Delhi Metro

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Coordinates: 28°36′53″N 77°12′43″E / 28.61472°N 77.21194°E / 28.61472; 77.21194

Delhi Metro
Delhi Metro logo.svg
DelhiMetro2014.jpg
Overview
Locale NCR, India
Transit type Rapid transit / Metro
Number of lines 5 colour-coded lines, plus Airport Express line
Number of stations 139,[1] including Airport Express stations
Daily ridership 2.4 million
Annual ridership 702.9 million (FY2013)[2]
Chief executive Mangu Singh, MD[3]
Headquarters Metro Bhawan, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi 110001.
Website Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (English)
Operation
Began operation 24 December 2002; 11 years ago (24 December 2002)
Operator(s) Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (DMRC), दिल्ली मेट्रो रेल निगम लिमिटेड
Number of vehicles 208 trains[4][5]
Train length 4/6/8 coaches[5][6]
Technical
System length 193.2 km (120.0 mi)[4]
Track gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (Indian gauge)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (Standard gauge)
Electrification Single phase 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary
Delhi Metro Rail Network (2013)

Network map

Delhi Metro (Hindi: दिल्ली मेट्रो) is a metro system serving Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India.[7] Delhi Metro is the world's thirteenth largest metro system in terms of length.[8] Delhi Metro is India's second urban mass rapid transportation system, after Kolkata Metro. As of June 2014, the network consists of five colour-coded lines (Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Violet), plus a sixth Airport Express line, with a total length of 193.2 kilometres (120.0 mi),[4] serving 139 stations,[1] (including the 6 Airport Express stations), of which 38 are underground, five are at-grade, and the rest are elevated.[9] All stations have escalators, elevators, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi Rotem broad gauge, Bombardier Movia, Mitsubishi Rotem standard gauge, and CAF Beasain standard gauge.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi built and operates the Delhi Metro. However, the organisation is under administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad.

As of November 2010, DMRC operates around 2,700 trips daily between 06:00 and 23:00 running with an interval of 2 minutes 40 seconds between trains at peak frequency.[10][11] The trains are usually of four and six coaches, but due to increase in the number of passengers, eight-coach trains are added on the Yellow Line (Jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre) and Blue line (Dwarka Sector-21 to Noida City Centre/Vaishali).[12] Yellow line being the first one with eight coach trains.[5][6][11][13] The power output is supplied by 25-kilovolt, 50-hertz alternating current through overhead catenary. The metro has an average daily ridership of 2.4 million commuters, and, as of August 2010, had already carried over 1.25 billion commuters since its inception.[14] The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has been certified by the United Nations as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get "carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions" and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every year.[15]

Planning for the metro started in 1984, when the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system for the city. The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) registered on 3 May 1995 under The Companies Act, 1956. Construction started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002, followed by the Yellow Line in 2004, the Blue Line in 2005, its branch line in 2009, the Green and Violet Lines in 2010, and the Delhi Airport Metro Express in 2011.

The recently opened Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon, whilst linked to it by the Yellow Line is a separate metro system, although tickets from the Delhi Metro can be used in its' network.

The voice overs for the Delhi Metro have been given by Rini Simon Khanna and Shammi Narang.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The concept of a mass rapid transit for New Delhi first emerged from a traffic and travel characteristics study which was carried out in the city in 1969.[16] Over the next several years, many official committees by a variety of government departments were commissioned to examine issues related to technology, route alignment, and governmental jurisdiction.[17] In 1984, the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system, which would consist of constructing three underground mass rapid transit corridors as well augmenting the city's existing suburban railway and road transport networks.[18]

While extensive technical studies and the raising of finance for the project were in progress, the city expanded significantly resulting in a twofold rise in population and a fivefold rise in the number of vehicles between 1981 and 1998.[18] Consequently, traffic congestion and pollution soared, as an increasing number of commuters took to private vehicles with the existing bus system unable to bear the load.[16] An attempt at privatising the bus transport system in 1992 merely compounded the problem, with inexperienced operators plying poorly maintained, noisy and polluting buses on lengthy routes, resulting in long waiting times, unreliable service, extreme overcrowding, unqualified drivers, speeding and reckless driving.[19] To rectify the situation, the Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up a company called the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) on 3 May 1995, with E. Sreedharan as the managing director.[20]

Dr. E. Sreedharan handed over the charge as MD, DMRC to Shri Mangu Singh on 31 December 2011.

