Douglas DC-3

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DC-3
Douglas DC-3, SE-CFP.jpg
A DC-3 operated by Scandanavian Airlines in Sweden
Role Airliner and transport aircraft
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
First flight December 17, 1935
Introduction 1936
Status Active service with small carriers
Produced 1936–1942, 1950
Number built 16,079[1]
Unit cost
US$79,500 ($1,367,516 in 2014)[2][3]
Developed from Douglas DC-2
Variants Douglas C-47 Skytrain
Lisunov Li-2
Showa/Nakajima L2D
Basler BT-67
Conroy Turbo Three
Conroy Tri-Turbo-Three

The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner. Its cruise speed (207 mph (333 km/h)) and range (1,500 mi (2,400 km)) revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made.

The major military version of which more than 10,000 were produced was designated the C-47 Skytrain in the USA and the Dakota in the UK.

Many DC-3s and converted C-47s are still in use around the world.

Design and development[edit]

The designation "DC" stands for "Douglas Commercial". The DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines (TWA) to Donald Douglas. TWA's rival in transcontinental air service, United Airlines, was starting service with the Boeing 247 and Boeing refused to sell any 247s to other airlines until United's order for 60 aircraft had been filled.[4] TWA asked Douglas to design and build an aircraft to allow TWA to compete with United. Douglas' design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, and led to the DC-2 in 1934. The DC-2 was a success, but there was room for improvement.

Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 engine of Douglas DC-3 "Flagship Knoxville" of American Airlines[5]

The DC-3 resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, and the prototype DST (for Douglas Sleeper Transport) first flew on December 17, 1935 (the 32nd anniversary of the Wright Brothers' flight at Kitty Hawk). A version with 21 seats instead of the 14-16 sleeping berths[6] of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American.[7]

A former military C-47B of Air Atlantique taking off at RAF Hullavington.

The DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States. Eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U.S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops; westbound trips against the wind took 1712 hours. A few years earlier such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day, coupled with train travel overnight.[8]

A variety of radial engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but later aircraft (and most military versions) used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp which gave better high-altitude and single engine performance. Three DC-3S Super DC-3s with Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasps were built in the late 1940s.

Production[edit]

Total production of all variants was 16,079.[1] More than 400 remained in commercial service in 1998. Production was as follows:

Production of civil DC-3s ended in 1942. Military versions were produced until the end of the war in 1945. A larger, more powerful Super DC-3 was launched in 1949 to positive reviews.The civilian market, however, was flooded with second-hand C-47s, many of which were converted to passenger and cargo versions. Only three Super DC-3s were built and delivered for commercial use the following year. The prototype Super DC-3 served the US Navy with the designation YC-129 alongside 100 R4Ds that had been upgraded to the Super DC-3 specification.

Turboprop conversions[edit]

A BSAS C47–65ARTP powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6-65AR engines, formerly operated by the National Test Pilot School

From the early 1950s, some DC-3s were modified to use Rolls-Royce Dart engines, as in the Conroy Turbo Three. Other conversions featured Armstrong Siddeley Mamba and Pratt & Whitney PT6A turbines.

The Dodson International Turbo Dakota DC-3 is a conversion with an extended fuselage and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65AR engines fitted.[9]

The Basler BT-67 is a conversion of the DC-3/C-47. Basler refurbishes C-47s and DC-3s at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, fitting them with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67R turboprop engines, lengthening the fuselage by 40 in (100 cm) with a fuselage plug ahead of the wing and strengthening the airframe in selected areas.[10]

Braddick Specialised Air Services International PTY Ltd in South Africa is another company able to perform a Pratt & Whitney PT6 turboprop conversion of DC-3s. Over 50 DC-3/C-47s / 65ARTP / 67RTP / 67FTPs have been modified.[11]

Conroy Aircraft also made a three-engined conversion with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 called the Conroy Tri-Turbo-Three.

