|Full name||D.C. United|
|Owners||Erick Thohir, Jason Levien, William H.C. Chang|
|Head Coach||Ben Olsen|
|League||Major League Soccer|
|2014||Eastern Conference: 1st
Playoffs: Conference Semifinals
|Website||Club home page|
D.C. United is an American professional soccer club based in Washington, D.C. which competes in Major League Soccer (MLS). It is one of the ten charter clubs of MLS, having competed in the league since its inception, in 1996.
D.C. United has won 13 international and domestic titles or honors over the club's history. D.C. United was one of the most successful clubs in the early years of MLS, winning 8 of its 13 titles between 1996 and 1998 under head coach Bruce Arena. United holds the joint MLS record for most Supporters' Shields, and has had success in the MLS Cup, winning each honor four times along with three U.S. Open Cup championships. United was also the first club to win both the MLS Cup and MLS Supporters' Shield consecutively.
On the international stage, D.C. United has competed in both the CONCACAF Champions League and its predecessor, the CONCACAF Champions' Cup. The club participated in the 2005 and 2007 editions of the Copa Sudamericana. In 1998, the club won the CONCACAF Champions' Cup. Subsequently, United won the now-defunct Copa Interamericana, a CONCACAF-CONMEBOL super cup, in 1998 against Vasco da Gama of Brazil.
The team's home field is the 45,596-seat Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, owned by the District of Columbia and located on the Anacostia River. The team has proposed building a new 24,000-seat soccer-specific stadium at multiple possible sites in the Washington metropolitan area, the most recent proposal being at Buzzard Point just a few blocks from Nationals Park. The team is owned by the consortium D.C. United Holdings. The team's head coach is former long-time starting midfielder Ben Olsen, who has coached the team since 2010.
Players such as Jaime Moreno, Marco Etcheverry, and Eddie Pope are among the team's most successful stars. D.C. United's fan base includes four supporters' clubs. The club's official nickname is the "Black-and-Red" and home uniforms are black and white with accents of red. The team's name alludes to the "United" appellation commonly found in the names of soccer teams in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.
- 1 History
- 2 Colors and badge
- 3 Stadium
- 4 Club culture
- 5 Ownership
- 6 Broadcasting
- 7 Players
- 8 Team management
- 9 Honors
- 10 Record
- 11 Footnotes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- For the current season see 2014 D.C. United season
Prior to the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the United States Soccer Federation fulfilled its promise to FIFA by aiding in the foundation of a new professional league. On June 15, 1994, Major League Soccer selected Washington, D.C. out of twenty-two applicants to host one of the first seven teams, with three more added before the league's launch. Like many team names in MLS, the team's name was chosen as a reflection of the names of European clubs, such as Leeds United.
On April 6, 1996, D.C. United played in the league's inaugural match against the San Jose Clash in Spartan Stadium in San Jose, California. In the league's early years, D.C. was the most successful of all the teams. In their first year, coach Bruce Arena led the team to the first "double" in modern U.S. soccer history by beating the Los Angeles Galaxy in the first MLS Cup and the Rochester Raging Rhinos of the USL First Division in the 1996 U.S. Open Cup. D.C. repeated its MLS Cup victory in 1997 against the Colorado Rapids, in front of a home crowd at RFK Stadium. The team also experienced early success in CONCACAF competitions, winning both the Champions' Cup and the Interamerican Cup in 1998.
In October 1998, Arena left the team to coach the U.S. men's national team. Arena's departure marked the beginning of a downturn in the team's fortunes. While the club again won the MLS Cup in 1999 under coach Thomas Rongen, lackluster results in 2000 and 2001 led to Rongen's departure and his replacement by Ray Hudson in 2002. The team did not, however, fare much better under Hudson, and Piotr Nowak replaced him before the start of the 2004 season. The club's first season under Nowak was marred by injuries in the early going, and some players were known to have complained about Nowak's methods. Nevertheless a strong finish, assisted in large measure by the late-season acquisition of Argentine midfielder Christian Gómez, who helped to propel United into the playoffs as the second seed. There they advanced past the New England Revolution on penalty kicks in what has been called one of the best games in MLS history. United then defeated the Kansas City Wizards to win their fourth MLS Cup. United's attendance record at RFK Stadium is 54,282, in a match against the Tampa Bay Mutiny in 2001.
