DB Schenker Rail (UK)

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EWS redirects here. For other uses, see EWS (disambiguation)
DB Schenker Rail (UK)
Industry Rail freight
Predecessors Loadhaul
Mainline Freight
Rail Express Systems
Railfreight Distribution
Transrail Freight
Founded 1995
Headquarters Doncaster, England
Area served United Kingdom
Key people Edward Burkhardt (Chairman & CEO 1995-1999)[1]
Keith Heller (CEO / Co-chairman) 2004-2010[2][3]
Alain Thauvette CEO[4]
Services Bulk freight and intermodal logistics
Owners Deutsche Bahn
Parent DB Schenker
Subsidiaries Euro Cargo Rail
Axiom Rail
Website www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk

DB Schenker Rail (UK), before 2009 known as English, Welsh & Scottish Railway (EWS), is a British rail freight company headquartered in Doncaster, England.

The company was founded in 1995 as North and South Railways by a consortium led by Wisconsin Central Transportation Corporation, and backed by private equity firms, and was renamed EWS the following year. It acquired of five of the six freight companies sold during the privatisation of British Rail,[note 1] becoming the UK market leader in rail freight transportation.

In November 2007, EWS was sold to Deutsche Bahn, and in January 2009 rebranded as DB Schenker.



In 1988, British Rail's freight operations were split into two divisions Railfreight Distribution (RfD) and Trainload Freight (TLF).[5] RfD was formed from British Rail's Speedlink and Freightliner services and general wagonload and trainload services, excluding bulk coal, petroleum, aggregates and metals.[6] BR's bulk trainload services were handled by the Trainload Freight division.[7][8] In 1991 the Rail Express Systems brand was created, which handled mail and postal services.[9]

After the passing of the Railways Act 1993 five rail freight companies were created from RfD and TLF.[5][10] On 1 April 1994 TLF was split into three separate geographical businesses: Trainload North East, Trainload West and Trainload South East, with each initially given existing contracts based on the geographic origin of the trainflow, plus some contract trainload services previously handled by RfD.[11][12] which were later renamed Loadhaul, Mainline Freight and Transrail Freight.[12][13] The remainder of RfD was split into two companies: Freightliner (container operations between ports), with the residual RfD company operating freight trains through the Channel Tunnel.[5] The Mail and Parcels business were sold as Rail Express Systems and Red Star Parcels.[10]

These companies were subsequently put up for sale by competitive tender.[14]

English, Welsh & Scottish Railway[edit]

EWS liveried class 66 and coal wagons near Tupton, Derbyshire in May 2011

To bid for the ex-BR businesses being offered for sale North and South Railways Limited was formed.[15] It was owned by a consortium headed by Wisconsin Central,[5][16] with additional financing provided by the financial sector including Berkshire Partners, Goldman Sachs and Fay Richwhite.[17]

The company's first acquisition was that of Rail Express Systems on 9 December 1995, for £24.2 million.[18][19] With this came the contract for the Royal Mail train service, including the Travelling Post Office trains; the contract was one of the most profitable obtained by the company.[20] Then, on 24 February 1996, British Rail's three trainload freight companies - Loadhaul, Mainline Freight and Transrail Freight - were acquired for a total of £225 million.[18][19]

All four companies were subsequently merged into North and South Railways,[21] nullifying the government effort to create multiple competitive rail freight firms through the privatisation;[22] the decision to allow the creation of a rail freight company with a dominant market position was justified through the additional competition faced from other transport modes.[16][23] Initially, the four companies continued to trade under their existing names. On 25 April 1996, the EWS brand was unveiled.[24] On 10 July 1996 the holding company's name was changed to English, Welsh & Scottish Railway Holdings Limited.[15] In October 1996, Loadhaul and Mainline Freight were merged with Transrail Freight, and employees tranferred to Transrail Freight, which was then renamed to English Welsh & Scottish Railway Limited.[25]

One of the first actions of the enlarged company was to seek volunteers for redundancy, as it sought to reduce staff numbers by around 3,000, from 7,600.[26]