Operational history[edit]

Douglas C-47B of Aigle Azur (France) in 1953, fitted with a ventral Turbomeca Palas booster jet for hot and high operations.
Air India Douglas DC-3 at London Heathrow Airport in July, 1958
DC-3 on amphibious EDO floats. Sun-n-Fun 2003, Lakeland, Florida, United States
Cathay Pacific inaugurated operations in 1946 with a DC-3 named Betsy, now an exhibit in the Hong Kong Science Museum

American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, N.J. and Chicago, IL.[12] Early U.S. airlines like American, United, TWA and Eastern ordered over 400 DC-3s. These fleets paved the way for the modern American air travel industry, quickly replacing trains as the favored means of long-distance travel across the United States. A nonprofit group, Flagship Detroit Foundation, continues to operate the only original American Airlines Flagship DC-3 with air show and airport visits throughout the U.S.[13]

In 1936, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines received their first DC-3, which replaced the DC-2 in service from Amsterdam via Batavia (now Jakarta) to Sydney, by far the longest scheduled route in the world at the time.

The first airline in Latin America to use DC-3s was Cubana de Aviación, initially placing them in service on domestic routes, and then using them to start their first scheduled international service from Havana to Miami in 1945. This was the first scheduled service to Miami by a Latin American airline. Cubana used DC-3s on some domestic routes well into the 1960s.

Piedmont Airlines operated DC-3/C-47s from 1948 to 1963. A DC-3 painted in the representative markings of Piedmont, operated by the Carolinas Aviation Museum, was retired from flight in March 2011. Both Delta Air Lines and Continental Airlines once operated commemorative DC-3s wearing period markings.

During World War II, many civilian DC-3s were drafted for the war effort and just over 10,000 US military versions of the DC-3 were built, under the designations C-47, C-53, R4D, and Dakota. Peak production was reached in 1944, with 4,853 being delivered. The armed forces of many countries used the DC-3 and its military variants for the transport of troops, cargo, and wounded.

Licensed copies of the DC-3 were built in Japan as Showa L2D (487 aircraft) and in the USSR as the Lisunov Li-2 (4,937 aircraft)[1]

Thousands of surplus C-47s, previously operated by several air forces, were converted for civilian use after the war and became the standard equipment of almost all the world's airlines, remaining in frontline service for many years. The ready availability of cheap, easily maintained ex-military C-47s, both large and fast by the standards of the day, jumpstarted the worldwide postwar air transport industry. While aviation in prewar Continental Europe had used the metric system, the overwhelming dominance of C-47s and other US war-surplus types cemented the use of nautical miles, knots and feet in postwar aviation throughout the world.[citation needed]

Douglas developed an improved version, the Super DC-3, with more engine power, greater cargo capacity and a different wing, but with all the bargain-priced surplus aircraft available, they did not sell well in the civil aviation market. Only five were delivered, three of them to Capital Airlines. The U.S. Navy had 100 of their early R4Ds converted to Super DC-3 standard during the early 1950s as the R4D-8, later C-117D. The last U.S. Navy C-117 was retired July 12, 1976.[14] The last U.S. Marine Corps C-117, serial 50835, was retired from active service during June 1982. Several remained in service with small airlines in North and South America in 2006.[15]

A number of aircraft companies attempted to design a "DC-3 replacement" over the next three decades (including the very successful Fokker F27 Friendship), but no single type could match the versatility, rugged reliability and economy of the DC-3. It remained a significant part of air transport systems well into the 1970s.

Douglas DC-3 today[edit]

A C-47A of Rovos Air in service in South Africa, 2006
This DC-3, operated as a warbird, previously flew for New Zealand's National Airways Corporation between two periods of service in the Royal New Zealand Air Force

There are still small operators with DC-3s in revenue service and as cargo aircraft. The common saying among aviation buffs and pilots is that "the only replacement for a DC-3 is another DC-3". The aircraft's legendary ruggedness is enshrined in the lighthearted description of the DC-3 as "a collection of parts flying in loose formation."[16] Its ability to take off and land on grass or dirt runways makes it popular in developing countries, where runways are not always paved.