On November 18, 2003, MLS made sports history by signing Freddy Adu, a 14-year-old soccer prodigy and on January 16, 2004 he was officially selected by United with the first pick in the 2004 MLS SuperDraft. When Adu entered United's regular-season opener as a second-half substitute on April 3, 2004, he became the youngest player in any professional sport in the United States since 1887. On December 11, 2006, D.C. United traded Adu and goalkeeper Nick Rimando to Real Salt Lake in exchange for a major allocation, goalkeeper Jay Nolly, and future considerations.
In 2005, the club again made MLS history by becoming the first United States-based team to participate in Copa Sudamericana, entering in the Round of sixteen. Since 2006, United has played well against international competition, beating Scottish champions Celtic F.C. and drawing Real Madrid in Seattle. In addition, the 2006 MLS All-Star Team, which included eight United players and was managed by United's manager Piotr Nowak, defeated English champions Chelsea. In 2006 and 2007, United became the first club in league history to win the MLS Supporters' Shield consecutively.
Since winning back-to-back Shields in 2006 and 2007, the club failed to qualify for the MLS Cup Playoffs five years in a row. During this stretch, United's lone major title came in 2008, when they won the U.S. Open Cup. In league play during the 2008 and 2009 campaigns, United faltered at the tail-end of each season, ultimately causing them to miss out on the playoffs. They had a poor 2010 MLS season, winning only six matches, drawing four and losing 20. In 2011, United again failed to qualify for the playoffs in the second to last week of the campaign. In 2012, United returned to the playoffs for the first time in five years, clinching a berth in the second-to-last week of the season. D.C. United tallied a total of only 3 wins in the 2013 season, setting a record for fewest wins in league history. Despite their poor form in league play during 2013, D.C. United defeated Real Salt Lake in the U.S. Open Cup final. This qualified them to participate in the 2014-15 CONCACAF Champions League.
Colors and badge
The team's colors and original logo were announced on October 17, 1995 along with those of the other ten original teams during a presentation in New York City. Black and white are D.C. United's primary colors, though the team's nickname is the "Black-and-Red." Red is used to accent the home jersey while white is the main color of the team's away kit. The three stripes along the shoulder – in white at home and black on the road – do not represent the three jurisdictions of the Washington Metropolitan Area (Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Virginia); rather, they represent the fact that the team's kits are made by Adidas. The United's shirt sponsor is Reston, Virginia defense company Leidos. In 2011, the team introduced a predominantly red third kit with black accents to be worn four or more times in the season. The team has also previously used white away uniforms with red stripes. White and red are the colors of the flag of Washington, D.C., and the stripes are also reminiscent of those used on the flag. Goalkeepers usually distinguish themselves with a red or green colored shirt.
The team's original shield was implemented in 1996 consisting of the team's name, D.C. United, above a black bald eagle facing right on a red field, clawing three soccer balls overlaid on three white stars. The three stars and balls were intended to represent the region's three jurisdictions. The bird, associated with the federal government based in Washington, D.C., symbolizes many of the attributes of the team, including speed and power. The logo was redesigned before the 1998 season. The current design reoriented the eagle facing left, and removed the three stars below it, whose metaphor was retained by three raised wing feathers. At the center of the eagle is a single gold colored star and soccer ball, which represents the team's victory in Major League Soccer's inaugural cup in 1996. The logo can also be adorned with four silver stars above it, representing the MLS Cups the team has won.
Leidos was announced as the main jersey sponsor on Feb 24, 2014 for a mutli-year agreement, replacing the previous sponsor Volkswagen Group of America. Other sponsors include Adidas, GEICO, Verizon Wireless, and Papa John's Pizza.
