|Used by||People's Republic of China|
|Manufacturer||said to be a secret missile factory China|
|Produced||2006-2007 and possibly 2008|
|Warhead||single HE or nuclear 20-90 kt|
|Flight ceiling||about 10,000 feet|
|Flight altitude||about 10,000 feet|
|INS, GPS, TERCOM, DSMAC, COMPASS|
Type 052D destroyer
- For the aircraft, see Airco DH.10
According to Janes, the DH-10 is a second-generation land-attack cruise missile (LACM), integrated inertial navigation system, GPS, terrain contour mapping system, and digital scene-matching terminal-homing system. The missile is estimated to have a circular error probable (CEP) of 10 meters. In 2008, a Pentagon report estimated the range of the DH-10 as over 4,000 km and that from 50 to 250 missiles had been deployed
However, since the PRC has not released any specs for the DH-10, the specs can only be considered best estimates by western military analysts.
The PLA is known having been seeking long-range land-attack cruise missile (LACM) technology since the early 1990s. So far a number of developmental cruise missiles have been reported, though no detailed information has yet been published. China’s development of strategic LACM may have been assisted by Russian and Ukrainian technologies. China’s LACM research and development is aided by an aggressive effort to acquire foreign cruise missile technology, particularly from Russia and Ukraine. China also seeks dual-use technologies and subsystems from the United States and other foreign countries. According to a recent report, Ukraine exported at least 18 examples of the 3,000 km-range, nuclear capable Kh-55 (NATO codename: AS-15 Kent) strategic cruise missiles to China and Iran between 1999 and 2001. China may have also obtained the design of the Kh-65SE, a shorter-range export version of the Kh-55 from Russia.
The DH-10 is thoought to be based on Ukrainian Kh-55SM/Korshun LACM, whose detailed production engineering data packages were smuggled out of Kiev by 2001 which had by then been developed by Ukraine’s Dnipropetrovsk-based Yuzhnoye State Design Bureau. The operation involved Pakistan's notorious A.Q. Khan and was bankrolled by Iran. Iran has gone on to induct cruise missiles into its arsenal with covert industrial help from China. In early 2005, flight-tests of a variant of the DH-10A, having a range of 600km and equipped with a fibre-optic gyro coupled to a Xi’an Sicong Group-built digital scene-matching terminal-homing system using IIR seekers with 40º field-of-view, were carried out in China. This missile was later to become the 500km-range Babur cruise missile of Pkaistan, while its 280km-range anti-ship variant, incorporating an active radar seeker with 40km range for anti-ship strike, was designated as the C-602/YJ-62 and offered for sale worldwide since September 2005 by CPMIEC.
A 1995 Russian document suggested a complete production facility had been transferred to Shanghai, for the development of a nuclear-armed cruise missile. Originally it was thought that this was based on the 300 km-range Raduga Kh-15 (AS-16 'Kickback'), but it now appears that it was the Kh-55 that was transferred to China.
Some sources predicted that the first operational deployment of Chinese indigenous LACM took place in 2004~2005. The PLA Second Artillery Corps (Strategic Missile Force) has formed a Cruise Missile Brigade based at Jianshui, Yunnan Province in southern China.
Cruise missile guidance
The guidance system represents the most significant challenge for a long-range cruise missile programme. The proposed Chinese cruise missile is likely going to be equipped with a multiple guidance system with an inertial navigation system (INS), satellite navigation system (BeiDou-2 or GLONASS), and terrain comparison (TERCOM).
China would require an extensive database of accurate topographic information to use terrain comparison (TERCOM) guidance. But TERCOM would probably be relatively ineffective in areas such as the South China Sea, which present few navigational reference points. Published reports suggest that GPS would initially be used as the primary guidance system, possibly to be supplemented subsequently with TERCOM.
The potential use of the American GPS system would render this system vulnerable to jamming of the unencrypted civil signal (CA code) from GPS satellites within view of the Chinese area of operations, or to local jamming and spoofing in the target area. Chinese cruise missiles could still find their targets using inertial navigation system (INS) technology, but without GPS updates they would be significantly less accurate.
It is likely that even if the US tried to deny GPS signals to China, the PLA's cruise missiles could still function via the Russian GLONASS. However, the most probable and realistic choice is China's own BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) which is also known as BeiDou-2 or formerly COMPASS. The BeiDou-2 would comprise five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites and 30 medium Earth orbit satellites to provide a global cover, 16 satellites for BeiDou-2 have been launched, 14 of them are in service up till now. It was reported that the BeiDou-2 system began offering services for the Asia-Pacific region since December 2012, the whole system and global coverage are expected to be completed by 2020.
China has developed a range of small turbojet engines to power its anti-ship cruise missiles such as HY-4 (C-401) and YJ-82 (C-802). China is also actively developing more advanced turbofan engines for its next generation fighter aircraft, such as the 16.87 kN thrust WS-11 turbofan engine to power its JL-8/K-8 jet trainer aircraft. The same technology can used to develop a suitable turbofan engine for the cruise missile.
The DH-10 has been further developed into the CJ-10 cruise missile family. In addition, a submarine-launched version utilizing technologies used on another Chinese land attack cruise missile HN-2000 is also rumored to be under development, and designated as DH-2000, it would also be used as an anti-ship missile. However, claims about DH-2000 has yet remained to be verified.
Notes and references
- Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2008, Office of the Secretary of Defense, p. 56 (p66 of PDF)
- Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems 2010
- Minnick, Wendy (2004-09-21), China tests new land-attack cruise missile, Jane's Information Group[dead link]
- "China's new cruise missile programme 'racing ahead'", Jane's Defence Weekly, 2000-01-12[dead link]
- PLA Cruise Missiles / PLA Air - Surface Missiles
- DH-10 / CJ-10 / Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM)
- CJ-10, a further development of the DH-10
- List of missiles
- Missiles of the same class