Dachshund

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Dachshunds)
Jump to: navigation, search
Dachshund
Short-haired-Dachshund.jpg
A red, smooth, standard-sized dachshund
Nicknames Teckel (BNL/FR/GER), Dash it hound (Philadelphia), Tekkel (BNL), Tekkel Doxie (USba), Weenie Dog (US) (S.A.), Wiener Dog/Hotdog (US), Sausage Dog (UK/US/AUS), Bassotto (I), Sosis (TR), Perro Salchicha (ES/MX), Worshond (RSA), Taksis (LV), Jamnik (PL)
Country of origin Germany
Traits
Litter size 4–8
Life span 12.7 years average [1]
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

The dachshund (UK /ˈdæksənd/ or US /ˈdɑːkshʊnt/ DAHKS-huunt or US /ˈdɑːksənt/;[2]) is a short-legged, long-bodied dog breed belonging to the hound family. The standard size dachshund was bred to scent, chase, and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund was developed to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In the American West they have also been used to hunt prairie dogs. Today, they are bred for conformation shows and as family pets. Some dachshunds participate in earthdog trials. According to the AKC, the dachshund continues to remain one of the top 10 dog breeds in the United States of America.[3]

Etymology[edit]

A short haired dachshund.
A standard long-haired dachshund
Miniature Dachshund black and tan.

The name "dachshund" is of German origin and literally means "badger dog", from Dachs ("badger") and Hund ("dog"). The pronunciation varies widely in English: variations of the first and second syllables include /ˈdɑːks-/, /ˈdæks-/, /ˈdæʃ-/ and /-hʊnt/, /-hʊnd/, /-ənd/. Although "dachshund" is a German word, in modern German they are more commonly known by the name Dackel or, among hunters, Teckel. The German word is pronounced [ˈdakshʊnt].[4]

Because of their long, narrow build, they are often nicknamed wiener dog or sausage dog.

Classification[edit]

While classified in the hound group or scent hound group in the United States and Great Britain, there are some who consider this classification to be arguable, speculating that it arose from the fact that the word Hund is similar to the English word hound. Many dachshunds, especially the wire-haired subtype, may exhibit behavior and appearance that are similar to that of the terrier group of dogs.[5] An argument can be made for the scent (or hound) group classification because the breed was developed to use scent to trail and hunt animals, and probably descended from scent hounds, such as bloodhounds, pointers, Basset Hounds, or even Bruno Jura Hounds; but with the persistent personality and love for digging that probably developed from the terrier, it can also be argued that they could belong in the terrier, or "earth dog", group.[5] In the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (World Canine Federation), or FCI, the dachshund is actually in its own group, Group 4, which is the dachshund group.[6] Part of the controversy is because the dachshund is the only certifiable breed of dog to hunt both above and below ground.[7][8]

Characteristics[edit]

Appearance[edit]

A wire-haired dachshund

A typical dachshund is long-bodied and muscular, with short, stubby legs. Its front paws are unusually large and paddle-shaped, for extreme digging. Long coated dachshunds have a silky coat and short featherings on legs and ears. It has skin that is loose enough not to tear while tunneling in tight burrows to chase prey. The dachshund has a deep chest that provides increased lung capacity for stamina when hunting prey underground. Its snout is long with an increased nose area that absorbs odors.[8]

Coat and color[edit]

Dachshunds have a wide variety of colors and patterns. They can be single-colored, single-colored with spots ("dappled"-called "merle" in other dog breeds), and single-colored with tan points plus any pattern. Dachshunds also come in piebald. The dominant color is red, the most common along with black and tan. Two-colored dogs can be black, wild boar, chocolate, fawn, with tan "points", or markings over the eyes, ears, paws, and tail, of tan or cream. A two-colored dachshund would be called by its dominant color first followed by the point color, such as "black and tan" or "chocolate and cream". Other patterns include piebald, in which a white pattern is imposed upon the base color or any other pattern, and a lighter "boar" red.[9] The reds range from coppers to deep rusts, with or without somewhat common black hairs peppered along the back, face and ear edges, lending much character and an almost burnished appearance; this is referred to among breeders and enthusiasts as a "stag" or an "overlay" or "sable". True sable is a dachshund with each single hair banded with three colors: light at the base of the hair, red in the middle, black at the end. An additional striking coat marking is the brindle pattern. "Brindle" refers to dark stripes over a solid background—usually red. If a dachshund is brindled on a dark coat and has tan points, it will have brindling on the tan points only. Even one single, lone stripe of brindle is a brindle. If a dachshund has one single spot of dapple, it is a dapple.