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium (RFK) has been home to D.C. United since the club's founding in 1996. RFK was built in 1961 as a dual use baseball and American football stadium. Prior to 1996, it periodically hosted soccer matches, including the 1980 Soccer Bowl, the 1993 Supercoppa Italiana, and five matches during the 1994 FIFA World Cup. When the Washington Nationals baseball team shared the field from 2005 to 2007, there were criticisms regarding problems with the playing surface and even the dimensions of the field. The D.C. United Training Complex is located north of the stadium, and is where the Reserve Division team plays.
Several regional university stadiums have been used by the team for Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup matches, including Klöckner Stadium in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1996, and George Mason Stadium in Fairfax, Virginia in 2010. Similarly, the team has also used the Maryland SoccerPlex in Germantown, Maryland for multiple early-round games in U.S. Open Cup and CONCACAF Champions' Cup since it opened in 2001. Exhibition games have also been played in nearby FedEx Field in Landover, Maryland.
New DC United Stadium
In July 2006, D.C. United proposed building a new stadium along the Anacostia River near Anacostia Park, but disputes with the city government forced the team to consider other sites. In February 2009, the team announced plans for a new stadium in nearby Prince George's County, Maryland close to FedEx Field. This proposal ran into similar trouble, however, when the County Council voted to send a letter to the Maryland General Assembly opposing the stadium plan. In October 2009, the Baltimore Sun reported that Baltimore mayor Sheila Dixon has asked the Maryland Stadium Authority to explore the possibility of wooing D.C. United to Baltimore by building a soccer stadium that could serve as D.C. United's permanent home, as well as host other events. The Baltimore plan did not coalesce, however, and the team returned its focus to Washington D.C.
On July 25, 2013, a tentative deal was announced which will see a 20,000-25,000 seat stadium built at Buzzard Point costing $300 million. On December 2, 2014, D.C. Council voted unanimously on the Buzzard Point plan with the new soccer-specific stadium for D.C. United, and then approved the stadium plan on December 17, fifteen days later. The new 20,000-seated stadium is expected to open during the 2017 season.
Supporters & mascot
D.C. United has four major supporters groups; La Barra Brava, the Screaming Eagles, La Norte and the District Ultras. Each group has a designated section of the home stadium. La Barra Brava, Spanish for "The Brave Fans", was founded in 1995 by Latino fans in the Washington, D.C. area, mostly Bolivian immigrants in support of original United players Marco Etcheverry and Jaime Moreno. They seek to bring a South American style to home games. All four clubs host public tailgates before home matches, and are known for singing during games. La Norte, which takes its name from its location on the North side of the stadium, is noted for its streamers, large drum, and harassment of the opposition.
D.C. United's primary rival is the New York Red Bulls. The two teams compete annually for the Atlantic Cup, a competition instituted by the two clubs. The cup is awarded to the team that gets the most points across the teams' meetings throughout the season. D.C. United also has a burgeoning rivalry with the Philadelphia Union as the two teams represent two cities separated by only 120 miles. D.C. United is also unique among MLS teams for its rivalry with the Charleston Battery of the United Soccer Leagues, as they compete every time they face one another for the Coffee Pot Cup, a trophy established by the two sides' supporters.
Billionaire investor George Soros was the primary financial backer and director of Washington Soccer L.P., the group that owned the operating rights to D.C. United when the league was founded in 1995. Kevin Payne, former President of Soccer USA Partners and current CEO of D.C. United, was instrumental in organizing this ownership group. By 1998 the group was looking for new investors, and on February 15, 2001, it agreed to sell the team to Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), founded by Colorado billionaire Philip Anschutz, with AEG exercising its option to become the sole investor-operator on January 8, 2002. AEG, who also own Major League Soccer's Los Angeles Galaxy and Houston Dynamo, ran the team until 2007.
In May 2007, United entered into an initial one-year strategic partnership with Brazilian club Atlético Mineiro. The goal of the partnership is to enhance the sporting and commercial success of the respective clubs by sharing expertise and experience as well as creating new opportunities for the clubs in both areas.