Construction[edit]

Physical construction work on the Delhi Metro started on 1 October 1998.[21] After the previous problems experienced by the Kolkata Metro, which was badly delayed and 12 times over budget due to "political meddling, technical problems and bureaucratic delays", DMRC is a special purpose organization vested with great autonomy and powers to execute this gigantic project involving many technical complexities, under a difficult urban environment and within a very limited time frame. DMRC was given full powers to hire people, decide on tenders and control funds.[22] The DMRC then consulted the Hong Kong MTRC on rapid transit operation and construction techniques.[23] As a result, construction proceeded smoothly, except for one major disagreement in 2000, where the Ministry of Railways forced the system to use broad gauge despite the DMRC's preference for standard gauge.[24]

The first line of the Delhi Metro was inaugurated by Atal Behari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister of India, on 24 December 2002,[25] and thus, it became the second underground rapid transit system in India, after the Kolkata Metro. The first phase of the project was completed in 2006,[26] on budget and almost three years ahead of schedule, an achievement described by Business Week as "nothing short of a miracle".[27]

Construction accidents[edit]

On 19 October 2008, a girder launcher and a part of the overhead Blue Line extension under construction in Laxmi Nagar, East Delhi collapsed and fell on passing vehicles underneath. Workers were lifting a 400-tonne concrete span of the bridge with the help of a crane when the launcher collapsed along with a 34-metre (112 ft) long span of the bridge on top of a Blueline bus killing the driver and a labourer.[28]

On 12 July 2009, a portion of a bridge under construction collapsed when its launching girder lost balance as it was being erected at Zamrudpur, near East of Kailash, on the Central Secretariat – Badarpur corridor. Six people were killed and 15 others injured.[29] The following day, on 13 July 2009, a crane that was removing the debris collapsed, and with a bowling pin effect collapsed two other nearby cranes, injuring six.[30] On 22 July 2009, a steel beam fell on a worker at the under-construction Ashok Park Metro station, killing him.[31] Over a hundred people, including 93 workers, have died since work on the metro began in 1998.[32]

Network[edit]

Network map

The Delhi Metro is being built in phases. Phase I completed 58 stations and 65.0 km (40.4 mi) of route length,[33] of which 13.0 km (8.1 mi) is underground and 52.1 km (32.4 mi) surface or elevated.[citation needed] The inauguration of the DwarkaBarakhamba Road corridor of the Blue Line marked the completion of Phase I on October 2006.[26] Phase II of the network comprises 124.6 km (77.4 mi) of route length and 85 stations,[33] and is fully completed, with the first section opened in June 2008 and the last line opened in August 2011.[34] Phase III (103 km, 69 stations)[4] and Phase IV (113.2 km)[4] are planned to be completed by 2016[4] and 2021[citation needed] respectively, with the network spanning 413 km (257 mi) by then.[citation needed]

Current routes[edit]

As of September 2013, with the completion of Phase I, Phase II and the beginning of operaions on Phase III, the Delhi Metro network comprises six lines (plus the Airport Express line), serving 135 metro stations[1] (plus 6 Airport Express stations, for a total of 141), and operating on a total route length of 193.2 km (120.0 mi) (including the Airport Express line).[4]

Line First operational Last Extension Stations[1][35] Length
(km)[35]
Terminals Rolling stock Gauge Power
     Red Line 24 December 2002 4 June 2008 21 25.09 Dilshad Garden Rithala 26 trains[36] 1676mm 25kV OHE
     Yellow Line 20 December 2004 3 September 2010 35 44.65 Jahangirpuri HUDA City Centre 60 trains[10] 1676mm 25kV OHE
     Blue Line 31 December 2005 30 October 2010 43 49.93 Noida City Centre Dwarka Sector 21 70 trains[11] 1676mm 25kV OHE
7 January 2010 14 July 2011 7 8.74 Yamuna Bank Vaishali 1676mm 25kV OHE
     Green Line 3 April 2010 14 15.14 Inderlok Mundka 15 trains[37] 1435mm 25kV OHE
27 August 2011 [1] 3.32 Ashok Park Main Kirti Nagar 1435mm 25kV OHE
     Violet Line 3 October 2010 26 June 2014 15 23.24 Mandi House Badarpur 30 trains[38] 1435mm 25kV OHE
     Airport Express 23 February 2011 6 22.70 New Delhi Dwarka Sector 21 8 trains 1435mm 25kV OHE
TOTAL 141 192.81