Some uses of the DC-3 include aerial spraying, freight transport, passenger service, military transport, missionary flying, skydiving shuttling and sightseeing.

Perhaps unique among prewar aircraft, the DC-3 is in daily use. The very large number of civil and military operators of the DC-3/C-47s and related types, means that a listing of all the airlines, air forces and other current operators is impractical. As of 2012, DC-3 #10 is still used daily for flights in Colombia.[17] Buffalo Airways, based in Canada's Northwest Territories, operates a scheduled DC-3 passenger service between their main base in Yellowknife and Hay River, plus some passenger charter operations, using DC-3s. Some DC-3s are also used by the airline for cargo operations.[18]

The oldest surviving DST is N133D, the sixth Douglas Sleeper Transport built in 1936. This aircraft was delivered to American Airlines on July 12, 1936 as NC16005. The aircraft is at Shell Creek Airport (F13), Punta Gorda, Florida, where it is undergoing restoration. The aircraft will be restored back to Douglas Sleeper Transport standards, and full airworthiness.[19]

The oldest DC-3 still flying is the original American Airlines Flagship Detroit (c/n 1920, #34 off the Santa Monica production line),[20] which can be seen at airshows around the United States and is owned and operated by the nonprofit Flagship Detroit Foundation.[21]

The base price of a new DC-3 in 1936 was around $60-80,000, and by 1960, used examples were available for $75,000.[22]

A 1943 DC-3 was installed as a major design element atop architectural renovations at The Roasterie in Kansas City, Missouri.[23]

Original operators[edit]

Variants[edit]

Fujairah Airlines DC-3 in the late 1960s
DST
Douglas Sleeper Transport, the initial variant, 24 passengers during day and fitted out with 16 sleeper accommodation in the cabin for night.[24]
DC-3
Variant of DST with 21 passenger seats.
DC-3A
Improved DC-3 with two 1,200 hp (895 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-21 radial piston engines.
DC-3B
Improved DC-3 with two Wright R-1820 Cyclone engines.
DC-3C
Designation for ex-military C-47, C-53 and R4D aircraft rebuilt by Douglas Aircraft in 1946, given new manufacturers numbers and sold on the civil market.[25]
DC-3D
Designation for 28 new aircraft completed by Douglas in 1946 using unused components from USAAF C-117s.[26]
TransNorthern Super DC-3 (C-117D) landing at Anchorage, Alaska in 2011
DC-3S
Super DC-3, improved DC-3 with a new wing and tail, and fitted with two Pratt & Whitney R-2000 engines of increased horsepower. Five completed by Douglas for civil use using existing surplus secondhand airframes.[27] Designation also used for examples of the 100 US Navy R4Ds that had been converted by Douglas to this standard as R4D-8s (later C-117Ds), that entered civil use after retirement from the military.[28]
LXD1
A single DC-3 supplied for evaluation by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service.
A Nakajima L2D in US markings captured in Mindanao and then transferred to Clark Field, Philippines, May 1945
C-41A
A single DC-3A (40-070) modified as a VIP transport, powered by two 1,200 hp (895 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-21 radial piston engines, used to fly the Secretary of War.[29] (The Douglas C-41 was not a DC-3 derivative but a modification of a Douglas C-33.)
C-48
One former United Air Lines DC-3A impressed.
C-48A
Three impressed DC-3As with 18-seat interiors.
C-48B
Sixteen impressed former United Air Lines DST-As with 16-berth interior used as air ambulances.
C-48C
Sixteen impressed DC-3As with 21-seat interiors.
C-49
Various DC-3 and DST models, 138 impressed into service as C-49, C-49A, C-49B, C-49C, C-49D, C-49E, C-49F, C-49G, C-49H, C-49J, and C-49K.
C-50
Various DC-3 models, 14 impressed as C-50, C-50A, C-50B, C-50C and C-50D.
C-51
One aircraft ordered by Canadian Colonial Airlines impressed into service, had starboard-side door.
C-52
DC-3A aircraft with R-1830 engines, five impressed as C-52, C-52A, C-52B, C-52C and C-52D.
C-68
Two DC-3As impressed with 21-seat interiors.
C-84
One impressed DC-3B aircraft.
R4D-2
Two Eastern Air Lines DC-3s impressed into USN service as VIP transports, later designated R4D-2F and later R4D-2Z.
R4D-4
Ten impressed DC-3s for the US Navy
R4D-4R
Seven impressed DC-3s as staff transports for the US Navy.
R4D-4Q
Radar countermeasures version of R4D-4 for the US Navy.
Dakota II
RAF designation for impressed DC-3s