On January 8, 2007, the operating rights to D.C. United were sold to D.C. United Holdings, a newly formed group venture that included real estate developer Victor MacFarlane, founder of MacFarlane Partners, and William H.C. Chang, chairman of Westlake International Group. Other investors included D.C. United president Kevin Payne and Blue Devil Development, headed by former Duke basketball players Brian Davis and Christian Laettner. In April 2009, Victor MacFarlane sold his share of the team to his partner William Chang after two stadium proposals had fallen through. In October 2009, Chang also bought out Davis and Laettner to fully control the team. Chang is also one of the primary investors of Major League Baseball's San Francisco Giants. In July 2012, Erick Thohir and Jason Levien, minority owners of the Philadelphia 76ers National Basketball Association franchise, joined Chang as partners. Thohir and Levin stated their primary goals are to make United a global brand and build a soccer-specific stadium for the club.
Comcast SportsNet Mid-Atlantic, formerly Home Team Sports, has telecast D.C. United matches since 1996, and currently has a deal to do so until 2016. Under the terms of the most recent contract signed during the 2013 season, CSN is obligated to show 16 matches per season and may elect to pick up more. Dave Johnson handles play by play, and former United player John Harkes does color commentary. Color commentary was historically provided by Thomas Rongen, Gordon Bradley, Clint Peay, and Garth Lagerway.
All matches (including those not televised) are broadcast via radio on WILC in Spanish as well as on the Internet. Óscar Burgos does play-by-play while Joel Navas and Milton Renderos handle color analysis.
- For details on former players, see All-time D.C. United roster. For player records, including player awards, see List of D.C. United records and statistics.
First team roster
As of January 14, 2015.
|Front Office and Ownership|
|Chief Operating Officer||Tom Hunt|
|Chief Revenue Officer||Mike Schoenbrun|
|Senior Advisor for Stadium Development and Operations||Troy Scott|
|General Manager||Dave Kasper|
|Head Coach||Ben Olsen|
|Asst. Coach||Chad Ashton|
Last updated: March 4, 2014
Source: D.C. United Official Website
Head coaching history
|Bruce Arena||USA||1996–1998||1996 U.S. Open Cup
1996 MLS Cup
1997 MLS Cup
1997 MLS Supporters' Shield
1998 CONCACAF Champions' Cup
1998 Copa Interamericana
|Thomas Rongen||NED||1999–2001||1999 MLS Cup
1999 MLS Supporters' Shield
|Piotr Nowak||POL||2004–2006||2004 MLS Cup
2006 MLS Supporters' Shield
|Tom Soehn||USA||2007–2009||2007 MLS Supporters' Shield
2008 U.S. Open Cup
|Ben Olsen||USA||2010–present||2013 U.S. Open Cup|
- MLS Eastern Conference
- Winners (Playoff) (5): 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2004
- Winners (Regular Season) (6): 1997, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2007, 2014
- Atlantic Cup (9): 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2014
- Carolina Challenge Cup (4): 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014
- Games: Jaime Moreno (329)
- Goals: Jaime Moreno (131)
- Assists: Jaime Moreno (102)
- Game-Winning Goals: Jaime Moreno (26)
- Penalty-Kick Goals: Jaime Moreno (42)
- Hat Tricks: Raúl Díaz Arce/ Dwayne De Rosario (2)
- Shutouts: Nick Rimando (29)
- Wins: Nick Rimando (41)
No active D.C. United players hold team records. Last Updated October 24, 2009
- All-Time regular season record: 229–203–94 = 52.5 win % (Through 2012 season)
|2009||Clyde Simms||United States|
|2011||Dwayne De Rosario||Canada|
|2012||Chris Pontius||United States|
|2013||Perry Kitchen||United States|
Hall of Tradition
In 2003, D.C. United introduced the "Hall of Tradition" (formerly "Tradition of Excellence"), an honor bestowed upon players, coaches & front office staff deemed by United to have been crucial to the team's success.