Red Line[edit]

Red Line
Main article: Red Line

The Red Line was the first line of the Metro to be opened and connects Rithala in the west to Dilshad Garden in the east, covering a distance of 25.09 kilometres (15.59 mi).[36] It is partly elevated and partly at grade, and crosses the Yamuna River between Kashmere Gate and Shastri Park stations.[39] The inauguration of the first stretch between Shahdara and Tis Hazari on 24 December 2002 caused the ticketing system to collapse due to the line being crowded to four times its capacity by citizens eager to have a ride.[40][41] Subsequent sections were inaugurated from Tis Hazari – Trinagar (later renamed Inderlok) on 4 October 2003,[42] Inderlok – Rithala on 31 March 2004, and Shahdara – Dilshad Garden on 4 June 2008.[43] The red line has two interchange stations, the first being Kashmere Gate with the yellow line and the second Inderlok with the green line.Starting from 24 November 2013 six coach trains will be inducted in a phased manner in red line.[44]

Yellow Line

Yellow Line[edit]

Inside a Delhi Metro on the yellow line
Main article: Yellow Line

The Yellow Line was the second line of the Metro and was the first underground line to be opened.[45] It runs for 44.36 kilometres (27.56 mi) from north to south and connects Jahangirpuri with HUDA City Centre in Gurgaon. The northern and southern parts of the line are elevated, while the central section through some of the most congested parts of Delhi is underground. The first section between Vishwa Vidyalaya and Kashmere Gate opened on 20 December 2004, and the subsequent sections of Kashmere Gate – Central Secretariat opened on 3 July 2005, and Vishwa Vidyalaya – Jahangirpuri on 4 February 2009.[43] This line also possesses the country's deepest Metro station at Chawri Bazaar, situated 30 metres (98 ft) below ground level.[46][47] On 21 June 2010, an additional stretch from Qutub Minar to HUDA City Centre was opened, initially operating separately from the main line. However, Chhatarpur station on this line opened on 26 August 2010. Due to delay in acquiring the land for constructing the station, it was constructed using pre-fabricated structures in a record time of nine months and is the only station in the Delhi metro network to be made completely of steel.[48][49] The connecting link between Central Secretariat and Qutub Minar opened on 3 September 2010.[50] Interchanges are available with the Red Line and Kashmere Gate ISBT at Kashmere Gate station, Blue Line at Rajiv Chowk Station, Violet Line at Central Secretariat, Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon at Sikandarpur and with the Indian Railways network at Chandni chowk Delhi Junction Railway station and New Delhi New Delhi railway stations.[51][52] Yellow line is the first line of Delhi Metro which has phased out all four coach trains with six and eight coach configuration. The Metro Museum at Patel Chowk Metro station is a collection of display panels, historical photographs and exhibits, traces the genesis of the Delhi Metro.

Blue Line[edit]

Blue Line
Main article: Blue Line

The Blue Line was the third line of the Metro to be opened, and the first to connect areas outside Delhi.[53] Mainly elevated and partly underground,[54] it connects Dwarka Sub City in the west with the satellite city of Noida in the east, covering a distance of 47.4 kilometres (29.5 mi).[53] The first section of this line between Dwarka and Barakhamba Road was inaugurated on 31 December 2005, and subsequent sections opened between Dwarka – Dwarka Sector 9 on 1 April 2006, Barakhamba Road – Indraprastha on 11 November 2006, Indraprastha – Yamuna Bank on 10 May 2009, Yamuna Bank – Noida City Centre on 12 November 2009, and Dwarka Sector 9 – Dwarka Sector 21 on 30 October 2010.[43] This line crosses the Yamuna River between Indraprastha and Yamuna Bank stations,[39] and has India's first extradosed bridge across the Northern Railways mainlines near Pragati Maidan.[55] A branch of the Blue line, inaugurated on 8 January 2010, takes off from Yamuna Bank station and runs for 6.25 kilometres (3.88 mi) up to Anand Vihar in east Delhi.[56] It was further extended up to Vaishali which was opened to public on 14 July 2011.[57][58] A small stretch of 2.76 kilometres (1.71 mi) from Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21 was inaugurated on 30 October 2010.[59][60] Interchanges are available with the Yellow Line at Rajiv Chowk station,[54] Green line at Kirti Nagar, Violet line at Mandi House and with the Indian Railways network at the Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Anand Vihar ISBT.[61]