On 22 November 1997 EWS took over the loss-making Railfreight Distribution, for which it received grants and subsidies estimated to amount to £242 million over eight years,[27] including subsidies for the use of the Channel Tunnel.[28] Railfreight Distribution's businesses included international containerised freight, movement of cars and automotive components by rail, and freight services for the Ministry of Defence. At the time of the takeover, it had 150 locomotives including the specialised Class 92 locomotives for the Channel Tunnel, and was making a yearly loss of around £65 million.[27] The sale was concluded on 12 March 1997.[29] Railfreight Distribution was renamed English, Welsh & Scottish Railway International Ltd on 1 December 1998.[21][30]

The new company had over 900 locomotives and 19,000 freight wagons, and 7,000 employees. Track access charges were renegotiated and after 1800 job redundancies the workers involved in profit sharing and other incentivised working plans; as a result shipping rates were reduced by over 30%.[31] Many locomotives inherited on foundation were considered unreliable, and expensive to maintain;[32] the company invested heavily in modernisation of its rolling stock; by 2002 £750 million had been invested,[33] including 280 new locomotives and over 2,000 new wagons.[34][note 2]

EWS's services included mail, locomotive hire, wagonload traffic (branded 'Enterprise', founded by Transrail Freight), cross channel trains via the Channel Tunnel, trainload freight including oil, aggregates, cement and traffic related to the coal, electricity generation and steel industries, and infrastructure trains for Railtrack.[35] Additionally, in the decade following privatisation EWS began to compete for container traffic contracts,[note 3] and its competitor Freightliner Group also entered into competition for trainload freight, as did DRS (a subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels) which was initially set up to move radioactive materials by rail.[36] EWS's turnover in 1999 was £533.7 million (an 80% market share by value) with a profit of £32.8 million.[37]

On 1 April 1998, open access operator National Power's rail division was taken over with six Class 59 locomotives and 106 wagons. [38][34]

In January 2001, the Canadian National Railway announced it had agreed to purchase Wisconsin Central.[39] The deal, which included Wisconsin Central's 42.5% stake in EWS, was concluded in October 2001.[25]

The contract with Royal Mail was lost in 2003 (switching to road transport), due to cost.[40][41] EWS acquired the assets of wagon bogie company, Probotec Ltd. in 2005,[42][43][note 4] forming it into a new subsidiary, "Axiom Rail".[47]

The French rail freight subsidiary Euro Cargo Rail was founded in 2005.[48] The company began operations in 2006.[49]

By 2006 EWS's turnover was approaching £1 billion, while profit was £14 million.[50] In 2006 the Office of Rail Regulation fined the company £4.1million for anti-competitive practices in the coal haulage business, in which it had held a near monopoly, following complaints by Enron and Freightliner Heavy Haul in 2001 and 2002.[51][52][note 5]

In 2006 EWS acquired wagon maintenance business Marcroft (Stoke on Trent), as a result of the potential of the acquisition to reduce competition in the UK wagon repair market the acquisition was referred to the Competition Commission by the Office of Fair Trading, who required it to sell all or part of the business excluding Marcroft's works at Stoke.[54]

DB Schenker Rail (UK)[edit]

DB Schenker liveried 59206 at the National Railway Museum, York in January 2009

On 28 June 2007, it was announced at a press conference held by Deutsche Bahn (DB), EWS and Spanish rail forwarder Transfesa that DB was to acquire all the shares in EWS as soon as contracts were signed.[55][56] The value of the deal was estimated at £300 million; at the time EWS had a market share of around 70% in the United Kingdom and around 5,000 employees.[57] After the transaction was approved by the European Commissioner for Competition,[58] the sale was completed on 13 November 2007.[59]

At the time of the sale, it was announced that EWS would not be rebranded,[60] but on 1 January 2009, EWS along with Deutsche Bahn's existing freight organisation Railion and freight logistics arm DB Schenker were all re-branded DB Schenker.[61]

As part of a formal launch of the new brand,[note 6] British Rail Class 59 No.59206 was unveiled in full DB Schenker branding at a ceremony at the National Railway Museum in York on 21 January 2009.[63]

