Dorbet Oirat

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Dörbets
Regions with significant populations
 Mongolia 72,403[1]
Languages
Oirat
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Kalmyks, Oirats, Mongols

The Dörbet (Mongolian: Дөрвөд, Dörvöd, ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳ, lit. "the Fours"; Chinese: 杜尔伯特部; pinyin: Dù'ěrbótè Bù) is the second largest subgroup of the Mongol people in modern Mongolia and was one of the major tribes of the Four Oirat confederation in the 15th-18th centuries. In early times, the Dörbet and the Zunghars were ruled by collateral branches of the Choros. The Dörbets are distributed among the western provinces of Mongolia, Kalmykia, and in a small portion in Heilongjiang, China. In Mongolia, the Dörbets are centered in Uvs Province.

History[edit]

A banquet given by the Emperor for the Dörbet leaders in 1754.

A Dörben clan of Duwa Sohor's four sons existed within the Khamag Mongol confederation in the 12th century; but their relation with the Dörbets is unclear. However, the Dörbets appeared in the early 15th century as part of the Four Oirats.The name probably means "döröv"; "four" (Middle Mongolian: dörbe).

In the 17th century, the leader of Dörbets was Dalai Taishi (d.1637). In order to unite the Oirats, Dalai Taishi used the method of marriage of convenience; Dalai Taishi and Khoshut leader Güshi Khan married the Torghut and Kho Orluk sisters.[2] During the Dalai Taishi period (circa 1625), the Oirat tribes lived in harmony.

In 1616, Dalai Taishi established diplomatic relations with the Tsardom of Russia. The next year Dalai Taishi's son Solom Tseren joined the Kalmyks on the Volga with 4,000 households. In 1699 a body of the Dörbets joined the Don Cossacks, eventually becoming the Buzava Kalmyks. Trapped west of the Volga, the Do'rbets could not join the 1771 flight of the Torguds, and hence dominated the remaining Kalmyks. In the early 19th century, they had split into the Lesser Dörbets, living in northern Kalmykia and the Greater Dörbets, living around Lake Manych-Gudilo.

Meanwhile, the Dörbets in the Oirat homeland remained major tribe of the Zunghars. In 1753 three chiefs of them submitted to the Qing Dynasty. They were resettled first in Bayankhongor Province, and then in Uvs Province in 1759. They formed into 16 banners of the Sain Zayaatu Leagues. The Dörbets nobility's 15,000 subjects included Bayids and a small number of Khotongs.

From the 1880s, the Khalkha influenced Dörbets socio-economic trends. The Kalmyk Dambijantsan headed the anti-communist disturbances; and separatist feeling had remained strong until 1930's.

Number[edit]

The Dörbets in Mongolia numbered 55,200 in 1989. In 2000 - 66 706.[3]

Notable people[edit]

Puntsagiin Ulaankhuu, former vice minister of Agriculture

References[edit]