Green Line[edit]

Main article: Green Line

Opened in 2010, the Green Line was the first standard-gauge corridor of the Delhi Metro.[37] The fully elevated line connects Mundka with Inderlok, running for 15.1 kilometres (9.4 mi) mostly along Rohtak Road with a branch line connecting the line's Ashok Park Main station with Kirti Nagar station on the Blue Line. The line consists of 17 stations including an interchange station covering a total length of 18.46 km. The line was opened in two stages, with the 15.1 km Inderlok - Mundka section opening on 3 April 2010, and the 3.5 km Kirti Nagar - Ashok Park Main branch line on 27 August 2011.[62] An interchange with the Red line is available at Inderlok station via an integrated concourse.[63] This line also has the country's first standard-gauge maintenance depot at Mundka.[64]

Violet Line[edit]

Violet Line
Main article: Violet Line

The Violet Line is the most recent line of the Metro to be opened, and the second standard-gauge corridor after the Green Line. The 23.2 km (14.4 mi) long line connects Badarpur to Mandi House, with 9 km (5.6 mi) being overhead and the rest underground.[38] The first section between Central Secretariat and Sarita Vihar was inaugurated on 3 October 2010,that just hours before the inaugural ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and connects the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which was the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the event.[65] Completed in just 41 months, it includes a 100 m (330 ft) long bridge over the Indian Railways mainlines and a 167.5 m (550 ft) long cable-stayed bridge across an operational road flyover, and connects several hospitals, tourist attractions, and a major industrial estate along its route.[38] Services are provided at intervals of 5 min.[65] An interchange with the Yellow Line is available at Central Secretariat through an integrated concourse.[38] On 14 January 2011, the remaining portion from Sarita Vihar to Badarpur was opened for commercial service, adding three new stations to the network and marking the completion of the line.[66] The most recent section, between Mandi House and Central Secretariat, was opened on 26 June 2014.

Airport Express[edit]

The interior of a Delhi Metro Airport Express train

The Airport Express line runs for 22.7 km (14.1 mi) from New Delhi Railway Station to Dwarka Sector 21, linking the Indira Gandhi International Airport. The line was operated by Delhi Airport Metro Express Pvt. Limited (DAMEL), a subsidiary of Reliance Infrastructure, the concessionaire of the line till 30 June 2013 and is now being operated by DMRC.[67] The line was constructed at a cost of INR57 billion (US$950 million), of which Reliance Infrastructure invested INR28.85 billion (US$480 million) and will pay fees on a revenue-share model.[68] The line has six stations (Dhaula Kuan and Delhi Aerocity became operational on 15 August 2011), with some featuring check-in facilities, parking, and eateries.[69] Rolling stock consists of six-coach trains operating at intervals of ten minutes and having a maximum speed of 135 km/h (84 mph).[69] Originally scheduled to open before the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the line failed to obtain the mandatory safety clearance, and was opened on 24 February 2011, after a delay of around 5 months. After 16 months of commencement of operations, the line was shut down for repairs of the viaducts on 8 July 2012.[70][71] The line reopened on 22 January 2013.[72] On 27 June 2013 Reliance Infrastructure Ltd intimated DMRC that they are unable to operate the line beyond 30 June 2013. Following this DMRC took over operations of Airport Express line from 1 July 2013 with an Operations and Maintenance team of 100 officials to handle the line.[73]

Planned extensions[edit]

Delhi Metro map with Phase I, phase II & proposed phase III routes

Delhi Metro was planned to be built in phases spread over around 20 years as with each phase having a target of five years and end of one phase marking the beginning of another. Phase I (65 km) and Phase II (125 km) were completed in 2006 and 2011, respectively, and Phase III and Phase IV are scheduled for completion in 2016 and 2021, respectively. Work on Phase III started in 2011 while planning for Phase IV has begun. Ex-chief of DMRC hinted that by the time Phase IV is completed, the city will need Phase V to cope with rising population and transport needs.[74]

