D battery

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A carbon-zinc D battery, positive end up.
D cell batteries.

A D battery (D cell or IEC R20) is a size of dry cell. A D cell is cylindrical with electrical contacts at each end; the positive end has a nub or bump. D cells are typically used in high current drain applications, such as in large flashlights, radio receivers and transmitters, boomboxes, products with electric motors, safety systems, Geiger counters, megaphones, or other applications that require an extended running time. Both rechargeable and non-rechargeable D cells are made, with terminal voltage and capacity varying depending on the cell chemistry.

The National Carbon Company introduced the first D cell in 1898. Before smaller cells became more common, D cells were widely known as flashlight batteries. The U.S. military designation for this battery type, which started before WWII, is BA-30.[1]

As of 2007, D batteries accounted for 8% of alkaline primary battery sales in the US (by mass). In Switzerland, as of 2008, D batteries totaled 3.4% of primary battery sales and 1.4% of secondary battery sales.[2][3]

Dimensions and capacity[edit]

D, C, AA, AAA, AAAA and 9-Volt batteries
  Zinc–carbon Alkaline Li-FeS2 NiCd NiMH
IEC name R20 LR20 FR20 KR20 HR20
ANSI/NEDA name 13D 13A 13LF    
Typical capacity 8000 mAh 12000-18000 mAh 2000-5500 mAh 2200–12000 mAh 
Nominal voltage 1.5 V 1.5 V 1.5 V 1.25 V 1.25 V
Rechargeable no Special type only No Yes Yes

A cell's capacity varies depending on its chemistry and current draw. Energizer rates their alkaline D cell at approximately 20,000mAh at 25mA draw, but estimates performance closer to about 10,000mAh at 500mA draw.[4] This effect is generally less pronounced in cells with NiCd and NiMH chemistries; see Peukert's law. Many commonly available size D rechargeable cells are actually sub-C cells in a D-sized holder.

D batteries have:
Nominal diameter of 33.2 ± 1 millimeters (1.3 inches).
Overall length of 61.5 millimeters (2.42 inches). [5]

Other common names[edit]

  • HP2 / SP2 / U2 (In Britain until the 1980s)
  • Flashlight Battery
  • MN1300
  • MX1300
  • Mono
  • Goliath
  • Torcia (Italy)
  • Type 373 (Soviet Union/Russia)
  • BA-30 (US Military Spec WWII–1980s)
  • UM 1 (JIS)
  • #1 (China)
  • 6135-99-464-1938 (NSN)(carbon-zinc)
  • 6135-99-109-9428 (NSN)(alkaline)
  • Pila Grande (Argentina)

See also[edit]


External links[edit]