seat of government is known as the prefecture (préfecture) or chef-lieu de département and is generally a city of some importance roughly at the geographical centre of the department. This was determined according to the time taken to travel on horseback from the periphery of the department. The goal was for the prefecture to be accessible by horseback from any town in the department within 24 hours. The prefecture is not necessarily the largest city in the department; for instance, in Saône-et-Loire department the capital is Mâcon, but the largest city is Chalon-sur-Saône. Departments are divided into one or more arrondissements. The capital of an arrondissement is called a subprefecture (sous-préfecture) or chef-lieu d'arrondissement.
Each department is administered by a general council (conseil général), an assembly elected for six years by universal suffrage, with the president of the council as executive of the department. Before 1982, the executive of a department was the prefect (préfet) who represents the Government of France in each department and is appointed by the President of France. The prefect is assisted by one or more sub-prefects (sous-préfet) based in the subprefectures of the department.
The departments are further divided into communes, governed by municipal councils. As of 2013, there were 36,681 communes in France. In the overseas territories, some communes play a role at departmental level. Paris, the country’s capital city, is a commune as well as a department.
In continental France (metropolitan France, excluding Corsica), the median land area of a department is 5,965 km2 (2,303 sq mi), which is two-and-a-half times the median land area of a ceremonial county of England & Wales and slightly more than three-and-half times the median land area of a county of the United States. At the 2001 census, the median population of a department in continental France was 511,012 inhabitants, which is 21 times the median population of a U.S. county, but less than two-thirds of the median population of a ceremonial county of England & Wales. Most of the departments have an area of between 4,000 and 8,000 km², and a population between 320,000 and 1 million. The largest in area is Gironde (10,000 km²), while the smallest is the city of Paris (105 km²). The most populous is Nord (2,550,000) and the least populous is Lozère (74,000).
The departments are numbered: their two-digit numbers appear in postal codes, in INSEE codes (including "social security numbers") and on vehicle number-plates. Initially, the numbers corresponded to the alphabetical order of the names of the departments, but several changed their names, so the correspondence became less exact. There is no number 20, but 2A and 2B instead, for Corsica. Corsican postal codes or addresses in both departments do still start with 20, though. The two-digit code "98" is used by Monaco. Together with the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code FR, the numbers form the ISO 3166-2 country subdivision codes for the metropolitan departments. The overseas departments get three digits—e.g., 971 for Guadeloupe (see table below).
Originally, the relationship between the departments and the central government was left somewhat ambiguous. While citizens of each department elected their own officials, the local governments were subordinated to the central government, becoming instruments of national integration. By 1793, however, the revolutionary government had turned the departments into transmission belts for policies enacted in Paris. With few exceptions, the departments had this role until the early 1960s.
These maps cannot be used as a useful resource of voter preferences, because General Councils are elected on a two-round system, which drastically limits the chances of fringe parties, for as long as they are not supported on one of the two rounds by a moderate party. After the 1992 election, the left had a majority in only 21 of the 100 departments; after the 2011 election, the left dominated 61 of the 100 departments (Mayotte only became a department after the election).
Key to the parties:
- Divers Centre = Independents of the Centre or Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate)
- Divers Droite (DVD) = Independent conservatives
- Divers Gauche (DVG) = Independent left-wing politicians
- MPF = Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France) (right)
- Nouveau Centre = New Centre (centre or centre-right)
- PCF = French Communist Party (Parti Communiste Français)
- PRG = Radical Party of the Left (Parti Radical de Gauche)
- PS = Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste)
- UDF = Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française) succeeded by Democratic Movement
- UMP = Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire)
The removal of one or more levels of local government has been discussed for some years; in particular, the option of removing the departmental level. Frédéric Lefebvre, spokesman for the UMP, said in December 2008 that the fusion of the departments with the regions was a matter to be dealt with soon. This was soon refuted by Édouard Balladur and Gérard Longuet, members of the Committee for the reform of local authorities, known as the Balladur Committee.
Nevertheless, the Balladur Committee has not retained this proposition and does not advocate the disappearance of the departments, but simply "favors the voluntary grouping of departments," which it suggests also for the regions, with the aim of bringing the number of the latter down to fifteen. This committee advocates, on the contrary, the suppression of the cantons.
Maps and tables
Each department has a coat of arms with which they are commonly associated, but not all are officially recognized or used. In some departments they are used, but in others a logo or emblem is used.