Phase III[edit]

Out of 2 new lines and 11 route extensions proposed for Phase III, cabinet approvals have been obtained for 2 new lines and 10 line extensions totaling 167.27 km, with an estimated cost of INR350 billion (US$5.8 billion).[75] Construction has already begun on many of these. In April 2014 the Delhi governor gave approval for two further extensions.[76] All the approved lines are:

Line Stations Length
(km)
Terminals No. of interchanges
planned
     Yellow Line extension 3 4.48 Jahangirpuri Badli 0
     Violet Line 7 9.36 Central Secretariat Kashmere Gate 2
11 13.875 Badarpur Ballabgarh 0
     Blue Line branch 4 5.5 Dwarka Najafgarh 1
5 6 Noida City Centre Noida Sector 62 0
     Green Line 6 11.182 Mundka Bahadurgarh 0
     Brown Line-Inner Ring Road Line (Line 7)[77] 37 58.40 Mukundpur Shiv Vihar 10
     Magenta Line-Outer Ring Road Line (Line 8) 26 37.25 Janakpuri West Botanical Garden 4
     Red Line 6 9.6 Dilshad Garden New Bus Stand, Ghaziabad 0
     Airport Express 5 11.63 Dwarka Sector 21 IFFCO Chowk 1
Total 104 167.277 18

Other than these approved lines, there are several other proposed lines which are awaiting approval for inclusion in Phase III.[78] These line extensions are:

Line Stations Length
(km)
Terminals No. of interchanges
planned
     Red Line 6 12 Rithala Bawana 0

Phase III will have 28 underground stations covering 41 km.[79] More than 20 tunnel boring machines are expected to be simultaneously used during construction of Phase III.[80] Delhi Metro is expecting a ridership of 4 million after completion of Phase III. DMRC has decided to use communication based train control (CBTC) for signaling which will allow trains to run at a short headway of 90 seconds.[81] Keeping this in mind and other constraints, DMRC changed its decision to build 9 car long stations for new lines and instead opting for shorter stations which can accommodate 6 car trains.

For the first time Delhi Metro will construct ring lines in Phase III. Till Phase II, Delhi Metro focused on expanding the reach of metro and thus built long radial lines. However, in Phase III, Delhi Metro is aiming to interconnect existing lines by ring lines to improve connectivity. This will not only help in reducing distances but will also relieve radial lines of some congestion.

Phase IV[edit]

Phase IV has a 2021 deadline, and tentatively includes further extensions to Sonia Vihar, Burari, Mukundpur, Reola Khanpur, Palam, Najafgarh, Narela, Ghazipur, Noida sector 62, extensions of Violet line, Green line, Line 8, having a total length of over 100 km.[33][82][83] There might be some changes in plan before actual construction starts on these lines.

Delhi Metro Masterplan 2021. Only those proposed lines are included here which are very likely to get built. Other proposed lines are not included.

Apart from these lines in Phases I to IV, plans have been mooted to construct a new line from Noida Sector 62 to Greater Noida which will intersect Indraprastha – Noida Sector 32 line.[84] The Ghaziabad Development Authority is planning to extend Delhi Metro lines deeper into Ghaziabad through extension of the Blue Line from Vaishali to Mehrauli via Indirapuram. The independently operated Gurgaon Metro, work on which is going on and has a deadline of 2013, will also interchange with the Delhi Metro at Sikandarpur station on Yellow line.[85] For the year 2012-13, Noida development Authority has allocated Rs 5 billion for Metro extension, with City Center Metro line being extended till the crossing of Sector 71 and 72.[86]

Finances[edit]

Funding[edit]

The capital cost of Phases I and II has been estimated to be INR144.30 billion (US$2.4 billion) at 2004 prices.[87] However, more recent estimates have placed the cost of construction at INR2 billion (US$33 million) per kilometre.[88] Thirty percent of the total investment for Phases I and II has been raised through equity capital with the Government of India (GoI) and Government of Delhi contributing equal shares,[87] and approximately another 60 percent has been raised as either long-term or subordinate debt, through soft loans from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.[89] The rest of the investment is proposed to be recovered from internal revenues through operations and property development.[87] The Metro also received INR19143 million (US$317.8 million) as grant-in-aid from various agencies for the financial year ending March 2009.[90] As of 7 August 2010, Delhi Metro has paid back an amount of INR5676.3 million (US$94 million), which includes loan amount for Phase I and interest amounts for Phases I and II, to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).[91]

