Dębowiec, Cieszyn County
|— Village —|
|Area||13.17 km2 (5.08 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 ( 350/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Dębowiec [ˈdɛ̃bɔviɛts] ( listen) (German: Baumgarten, Czech: Dubovec) is a village and the seat of Gmina Dębowiec, Cieszyn County in Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has an area of 13.17 square kilometres (5.08 sq mi) and a population of 1,772 (2007).
It lies on the geographical border between Silesian Foothills, Ostrava Basin and Oświęcim Basin, on the Knajka river, left tributary of the Vistula, in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. Along Knajka river there are located many fish ponds.
The village was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as Dambonczal. It belonged then to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290. Along ethnically Polish citizens an unknown number of German settlers arrived and gave the common village a German name Baumgarten. The local Catholic parish of Saint Margaret was mentioned in 1335. During Protestant Reformation many of the local citizens changed their denomination to Lutheranism and took over the local church. It was returned to Catholics in 1654. In 15 March 1793 the village was bought from Marklowscy noble family by Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen. In 1807 the first school in Dębowiec was opened, before that the local children attended to school in Simoradz. In the years 1854-1856 new bricked church was built, which replaced old wooden church. Lutherans built a cemetery chapel in 1912. New building of the school was opened in 1908, to celebrate 60 years of the rules of Franz Joseph I of Austria.
According to the Austrian census of 1910 the village had 984 inhabitants, 977 of whom had permanent residence there. The census asked people their native language, and results show that 968 (98.4%) were Polish-speaking, 8 (0.8%) were German-speaking and 1 (0.1%) was Czech-speaking. The dominant religious groups were Roman Catholics with 560 (56.9%), followed by Protestants with 417 (42.4%) and the Jews with 7 (0.7%).
At the beginnings of the 20th century methane was found in the village. Its explosion in 1911 caused a fire lasting few days.
After German invasion of Poland in 1939 it was annexed by Nazi Germany. During the night between 15th and 16 February in 1941 the first elite special-operations paratroops called Cichociemni parachuted above Dębowiec. It was because of the mistake of navigator and a lack of fuel, originally they intended to land somewhere around Włoszczowa.
- I. Panic, 2010, p. 331
- I. Panic, 2010, p. 398
- Ludwig Patryn (ed): Die Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1910 in Schlesien, Troppau 1912.
- Londzin, Józef (1932). Kościoły drewniane na Śląsku Cieszyńskim. Cieszyn: Dziedzictwo błog. Jana Sarkandra. pp. 60–70. OCLC 297540848.
- Panic, Idzi (2010). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. ISBN 978-83-926929-3-5.
- (Polish) Official website of the gmina
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