Conversions[edit]

Airtech DC-3/2000
DC-3/C-47 engine conversion done by Airtech Canada, first offered in 1987. Powered by two PZL ASz-62IT radial engines.[30]
Basler BT-67
DC-3/C-47 conversion with a stretched fuselage, strengthened structure, modern avionics, and powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT-6A-67R.
Conroy Tri-Turbo-Three at Farnborough Airshow in 1978.
BSAS C-47TP Turbo Dakota
A South African C-47 conversion for the South African Air Force by Braddick Specialised Air Services, with two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65R turboprop engines, revised systems, stretched fuselage and modern avionics
Conroy Turbo Three
One DC-3/C-47 converted by Conroy Aircraft with two Rolls-Royce Dart Mk. 510 turboprop engines.
Conroy Super-Turbo-Three
Same as the Turbo Three but converted from a Super DC-3. One converted.
Conroy Tri-Turbo-Three
One DC-3/C-47 converted by Conroy Aircraft with three Pratt & Whitney Canada PT-6A turboprops.
Dodson International Turbo Dakota DC-3
DC-3/C-47 conversion with a stretched fuselage, strengthened wing center section and updated systems; and powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65AR turboprop engines[31][32]
TS-62
Douglas-built airframe fitted with Russian Shvetsov ASh-62IR radial engines after World War II due to shortage of American engines in the Soviet Union[citation needed]
TS-82
Similar to TS-62, but with Shvetsov ASh-82FN radial engines of 1,650 hp[citation needed]
USAC DC-3 Turbo Express
A turboprop conversion by the United States Aircraft Corporation, fitting Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45R turboprop engines with an extended forward fuselage to maintain center of gravity. First flight of the prototype conversion, (N300TX), was on July 29, 1982.[33]

Military and foreign derivatives[edit]

Douglas C-47
Production military DC-3A variant.
Showa/Nakajima L2D
487 License built DC-3s and derivatives for the IJNAS.
Lisunov Li-2 / PS-84
4,937 DC-3 derivatives license-built in the USSR.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Specifications (DC-3A)[edit]

Douglas DC-3
Cockpit of DC-3 formerly operated by the FAA to verify operation of navaids (VORs and NDBs) along federal airways

Data from McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920[34]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two
  • Capacity: 21–32 passengers
  • Length: 64 ft 8 in (19.7 m)
  • Wingspan: 95 ft 2 in (29.0 m)
  • Height: 16 ft 11 in (5.16 m)
  • Wing area: 987 sq ft (91.7 m2)
  • Empty weight: 16,865 lb (7,650 kg)
  • Gross weight: 25,199 lb (11,430 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 822 gal. (3736 l)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engine, 1,100 hp (820 kW) each
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S1C3G Twin Wasp 14-cyl. air-cooled two row radial piston engine, 1,200 hp (890 kW) each
  • Propellers: 3-bladed Hamilton Standard 23E50 series, 11.5 ft (3.5 m) diameter

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 200 kn; 370 km/h (230 mph) at 8,500 ft (2,590 m)
  • Cruise speed: 180 kn; 333 km/h (207 mph)
  • Stall speed: 58.2 kn (67 mph; 108 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 23,200 ft (7,100 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,130 ft/min (5.7 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 25.5 lb/sq ft (125 kg/m2)
  • Power/mass: 0.0952 hp/lb (156.5 W/kg)

Notable appearances in media[edit]