[92] Delhi Metro's implementation of Phase-I, which connected 65 km in the national capital, has been rated as "excellent" by the project's funding agency, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).[93]

Revenue and profits[edit]

Delhi Metro is one of the few metro systems in the world having an operational profit from the first day. In 2007, the Delhi Metro claimed to be one of only five metro systems in the world that operated at a profit without government subsidies. This was enabled by keeping maintenance costs to a minimum and harnessing additional revenue from advertisements and property development, apart from ticket sales.[94][95] The Metro also generates revenue by leasing out its trains and stations for film shoots. Due to its increasing association with Delhi as an image of the city's everyday life, it has been a popular filming location for production houses, and several films and advertisements have been shot on board.[96][97] Producers have to pay a minimum of INR1 lakh (equivalent to INR1.5 lakh or US$2,500 in 2014) for every hour of filming, excluding taxes, security deposit and insurance.[96]

For the financial year ended March 2008, the Metro reported operating revenues of INR3.053 billion (US$50.7 million) and a profit before tax of INR199.8 million (US$3.3 million),[98] which rose to INR7237.7 million (US$120.1 million) and INR904.3 million (US$15.0 million) respectively for the financial year ended March 2009.[90]

For the financial year ended March 2011, DMRC reported operating revenues of INR16.08 billion (US$266.9 million), a loss before tax of INR130 million (US$2.2 million), and EBITDA (operating income before interest and depreciation) of INR7.68 billion (US$127.5 million). Property development (advertising and retail) contributed almost INR980 million (US$16.3 million) to the revenue. Ticket sales fetched INR9.38 billion (US$155.7 million), with the remainder coming from consultancy for other Metro projects in the country and miscellaneous sources. DMRC made an operating profit of INR0.48 (0.80¢ US) per traveller. In the same period, "core" revenues were INR9.39 billion (US$155.9 million) and EBITDA INR4.89 billion (US$81.2 million), with the remainder coming from external projects (e.g. Jaipur Metro), real estate, and consultancy.[99]

Operations[edit]

Inside the Ajmeri Gate metro station.
HUDA City Centre metro station
Train at HUDA City Centre metro station

Trains operate at a frequency of 2 minutes 40 seconds to 5–10 minutes between 6:00 and 23:00 depending peak and off-peak time. Trains operating within the network typically travel at speed up to 80 km/h (50 mph), and stop for about 20 seconds at each station. Automated station announcements are recorded in Hindi and English. Many stations have services such as ATMs, food outlets, cafés, convenience stores and mobile recharge. Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing of gum are prohibited in the entire system. The Metro also has a sophisticated fire alarm system for advance warning in emergencies, and fire retardant material is used in trains as well as on the premises of stations.[100] Navigation information is available on Google Transit.[101] The first coach of every train is reserved for women.[102][103] To make travelling by metro easier Delhi metro has launched an app for smartphones(iPhone and Android) that will provide information on various facilities like nearest metro station,fare,parking availability,tourist spots near metro stations,security and emergency helpline numbers.[104]

Security[edit]

Security on the Delhi Metro is handled by the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), who have been guarding the system ever since they took over from the Delhi Police in 2007.[105] Closed-circuit cameras are used to monitor trains and stations, and feed from these is monitored by both the CISF and Delhi Metro authorities at their respective control rooms.[106] Over 3500 CISF personnel have been deployed to deal with law and order issues in the system, in addition to metal detectors, X-ray baggage inspection systems, and dog squads which are used to secure the system. About 5,200 CCTV cameras have been installed, which cover every nook and corner of each Metro station. Each of the underground stations has about 45 to 50 cameras installed while the elevated stations have about 16 to 20 cameras each. The monitoring of these cameras is done by the CISF, which is in charge of security of the Metro, as well as the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.[107] Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency communication between the passengers and the train operator.[108] Periodic security drills are carried out at stations and on trains to ensure preparedness of security agencies in emergency situations.[109] DMRC is also looking at raising the station walls and railings for the safety of passengers.[110]

Ticketing & Recharge[edit]