Former departments of the current territory of France
|Department||Prefecture||Dates in existence|
|Rhône-et-Loire||Lyon||1790–1793||Split into Rhône and Loire on 12 August 1793.|
|Corsica||Bastia||1790–1793||Split into Golo and Liamone.|
|Golo||Bastia||1793–1811||Reunited with Liamone into Corsica.|
|Liamone||Ajaccio||1793–1811||Reunited with Golo into Corsica.|
|Mont-Blanc||Chambéry||1792–1815||Formed from part of the Duchy of Savoy, a territory of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia and was restored to Piedmont-Sardinia after Napoleon's defeat. The department corresponds approximately with the present French departments Savoie and Haute-Savoie.|
|Léman||Geneva||1798–1814||Formed when the Republic of Geneva was annexed into the First French Empire. Geneva was added to territory taken from several other departments to create Léman. The department corresponds with the present Swiss canton and parts of the present French departmentsAin and Haute-Savoie.|
|Meurthe||Nancy||1790–1871||Meurthe ceased to exist following the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by the German Empire in 1871 and was not recreated after the province was restored to France by the Treaty of Versailles.|
|Seine||Paris||1790–1967||On 1 January 1968, Seine was divided into four new departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Val-de-Marne (the last incorporating a small amount of territory from Seine-et-Oise as well).|
|Seine-et-Oise||Versailles||1790–1967||On 1 January 1968, Seine-et-Oise was divided into four new departments: Yvelines, Val-d'Oise, Essonne, Val-de-Marne (the last largely comprising territory from Seine).|
|Corsica||Ajaccio||1811–1975||On 15 September 1975, Corsica was divided in two, to form Corse-du-Sud and Haute-Corse.|
|Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon||Saint-Pierre||1976–1985||Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon was an overseas department from 1976 until it was converted to an overseas collectivity on 11 June 1985.|
Departments of French Algeria
Departments in former French colonies
|Department||Modern-day location||Dates in existence|
|Département du Sud||Hispaniola
(Dominican Republic and Haiti)
|Département de l'Inganne (Mostly in Dominican Republic with eastern part of Haiti)||1795–1800|
|Département du Nord||1795–1800|
|Département de l'Ouest||1795–1800|
|Département de Samana (In Dominican Republic)||1795–1800|
|Sainte-Lucie||Saint Lucia, Tobago||1795–1800|
|Île de France||Mauritius, Rodrigues, Seychelles||1795–1800|
|Indes-Orientales||Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon, Mahé and Chandernagore||1795–1800|
Departments of the Napoleonic Empire in Europe
|Current location1||Contemporary location2||Dates in existence|
|Mont-Terrible||Porrentruy||Switzerland||Holy Roman Empire:||1793–1800|
|Corcyre||Corfou||Corfu||Greece||Republic of Venice4||1797–1799|
|Mont-Tonnerre||Mayence||Mainz||Germany||Holy Roman Empire:||1801–1814|
|Rhin-et-Moselle||Coblence||Koblenz||Holy Roman Empire:||1801–1814|
|Holy Roman Empire:||1801–1814|
|Holy Roman Empire:||1801–1814|
|Doire||Ivrée||Ivrea||Italy||Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia||1802–1814|
|Apennins||Chiavari||Republic of Genoa7||1805–1814|
|Arno||Florence||Grand Duchy of Tuscany8||1808–1814|
|Taro||Parme||Parma||Holy Roman Empire:||1808–1814|
|Simplon||Sion||Switzerland||République des Sept Dizains11||1810–1814|
|Bouches-de-la-Meuse||La Haye||The Hague||Netherlands||Dutch Republic:10||1811–1814|
|Ems-Oriental||Aurich||Germany||Holy Roman Empire:||1811–1814|
|Bouches-de-l'Elbe||Hamburg||Hamburg||Germany||Holy Roman Empire:||1811–1814|
|Bouches-du-Weser||Brême||Bremen||Holy Roman Empire:||1811–1814|
|Ems-Supérieur||Osnabrück||Holy Roman Empire:||1811–1814|
|Lippe12||Munster||Münster||Holy Roman Empire:||1811–1814|
|Bouches-de-l'Èbre||Lérida||Lleida||Spain||Kingdom of Spain:||1812–1813|
|Bouches-de-l'Èbre-Montserrat||Barcelone||Barcelona||Previously the departments of Bouches-de-l'Èbre and Montserrat||1813–1814|
|Sègre-Ter||Gérone||Girona||Previously the departments of Sègre and Ter||1813–1814|
Notes for Table 7:
- Where a Napoleonic department was composed of parts from more than one country, the nation-state containing the prefecture is listed. Please expand this table to list all countries containing significant parts of the department.
- Territories that were a part of Austrian Netherlands were also a part of Holy Roman Empire.
- The Bishopric of Basel was a German Prince-Bishopric, not to be confused with the adjacent Swiss Canton of Basel.
- The territories of the Republic of Venice were lost to France, becoming the Septinsular Republic, a nominal vassal of the Ottoman Empire, from 1800–07. After reverting to France at the Treaty of Tilsit, these territories then became a British protectorate, as the United States of the Ionian Islands
- Maastricht was a condominium of the Dutch Republic and the Bishopric of Liège.
- On 6 June 1805, as a result of the annexation of the Ligurian Republic (the puppet successor state to the Republic of Genoa), Tanaro was abolished and its territory divided between the departments of Marengo, Montenotte and Stura.
- Before becoming the department of Apennins, the Republic of Genoa was converted to a puppet successor state, the Ligurian Republic.
- Before becoming the department of Arno, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany was converted to a puppet successor state, the Kingdom of Etruria.
- Rome was known as the department du Tibre until 1810.
- Before becoming the departments of Bouches-du-Rhin, Bouches-de-l'Escaut, Bouches-de-la-Meuse, Bouches-de-l'Yssel, Ems-Occidental, Frise, Yssel-Supérieur and Zuyderzée, these territories of the Dutch Republic were converted to a puppet successor state, the Batavian Republic (1795–1806), then those territories that had not already been annexed (all except the first two departments here), along with the Prussian County of East Frisia, were converted to another puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland.
- Before becoming the department of Simplon, the République des Sept Dizains was converted to a revolutionary République du Valais (16 March 1798) which was swiftly incorporated (1 May 1798) into the puppet Helvetic Republic until 1802 when it became the independent Rhodanic Republic.
- In the months before Lippe was formed, the arrondissements of Rees and Münster were part of Yssel-Supérieur, the arrondissement of Steinfurt was part of Bouches-de-l'Yssel and the arrondissement of Neuenhaus was part of Ems-Occidental.
- "La fusion département-région n'est pas à l'ordre du jour". L'Express. Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- This is stated in the title of the section dealing with "Decision 260" on page 197 of the Report of the Attali Commission (French)
- "Les 20 propositions du Comité (20 propositions of the Committee)" (in French). Committee for the reform of local authorities. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
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