In 2009 DB Schenker Rail began work to enable Class 92 hauled trains to operate freight services on the High Speed 1 by installing in cab TVM signalling. The project received funding from the European Commission and it was originally anticipated services would begin in early 2010.[64] On 25 March 2011 for the first time a modified class 92 locomotive travelled from Dollands Moor to Singlewell using the TVM430 signalling system.[65] The first of five planned test trains ran as a loaded container train from Hams Hall, West Midlands to Novara, Italy on 27 May 2011.[66][67] DB planned to upgrade an additional five Class 92 locomotives to allow them to run on High Speed 1, making a fleet of six.[68][69]

In July 2011 a trial run of wagons carrying curtain walled swap bodies built to a larger European loading gauge was run from Dollands Moor, Folkestone to east London.[70] From 11 November 2011 a weekly service using European sized swap bodies has run between Barking, London and Wroclaw, Poland using High Speed 1.[71][72]

Services and rolling stock[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

37411 at Carlisle hauling an Arriva Trains Northern service in August 2004

EWS inherited a fleet of 1,231 locomotives from its British Rail acquisitions.[73][74][75]

In May 1996, an order for 250 Class 66s and 30 Class 67s was placed.[76] These replaced all of the 20, 31, 33, 37, 47, 56, 58 and 86 class locomotives. Through improved utilisation, they also replaced many of the newer 60 and 90 class locomotives.[citation needed]

Several of these redundant locomotives saw further use on infrastructure trains in Europe with Class 37s operated in France (40), Italy (2) and Spain (14),[77][78][79] Class 56s in France (30),[80] and Class 58s in France (19), Holland (3) and Spain (8).[80][81]

EWS gained the attention of the Rail Regulator for scrapping serviceable locomotives rather than making them available for sale to potential competitors.[82]

As well as an extensive fleet of freight wagons, DB Schenker Rail operate a small fleet of Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages. Some of the former are on lease to First ScotRail for use on Fife Circle services,[83] while the latter form the DB Schenker Company Train.[84][85]


DB Schenker's primary maintenance depot is Toton TMD. The electric fleet is maintained at Crewe Electric TMD.[citation needed] With a modern fleet requiring less maintenance, many of the depots EWS inherited have closed.[86] Some of its other facilities including Bristol, Cambridge, Eastleigh and Newcastle have been transferred to fellow Deutsche Bahn subsidiary LNWR.[87]

Locomotive haulage for Passenger services[edit]

67017 hauling a First Great Western service at Bristol Temple Meads in April 2009

Since its inception, EWS has provided locomotives for the Caledonian Sleeper.[88] Class 90s haul the services between Euston station and Edinburgh Waverley/Glasgow Central, where Class 67s takeover, having replaced Class 37 and Class 47s in the early 2000s.[89][90] This work will cease on 31 March 2015.[91]

As of 2014, Class 67s haul passenger services for Arriva Trains Wales,[92] Chiltern Railways[93] and First ScotRail.[90] Class 67s are also used as Thunderbird rescue locomotives for East Coast.[94]

EWs have previously hauled passenger trains for Arriva Trains Northern, First Great Western[95] First North Western,[96] National Express East Anglia, Valley Lines, Virgin CrossCountry[97] Virgin West Coast and Wrexham & Shropshire.[98]

Since its inception, EWS has held the contract to operate the British Royal Train. Initially two Class 47s were dedicated to this work.[99] These were replaced in 2004 by two Class 67s.[100][101]


In April 1996, EWS adopted a maroon and yellow livery.[24] Initial repaints carried EW&S lettering, however this was simplified to EWS in January 1997.[102] In January 2009, the DB Schenker corporate red livery was adopted.[63] A few locomotives have been repainted in other liveries including Class 90s in GNER, First ScotRail and Direct Rail Services liveries, and Class 67s in Royal Train, Wrexham & Shropshire and unbranded Arriva Trains Wales liveries.[103][104]

Former LoadHaul class 60 with EWS transfer sticker (2006) 
Class 60 No.075 in EWS livery (2007) 
EWS road-rail vehicle (2007) 
EWS fuel truck (206) 
Class 66 No.108 in EWS 'zigzag' livery (2004) 
Class 67 No.029 and DVT in EWS company train livery (2009) 
No. 66097 in DB Schenker Livery, EWS 66017 behind (2012) 