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Gradidge 2006, p. 20.
  2. ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  3. ^ Rumerman, Judy. "The Douglas DC-3." U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved: March 12, 2012.
  4. ^ O'Leary 1992, p. 7.
  5. ^ May, Joseph (8 January 2013). "Flagship Knoxville — an American Airlines Douglas DC-3". Hearst Seattle Media. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  6. ^ Berths were 77 inches long; lowers were 36 inches wide and uppers were 30.
  7. ^ Pearcy 1987, p. 17.
  8. ^ O'Leary 2006, p. 54.
  9. ^ "Dodson International's Turbine DC3 Aircraft". dodson.com. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  10. ^ "Basler BT-67". Basler Turbo Conversions, LLC via baslerturbo.com, 2008. Retrieved: March 7, 2009.
  11. ^ "BSAS International". www.bsasinternational.com. Retrieved: October 11, 2011.
  12. ^ Holden, Henry. "DC-3 History." dc3history.org. Retrieved: October 7, 2010.
  13. ^ "DC-3." Flagship Detroit Foundation. Retrieved: October 7, 2010.
  14. ^ "The Seventies 1970–1980: C-117, p. 316." history.navy.mil. Retrieved: August 10, 2010.
  15. ^ Gradidge 2006, pp. 634–637.
  16. ^ Williams, Michael. "How health and safety rules have grounded the Dakota, the war workhorse." Daily Mail, February 25, 2008. Retrieved: March 7, 2009.
  17. ^ "Colombia's Workhorse, the DC-3 airplane." Washington Post. Retrieved: March 15, 2012.
  18. ^ "Douglas DC-3." Buffalo Airways. Retrieved: October 22, 2012.
  19. ^ Moss, Frank. "World's Oldest DC-3." douglasdc3.com, 2011. Retrieved: August 9, 2011.
  20. ^ Pearcy 1985[page needed]
  21. ^ "DC-3." Flagship Detroit Foundation. Retrieved: October 7, 2010.
  22. ^ "The de Havilland Aircraft Co. Ltd." Flight, 18 November 1960, p. 798. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
  23. ^ Myers, Keith. "1943 Plane installed atop KC coffee company." GlobalNe.Ws, 11 September 2012. Retrieved: 12 November 2012.
  24. ^ "Sleeping Car of the Air Has Sixteen Sleeping Berths." Popular Mechanics, January 1936.
  25. ^ "Aircraft Specifications NO. A-669." FAA. Retrieved: October 20, 2011.
  26. ^ Gradidge 2006, pp. 632–633.
  27. ^ Gradidge, 2006, p. 634
  28. ^ Gradidge 2006, pp. 634–639.
  29. ^ "Douglas C-41A." aero-web.org. Retrieved: August 10, 2010.
  30. ^ "AirTech Company Profile." ic.gc.ca. Retrieved: November 22, 2009.
  31. ^ Turbo Dakota DC-3 Conversion Process, Dodson International. Retrieved: January 4, 2013
  32. ^ Specs - Engines & Props, Dodson International. Retrieved: January 4, 2013
  33. ^ Taylor 1983[page needed]
  34. ^ Francillon 1979, pp. 217–251.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Francillon, René. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Since 1920: Volume I. London: Putnam, 1979. ISBN 0-87021-428-4.
  • Gradidge, Jennifer M. The Douglas DC-1/DC-2/DC-3: The First Seventy Years, Volumes One and Two. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2006. ISBN 0-85130-332-3.
  • O'Leary, Michael. DC-3 and C-47 Gooney Birds. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-543-X.
  • O'Leary, Michael. "When Fords Ruled the Sky (Part Two)." Air Classics, Volume 42, No. 5, May 2006.
  • Pearcy, Arthur. Douglas DC-3 Survivors, Volume 1. Bourne End, Bucks, UK: Aston Publications, 1987. ISBN 0-946627-13-4.
  • Pearcy, Arthur. Douglas Propliners: DC-1–DC-7. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1-85310-261-X.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1982–83. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1983. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.
  • Yenne, Bill. McDonnell Douglas: A Tale of Two Giants. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-517-44287-6.

External links[edit]