- John Harkes – (MF), (1996–98), (Inducted May 14, 2003)
- Marco Etcheverry, (MF), (1996–03), (Inducted October 20, 2007)
- Betty D'Anjolell (Executive), (1995–98), (Inducted June 29, 2008)
- Jeff Agoos – (DF), (1996–00), (Inducted October 16, 2008)
- Raúl Díaz Arce (FW), (1996–97), (2000), (Inducted September 2, 2009)
- Danilo Noel Dirón – (Broadcaster), (1997–08), (Inducted September 2, 2009)
- Eddie Pope – (DF), (1996–02), (Inducted July 18, 2010)
- Richie Williams – (MF), (1996–00, 2002), (Inducted October 15, 2011)
- Ben Olsen – (MF), (1998–09), (Inducted September 15, 2012)
- Jaime Moreno, (FW), (1996–02, 2004-10), (Inducted September 14, 2013)
- 19,647 for MLS matches.
- MLS statistics sourced to: Litterer, David. "Major League Soccer". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- U.S. Open Cup statistics sourced to: Hikala, Josh. "1995 – present (Pro Era)". TheCup.us. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- CONCACAF statistics sourced to: Torres, Steven. "CONCACAF Champions Cup and Champions League history". CONCACAF. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Top scorers sourced to: "Statistics". Major League Soccer. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Network, Sports (August 7, 2013). "DCU to meet RSL in U.S. Open Cup final | MLS Soccer". NewsObserver.com. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "Brandon McDonald: The D.C. United perspective with Black and Red United". RSL Soapbox. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Bruh, Molly (July 27, 2013). "Bryce Harper reps the Black-and-Red in an interview with CSN". D.C. United. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "Chicago Fire vs DC United Highlights: De Rosario and DeLeon Push Black-and-Red into the U.S. Open Cup Final". Swol.co. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "D.C. United 2012 Media Guide" (PDF) (Press release). D.C. United. February 25, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- "History & Tradition". D.C. United. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "PLUS: SOCCER – CONCACAF CUP; D.C. United Wins Tournament". The New York Times. August 17, 1998. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "D.C. United downs Vasco da Gama to take InterAmerican Cup". CNN/SI. December 7, 1998. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Kravitz, Derek (June 18, 2009). "Fans Asked to Choose Where Team Should Find New Home". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- "Supporters Clubs". D.C. United. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "Football Culture. Names Explained". British Council Korea. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
- "General Overview". Major League Soccer. 2009. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- "America's one and only United". FIFA. September 24, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
- "D.C. United Tradition". Major League Soccer. 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2011.[dead link]
- Wise, Mike (November 13, 2004). "Nowak Creates A United State". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Dure, Beau (November 11, 2004). "Harkes keeps both feet in the soccer world". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- Dell'Apa, Frank (July 26, 2005). "10 of the best... MLS games". ESPN. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Goff, Steven (November 3, 2006). "Revolution Ready to Take Another Shot". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- "D.C. United & Comcast SportsNet to launch 'Brunch with D.C. United'". Major League Soccer. January 25, 2006. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- Lifton, David (May 11, 2005). "Looking back: Unforgettable in every way". Major League Soccer. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- Slater, Matt (November 22, 2006). "Doubts raised in US over Adu move". BBC News. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- "Ready for Freddy! Real Salt Lake acquires teen phenom Freddy Adu from D.C. United". mlsnet.com. December 11, 2006. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- "United Ousted From Copa Sudamericana". The Washington Post. September 23, 2005. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Shatzer, Martin. "D.C. United 3-2 Columbus Crew: Late Winner Clinches Return To MLS Playoffs". BlackAndRedUnited.com. SB Nation – Black and Red United. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- MLSsoccer.com, DC United's Dwayne De Rosario: "A lot of things definitely need to change" next year, 27 October 2013, http://www.mlssoccer.com/news/article/2013/10/27/dc-uniteds-dwayne-de-rosario-lot-things-definitely-need-change-next-year
- Goff, Steven (October 3, 2013). "Stats, scores and schedules". The Washington Post.