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The sixth rail freight company created during privatisation, Freightliner, was privatised through a management buyout.
  2. ^ The main orders were: 250 EMD Series 66 locomotives from GM-EMD built in USA/Canada, 30 JT 42HW-HS from Alstom / Electro Motive Diesel (Spain/USA), and around 2500 wagons from Thrall Car Manufacturing Company, built at the Thrall Europa, York works.
  3. ^ After 2002 began intermodal services from the ports of Felixstowe, Southhampton, and Tilbury.[21]
  4. ^ Probotec was formed 2004 from Powell Duffryn Rail.[44] Powell Duffryn Rail originated as the Cambrian Wagon Company, registered 1905, numerous amalgamations and changes of shareholding, became part of Powell Duffryn in 1935;[45] also acquired the Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon Company in 1986.[46]
  5. ^ Complaints made in 2003 alleging predatory pricing in the passenger charter sector were not upheld.[53]
  6. ^ Previously two EWS locomotives had received DB Schenker branding — including a light blue British Rail Class 60 No.60074 named "Teenage Cancer Trust"[62]


  1. ^ "Edward A. Burkhardt". www.railword.com. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  2. ^ Don Phillips (25 August 2005). "Free Flow: Getting the French on board". www.nytimes.com (New York Times). 
  3. ^ "Keith Heller's contribution to the railway honoured with locomotive naming". www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk. DB Schenker UK. 19 January 2010. 
  4. ^ "Alain Thauvette , Member of the Management Board of DB Schenker Rail (Region West)". www.dbschenker.com. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d Butcher 2011, p. 13.
  6. ^ ECMT 2001, p. 68.
  7. ^ Russ Haywood (2009), Railways, urban development and town planning in Britain: 1948–2008, Ashgate Publishing, p. 150 
  8. ^ Parker 2012, p. 479.
  9. ^ ECMT 2001, p. 67.
  10. ^ a b Parker 2012, pp. 479-480.
  11. ^ "New identities for freight companies", Rail (221), 2 March 1994: 13 
  12. ^ a b ECMT 2001, p. 70.
  13. ^ "New freight identities revealed", Rail (231), 20 July 1994: 8 
  14. ^ Parker 2012, pp. 479-482.
  15. ^ a b DB Schenker Rail (UK) Holdings Limited 03116322, Companies House 
  16. ^ a b Parker 2012, p. 480.
  17. ^ "German rail giant confirms £300m deal for EWS shares", [The Daily Telegraph, 29 June 2007 
  18. ^ a b Hansard HC 1996
  19. ^ a b Sale of RfD 1999, p. 2
  20. ^ Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 67.
  21. ^ a b c Thalmann, Philippe (2004). The dynamics of freight transport development: a UK and Swiss comparison. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 34–36. ISBN 0-7546-3756-5. 
  22. ^ ECMT 2001, p. 88.
  23. ^ Bradshaw, W.P. (2003) [1998], "8. The Rail Industry", in Helm, Dieter; Jenkinson, Tim, Competition in Regulated Industries, p. 187 
  24. ^ a b "Wisconsin unveils its new-look livery", Rail (278), 8 May 1996: 7 
  25. ^ a b ORR 2006, p. 6
  26. ^ Wolmar, Christian (5 April 1996), "Rail freight to slash workforce", www.independent.co.uk (The Independent) 
  27. ^ a b Sale of RfD 1999
  28. ^ Horsman, Matthew (26 December 1996). "BR prefers US firm as freight bidder". www.independent.co.uk (The Independent). 
  29. ^ "RfD sale to EWS formally agreed", Rail (301), 26 March 1997: 10 
  30. ^ "DB Schenker Rail International Limited 3232475", Companies House, retrieved August 2014 
  31. ^ Jay P. Pederson, ed. (1999). "Wisconsin Central Transportation Corporation". International Directory of Company Histories 24. St. James Press. 
  32. ^ Hollingsworth, Brian (2000). "Class 66 Co-Co freight locomotive". Illustrated Directory of Trains of the World. MBI Publishing Company. p. 468. ISBN 0-7603-0891-8. 