For the convenience of customers, Delhi Metro commuters have three choices for ticket purchase. The RFID tokens are valid only for a single journey on the day of purchase and the value depends on the distance travelled, with fares for a single journey ranging from INR8 (13¢ US) to INR30 (50¢ US). Fares are calculated based on the origin and destination stations using a fare chart.[111] A common ticketing facility for commuters travelling on Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) buses and the Metro was introduced in 2011.[112] Travel cards are available for longer durations and are most convenient for frequent commuters. They are valid for one year from the date of purchase or the date of last recharge, and are available in denominations of INR200 (US$3.30) to INR1,000 (US$16.60). A 10% discount is given on all travel made on it.[113] A deposit of INR50 (83¢ US) needs to be made to buy a new card which is refundable on the return of the card any time before its expiry if the card is not physically damaged.[111] Tourist cards can be used for unlimited travel on the Delhi Metro network over short periods of time. There are two kinds of tourist cards valid for one and three days respectively. The cost of a one-day card is INR150 (US$2.50) and that of a three-day card is INR300 (US$5.00), besides a refundable deposit of INR50 (83¢ US) that must be paid at the time of purchasing the card.[111]

Problems[edit]

Metro station and train entering.

As the network has expanded, high ridership in new trains have led to increasing instances of overcrowding and delays on the Delhi Metro.[114][115] To alleviate the problem, 8 coach trains have been introduced in yellow line and Blue line and an increase in the frequency of trains has been proposed.[114] Infrequent, overcrowded and erratic feeder bus services connecting stations to nearby localities have also been reported as an area of concern.[116][117] In 2010, severe overcrowding on the Yellow Line, which connects the north and south campuses of Delhi University, was reported to be a reason for students missing or reporting late for classes.[118]

Ridership[edit]

Delhi Metro recorded its highest ever ridership figure of 2,684,132 on 21 July 2014 which surpassed the earlier record set on 19 August 2013, when 2,650,635 people travelled by the Metro.[119]

Currently, DMRC has a pool of 200 train sets with 69 of these being six coach formations. At present, the Delhi Metro is operational on six lines where more than 2500 train trips are made each day traversing over 69000 km in a day. With Phase-III of the network expected to cover about 108 km, the Delhi Metro network will become 295 km by 2016, making it one of the fastest expanding Metro networks in the world carrying about 40 lakh (4 million) passengers.[120]

Rolling stock[edit]

A Phase I broad gauge train, supplied by Hyundai Rotem-BEML.[121]
A Phase II broad gauge train, supplied by Bombardier.
One of the new six coach trains.

The Metro uses rolling stock of two different gauges. Phase I lines use 1,676 mm (5.499 ft) broad gauge rolling stock, while three Phase II lines use 1,435 mm (4.708 ft) standard gauge rolling stock.[122] Trains are maintained at seven depots at Khyber Pass and Sultanpur for the Yellow Line, Mundka for the Green Line, Najafgarh and Yamuna Bank for the Blue Line, Shastri Park for the Red Line, and Sarita Vihar for the Violet Line.[38][123][124][125][126]

Maglev trains were initially considered for some lines of Phase 3, but DMRC decided to continue with conventional rail in August 2012.[127]

Broad gauge[edit]

The broad gauge rolling stock is manufactured by two major suppliers. For the Phase I, the rolling stock was supplied by a consortium of companies comprising Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation, and MELCO.The coaches have a very similar look to MTR Rotem EMU,except with only 4 doors and use sliding doors.The coaches were initially built in South Korea by ROTEM,[124] then in Bangalore by BEML through a technology transfer arrangement.[128] These trains consist of four 3.2-metre (10 ft) wide stainless steel lightweight coaches with vestibules permitting movement throughout their length and can carry up to 1500 passengers,[129] with 50 seated and 330 standing passengers per coach.[130] The coaches are fully air conditioned, equipped with automatic doors, microprocessor-controlled brakes and secondary air suspension,[131] and are capable of maintaining an average speed of 32 km/h (20 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi).[130] The system is extensible up to eight coaches, and platforms have been designed accordingly.[129]

The rolling stock for Phase II is being supplied by Bombardier Transportation, which has received an order for 614 cars worth approximately US$ 1100 million.[132] While initial trains were made in Görlitz, Germany and Sweden, the remainder will be built at Bombardier's factory in Savli, near Vadodara.[133] These trains are a mix of four-car and six-car consists, capable of accommodating 1178 and 1792 commuters per train respectively. The coaches possess several improved features like Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras with eight-hour backup for added security, charging points in all coaches for cell phones and laptops, improved air conditioning to provide a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius even in packed conditions and heaters for winter.[134]

