DNA codon table

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The genetic code is traditionally represented as a RNA codon table due to the biochemical nature of the protein translation process. However, with the rise of computational biology and genomics, proteins have become increasingly studied at a genomic level. As a result, the practice of representing the genetic code as a DNA codon table has become more popular. The DNA codons in such tables occur on the sense DNA strand and are arranged in a 5' → 3' direction.

nonpolar polar basic acidic (stop codon)
Standard genetic code
1st
base
2nd base 3rd
base
T C A G
T TTT (Phe/F) Phenylalanine TCT (Ser/S) Serine TAT (Tyr/Y) Tyrosine TGT (Cys/C) Cysteine T
TTC TCC TAC TGC C
TTA (Leu/L) Leucine TCA TAA Stop (Ochre) TGA Stop (Opal) A
TTG TCG TAG Stop (Amber) TGG (Trp/W) Tryptophan     G
C CTT CCT (Pro/P) Proline CAT (His/H) Histidine CGT (Arg/R) Arginine T
CTC CCC CAC CGC C
CTA CCA CAA (Gln/Q) Glutamine CGA A
CTG CCG CAG CGG G
A ATT (Ile/I) Isoleucine ACT (Thr/T) Threonine         AAT (Asn/N) Asparagine AGT (Ser/S) Serine T
ATC ACC AAC AGC C
ATA ACA AAA (Lys/K) Lysine AGA (Arg/R) Arginine A
ATG[A] (Met/M) Methionine ACG AAG AGG G
G GTT (Val/V) Valine GCT (Ala/A) Alanine GAT (Asp/D) Aspartic acid GGT (Gly/G) Glycine T
GTC GCC GAC GGC C
GTA GCA GAA (Glu/E) Glutamic acid GGA A
GTG GCG GAG GGG G
A The codon ATG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first ATG in an mRNA's coding region is where translation into protein begins.[1]
Inverse table (compressed using IUPAC notation)
Amino acid Codons Compressed Amino acid Codons Compressed
Ala/A GCT, GCC, GCA, GCG GCN Leu/L TTA, TTG, CTT, CTC, CTA, CTG YTR, CTN
Arg/R CGT, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, AGG CGN, MGR Lys/K AAA, AAG AAR
Asn/N AAT, AAC AAY Met/M ATG
Asp/D GAT, GAC GAY Phe/F TTT, TTC TTY
Cys/C TGT, TGC TGY Pro/P CCT, CCC, CCA, CCG CCN
Gln/Q CAA, CAG CAR Ser/S TCT, TCC, TCA, TCG, AGT, AGC TCN, AGY
Glu/E GAA, GAG GAR Thr/T ACT, ACC, ACA, ACG ACN
Gly/G GGT, GGC, GGA, GGG GGN Trp/W TGG
His/H CAT, CAC CAY Tyr/Y TAT, TAC TAY
Ile/I ATT, ATC, ATA ATH Val/V GTT, GTC, GTA, GTG GTN
START ATG STOP TAA, TGA, TAG TAR, TRA

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nakamoto T (March 2009). "Evolution and the universality of the mechanism of initiation of protein synthesis". Gene 432 (1–2): 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2008.11.001. PMID 19056476.