  33. ^ House of Commons. Transport Committee, ed. (2003). "Mr Graham Smith, Planning Director and Mr Allen Mardsen, English Welsh & Scottish Railway (EWS) examined". Ports: Oral and written evidence. The Stationery Office. pp. EV 16 – EV 18. 
  34. ^ a b Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 71.
  35. ^ Nash & Fowkes 2004, pp. 67, 69-72, 72-73.
  36. ^ Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 68, 72.
  37. ^ Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 79.
  38. ^ "EWS to acquire National Power's entire rail division from next April", Rail (312), 27 August 1997: 6 
  39. ^ Canadian railway to buy Wisconsin Central New York Times 31 January 2001
  40. ^ Jones, Alan (6 June 2003). "Royal Mail switches post transport from rail to road and air". www.independent.co.uk (The Independent). 
  41. ^ "Mail trains to be scrapped", BBC News, 6 June 2003 
  42. ^ "EWS acquires Probotec", www.worldcargonews.com, May 2005 
  43. ^ "EWS acquires Probotec assets", Logistics & Transport Focus 7 (5), June 2005: 14 
  44. ^ "Industry News in Brief", www.railwaygazette.com, 1 June 2004, " Powell Duffryn Rail [has been] renamed Probotec Ltd, a name 'derived from Professional Bogie Technologies'." 
  45. ^ Burns, Hayden (December 2003; amended January 2005), "Glamorgan Archives - Cambrian Wagon Works Ltd and Powell Duffryn Wagon Co. Ltd records", www.archiveswales.org.uk 
  46. ^ Moody's International Manual 3, 1995: 6792 
  47. ^ "Axiom gets its act together", RAIL (555), 20 December 2006: 42–43 
  48. ^ "Euro Cargo Rail Third Rail Freight Operator in France", www.infrasite.net, 11 April 2005 
  49. ^ Press, Euro Cargo Rail, retrieved Sep 2014 
  50. ^ House of Commons: Transport Committee, ed. (2008). Freight transport: eighth report of session 2007-08. The Stationery Office. p. EV 80. 
  51. ^ Wright, Robert (17 Nov 2006), "Rail regulator fines EWS in competition case", www.ft.com 
  52. ^ ORR 2006, pp. 1-5, §1-17.
  53. ^ English Welsh and Scottish Railway - No. 3/12/2003 - Decision by the Rail Regulator under the Competition Act 1998, Office of Fair Trading 
  54. ^ EWS Railway Holdings Limited / Marcroft Holdings Limited merger inquiry, Competition Commission, 12 September 2006 
  55. ^ "Transport Committee - Written evidence from DB Schenker". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 25 November 2013. "DB Schenker is wholly owned by Deutsche Bahn AG" 
  56. ^ "Deutsche Bahn plans takeover of EWS and Transfesa". Deutsche Bahn. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. 
  57. ^ Alistair Osborne (29 June 2007). "German rail giant confirms £300m deal for EWS shares". www.telegraph.co.uk (The Telegraph). 
  58. ^ Case No COMP/M.4746 – Deutsche Bahn / English Welsh & Socttish Railway Holdings (EWS), Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 6 Nov 2007 
  59. ^ Annual Accounts for 9 months ended 31 December 2007: English Welsh & Scottish Railway Holdings Limited
  60. ^ Falkner, James (29 June 2007). "DB gets go-ahead for rail takeovers". International Freighting Weekly. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. 
  61. ^ "EWS to rebrand as DB Schenker in new year". ifw-net.com. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 4 Oct 2009. 
  62. ^ "Media Center". Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  63. ^ a b "DB Schenker unveils new look for UK rail freight at the National Railway Museum, York". www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk (Press release). DB Schenker. 21 January 2009. 
  64. ^ Sources:
    "Class 92 modifications for HS1 freight". Railway Herald (179): 3. 1 June 2009. 
    "Freight trains set to use High Speed 1". DB Schenker Rail. 16 April 2009. 
  65. ^ "European sized rail freight to arrive in the UK soon, following successful locomotive trial" (Press release). DB Schenker Rail (UK). 25 March 2011. 