Standard gauge[edit]

The standard gauge rolling stock is manufactured by BEML at its factory in Bangalore. The trains are four-car consists with a capacity of 1506 commuters per train,[135] accommodating 50 seated and 292 standing passengers in each coach.[130] These trains will have CCTV cameras in and outside the coaches, power supply connections inside coaches to charge mobiles and laptops, better humidity control, microprocessor-controlled disc brakes,[136] and will be capable of maintaining an average speed of 34 km/h (21 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi).[130]

Airport Express[edit]

Eight 6-car trains supplied by CAF Beasain were imported from Spain.[137] CAF holds 5% equity in the DAME project, Reliance Infrastructure holds the remaining 95%.[138] The trains on this line are of a premium standard compared to the existing metro trains and have in-built noise reduction and padded fabric seats. The coaches are equipped with LCD screens for entertainment of the passengers and also provide flight information for convenience of air travellers. The trains are fitted with an event recorder which can withstand high levels of temperature and impact and the wheels have flange lubrication system for less noise and better riding comfort.[102]

Signalling and telecommunication[edit]

Inside a Hyundai Rotem coach.
A typical signal used in the Delhi metro

The Delhi Metro uses cab signalling along with a centralised automatic train control system consisting of automatic train operation, Automatic Train Protection and automatic train signalling modules.[139] A 380 MHz digital trunked TETRA radio communication system from Motorola is used on all lines to carry both voice and data information.[140] For Blue Line Siemens Transportation Systems has supplied the electronic interlocking Sicas, the operation control system Vicos OC 500 and the automation control system LZB 700 M.[141] An integrated system comprising optical fibre cable, on-train radio, CCTV, and a centralised clock and public address system is used for telecommunication during train operations as well as emergencies.[142] For Red and Yellow lines ALSTOM has supplied signalling system and for line Green and Voilet Bombardier Transportation has supplied CITYFLO 350 signalling system.

The Airport Express line has introduced WiFi services at all stations along the route on 13 January 2012. Connectivity inside metro trains travelling on the route is expected in the future. The WiFi service is provided by YOU Broadband & Cable India Limited.[143] The service makes Delhi Metro the second metro in India to provide WiFi services to passengers after the Namma Metro in Bangalore.

A fully automated, operatorless train system has been offered to Delhi Metro by the French defence and civilian technologies major Thales.[144]

Environment and aesthetics[edit]

The Delhi Metro has won awards for environmentally friendly practices from organisations including the United Nations,[145] RINA,[146] and the International Organization for Standardization,[146] becoming the second metro in the world, after the New York City Subway, to be ISO 14001 certified for environmentally friendly construction.[147] Most of the Metro stations on the Blue Line conduct rainwater harvesting as an environmental protection measure.[148] It is also the first railway project in the world to earn carbon credits after being registered with the United Nations under the Clean Development Mechanism,[149] and has so far earned 400,000 carbon credits by saving energy through the use of regenerative braking systems on its trains.[150] In order to reduce its dependence on non-renewable sources of energy, DMRC is looking forward to harness solar energy and install solar panels at the Karkardooma, Noida Sector-21, Anand Vihar and Pragati Maidan Metro stations and DMRC’s residential complex at Pushp Vihar.[151][152]

The Metro has been promoted as an integral part of community infrastructure, and community artwork depicting the local way of life has been put on display at stations.[153] Students of local art colleges have also designed decorative murals at Metro stations,[154] while pillars of the viaduct on some elevated sections have been decorated with mosaic murals created by local schoolchildren.[155] The Metro station at INA Colony has a gallery showcasing artwork and handicrafts from across India,[156] while all stations on the Central Secretariat – Qutub Minar section of the Yellow Line have panels installed on the monumental architectural heritage of Delhi.[157] The Nobel Memorial Wall at Rajiv Chowk has portraits of the seven Nobel Laureates from India: Rabindranath Tagore, CV Raman, Hargobind Khorana, Mother Teresa, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Amartya Sen and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and provide details about their contribution to society and a panel each on Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]