Doctor of Letters

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Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), wearing the full-dress gown of an Oxford DLitt. He was awarded an honorary doctorate in letters in 1907.

Doctor of Letters (Latin: Litterarum doctor; D.Litt.; Litt.D.; D. Lit.; or Lit. D.) is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be beyond the Ph.D. and equal to the Doctor of Science (Sc.D. or D.Sc.). It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits. When awarded without an application by the conferee, it is awarded as an honorary degree.

Commonwealth[edit]

In the United Kingdom, Australia, India and certain other countries, the degree is a higher doctorate, above the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), and is issued on the basis of high achievement in the respective field or a long record of research and publication. The Litt.D. degree is awarded to candidates whose record of published work and research shows conspicuous ability and originality and constitutes a distinguished and sustained achievement. University committee and board approval is required, and candidates must provide documented mastery of a particular area or field. The degree may also be awarded honoris causa to such individuals as the university or the learned body in question deems worthy of this highest academic award.

United States[edit]

In the United States, the degree is often an honorary degree conferred on those who have contributed to the humanities or society. There are, however, a number of earned "D.Litt." programs, the best known being Drew University on the basis of 36 graduate credit hours post-Master's and a successfully prepared and defended nine-credit (for a total degree requirement of 45 hours) doctoral dissertation.[1]

France[edit]

In France the Doctor of Letters degree (doctorat ès lettres also called doctorat d'État) was a higher doctorate in the humanities superseded in 1984 by the habilitation.

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