  66. ^ "DB Schenker Rail operates first freight train over High Speed 1" (Press release). DB Schenker Rail (UK). 27 May 2011. 
  67. ^ "First freight on High Speed 1". Railway Gazette International (London). 29 May 2011. 
  68. ^ "DB Schenker to upgrade locomotives for High Speed 1 service". Railway Technology.com. 12 December 2011. 
  69. ^ "Locomotives upgraded for European rail freight services on High Speed 1". Press Releases. DB Schenker Rail (UK). 7 October 2011. "investment will give DB Schenker Rail UK a fleet of six High Speed 1 enabled locomotives" 
  70. ^ "DB Schenker Rail operates first European sized freight train over High Speed 1", www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk (DB Schenker Rail (UK)), 27 July 2011 
  71. ^ Katie Silvester (December 2011), "Rail Professional interview: Alain Thauvette", www.railpro.co.uk (Rail Professional) 
  72. ^ "DB Schenker delivers first Poland to UK service", www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk (DB Schenker Rail (UK)), 15 November 2011 
  73. ^ "Confirmed - Wisconsin Central buys Rail express systems", Rail (268), 20 December 1995: 9 
  74. ^ "BR freight is finally sold to Burkhardt", Rail (274), 13 March 1996: 6 
  75. ^ "English Welsh & Scottish set to take over Railfreight Distribution", Rail (296), 15 January 1997: 9 
  76. ^ "EWSR orders 250 new locomotives", Rail (280), 5 June 1996: 6 
  77. ^ "British Beef is Alive and Kicking in France", Rail (371), 1 December 1999: 30–35 
  78. ^ "EWS confirms 37s for its Italian work", Rail (413), 11 July 2001: 56 
  79. ^ "EWS wins 37 Spanish work", Rail (397), 29 November 2000: 15 
  80. ^ a b France wnxx.com
  81. ^ "Class 58 ACTS the part", Rail (489), 9 June 2004: 40–45 
  82. ^ "EWS must sell, not scrap its locomotives says Regulator", Rail (356), 5 May 1999: 12 
  83. ^ "DB Schenker to continue passenger services", Rail (673), 29 June 2011: 36–37 
  84. ^ EWS Executive Train Scot-rail
  85. ^ "EWS to create touring train with four Mk 3s", Rail (489), 9 June 2004: 14 
  86. ^ End of the line for Thornaby Railway Magazine 3 August 2011
  87. ^ Depot integration puts Arriva's LNWR on track for future growth Global Rail News 5 May 2011
  88. ^ EWS awarded Sleeper contract Rail Technology Magazine 1 December 2005
  89. ^ "Highland sleepers awake after five-month break" Rail issue 408 2 May 2001 page 50
  90. ^ a b Class 67 locomotives take to the West Highland Line ScotRail 6 June 2006
  91. ^ "The Sleepers are stirring" Rail issue 756 3 September 2014 page 70
  92. ^ Changeover day North Wales Coast Railway Noticeboard 26 March 2012
  93. ^ Chiltern to employ Vossloh Class 68 power for Mainline services Rail Express 22 August 2014
  94. ^ Thunderbirds are go for rail firm BBC News 25 May 2003
  95. ^ First Great Western Taunton Trains
  96. ^ "More locomotive haulage on North Wales coast", Rail (361), 14 July 1999: 55 
  97. ^ History Riviera Trains
  98. ^ The end of Wrexham & Shropshire North Wales Coast Railway noticeboard 7 February 2011
  99. ^ "Princes charming", Rail (253), 24 May 1995: 4 
  100. ^ "New Royal Train locomotive unveiled", www.ews-railway.co.uk, 18 February 2004, archived from the original on 1 Oct 2006 
  101. ^ "HM The Queen names dedicated Royal Train locomotive at Bristol", www.ews-railway.co.uk, 25 February 2005, archived from the original on 1 Oct 2006 
  102. ^ "Rail reader's EWS logo unveiled at Toton depot", Rail (297), 29 January 1997: 8/9 
  103. ^ "First GNER 90 unveiled", Rail (359), 16 June 1999: 50 
  104. ^ "Operating enhancements for First Scotrail sleeper to be delivered by EWS and Axiom Rail", ews-railway.co.uk, 26 May 2006, archived from the original on 13 June 2006 }


Further reading[edit]

  • Sutton, Philip (August 2007). "Burkhardt on EWS". Rail Express 135: 32–37. 

External links[edit]