- Goff, Steve (January 29, 2011). "D.C. United introduces a third jersey". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
- Hicks, Doug. "D.C. United S.C.". FootballCrests.com. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- "Team Uniform History: 1996–2005". MLSnet.com. D.C. United. Archived from the original on November 16, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Goff, Steven (May 6, 2008). "United Takes Volkswagen Out for a Spin". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- "United to Ascend".
- "Leidos becomes official sponsor of D.C. United". February 24, 2014.
- "D.C. United Corporate Partners". D.C. United. 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- Goff, Steven (April 26, 2005). "MLS Officials: United Played on Irregular Field". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2009.
- "D.C. United Academy Camps: Directions". D.C. United. 2009. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
- DeNunzio, Jon (September 5, 1996). "United Wins in Arena's Return to U-Va.". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Tenorio, Paul (June 30, 2010). "U.S. Open Cup: D.C. United beats Richmond Kickers behind Jaime Moreno". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Goff, Steven (August 25, 2005). "United Loses a Shot At U.S. Open Cup". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Goff, Steven (July 21, 2009). "United Has Plenty to Do Before Open Cup Semis". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Goff, Steven (March 16, 2005). "D.C. United Sees Danger In View". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- McDaniel, Ash (August 8, 2009). "60,000-plus expected for Real Madrid-DC United". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Nakamura, David (July 21, 2007). "Talks Fall Apart On Stadium for D.C. Soccer Team". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
- Castro, Melissa (April 7, 2009). "Prince George's vote likely kills D.C. United stadium deal". Washington Business Journal.
- "Deal reached for new stadium". StadiaDirectory. July 25, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- "Term Sheet: DC United Stadium Project". District of Columbia and DC Soccer LLC. District of Columbia Office of the City Administrator. July 25, 2013.
- "D.C. Council approves D.C. United stadium". DCUnited.com. D.C. United. December 17, 2014. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- "Supporters Club". D.C. United. DCUnited.com. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- "About Us". La Barra Brava. December 24, 2007. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Goode, Harlan (June 25, 2008). "In the trenches with soccer's craziest fans". The Washington Times. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- "About". La Norte. February 26, 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- "Talon". Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- FoxSports (October 1, 2011). "Union and United: Building animosity". Latino.foxnews.com (Fox News Latino). Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- Dave Zeitlin (August 20, 2012). "The Inside Doop: Union-D.C. United rivalry". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Battery set for Open Cup rematch with DC United". Charleston Battery. March 14, 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Goff, Steven (October 12, 2000). "United's Ownership Uncertain; After Sale Fell Through, MLS Might Take Over Operation". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- "D.C. United enters into strategic partnership with Brazil's Clube Atlético Mineiro". D.C. United Media Relations. May 4, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "MacFarlane leads group in purchase of Major League Soccer's D.C. United". D.C. United Media Relations. January 8, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- Boehm, Charles (August 24, 2009). "Chang assumes control of DC United". Major League Soccer. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Goff, Steve (October 21, 2009). "DCU Ownership, Olsen, USA Friendlies". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Stein, Marc (July 6, 2012). "Philadelphia 76ers minority owners to purchase DC United of MLS". ESPN. ESPN.com. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
- Goff, Steven. "D.C. United reaches 3-year deal with CSN". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- Goff, Steven (March 13, 2013). "D.C. United’s John Thorrington gets clarity on knee injury; out 2-3 months with MCL sprain". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- "D.C. United Televised Schedule". Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- "Romántica 900AM y Radio Cuscatleca USA.com Announce Partnership to Air D.C. United Games in Spanish". D.C. United. March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- "Players". D.C. United. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- "D.C. United All-Time Leaders". Major League Soccer. August 22, 2009. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- "D.C. United: Fans: D.C. United Hall of Tradition". Major League Soccer. 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2009.[dead link]
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