Solid black and solid chocolate dachshunds occur, and even though dogs with such coloration are often considered handsome, the colors are nonstandard, that is, the dogs are frowned upon in the conformation ring in the US and Canada. Chocolate is commonly confused with dilute red. Additionally, according to the conformation judges of the Dachshund Club of America (DCA) and the American Kennel Club (AKC) the piebald pattern is nonstandard. However, the piebald dachshund can still be shown. The only disqualifying fault in Dachshunds is knuckling over. While some judges choose to dismiss a dog of color, many choose to judge them and those who are actually judging the dog will look past the cosmetic color of a dog and judge the conformation of the dog first. There were several piebald dachshunds that became AKC Champions in 2008. All things being equal between the dogs in the ring, the traditional colors which are listed in the Official AKC Standard (governed by DCA) should be visibly listed.

Dogs that are double-dappled have the merle pattern of a dapple, but with distinct white patches that occur when the dapple gene expresses itself twice in the same area of the coat. The DCA excluded the wording "double-dapple" from the standard in 2007 and now strictly use the wording "dapple" as the double dapple gene is commonly responsible for blindness and deafness.

Breeders may also breed a piebald dapple brindle; and although dogs with this coloring are increasingly popular due to their unique markings, they are not considered standard and are not allowed to show.

Size[edit]

Short haired Dachshund
A parti dapple longhaired Dachshund
Black and tan dapple smooth-haired miniature dachshund with one blue eye and one brown eye

Dachshunds come in three sizes: standard, miniature,[10] and kaninchen (German for "rabbit"). Although the standard and miniature sizes are recognized almost universally, the rabbit size is not recognized by clubs in the United States and the United Kingdom, but is recognized by all of the clubs within the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (World Canine Federation) (FCI), which contain kennel clubs from 83 countries all over the world.[11] An increasingly common size for family pets falls between the miniature and the standard size, frequently referred to as "tweenies," not an official classification.[12]

A full-grown standard dachshund averages 16 lb (7.3 kg) to 32 lb (15 kg), while the miniature variety normally weighs less than 12 lb (5.4 kg).[10] The kaninchen weighs 8 lb (3.6 kg) to 11 lb (5.0 kg). According to kennel club standards, the miniature (and kaninchen, where recognized) differs from the full-size only by size and weight, thus offspring from miniature parents must never weigh more than the miniature standard to be considered a miniature as well.[10] While many kennel club size divisions use weight for classification, such as the American Kennel Club, other kennel club standards determine the difference between the miniature and standard by chest circumference; some kennel clubs, such as in Germany, even measure chest circumference in addition to height and weight.[13]

H. L. Mencken said that "A dachshund is a half-dog high and a dog-and-a-half long,"[14] although they have been referred to as "two dogs long".[15] This characteristic has led them to be quite a recognizable breed, and they are featured in many a joke and cartoon, particularly The Far Side by Gary Larson.[16]

Eye color[edit]

Red piebald long hair miniature dachshund puppy

Dachshunds exhibit three coat varieties: smooth coat (short hair), long hair, and wire-hair.[10] Wirehaired is the least commonly seen coat in the US (it is the most common in Germany) and the most recent coat to appear in breeding standards.[10] Light-colored dachshunds can sport amber, light brown, or green eyes; however, kennel club standards state that the darker the eye color, the better. They can also have eyes of two different colors; however, this is only found in dapple and double dapple dachshunds.[17] Dachshunds can have a blue and a brown eye. Blue eyes, partially blue eyes, or a blue eye and a brown eye are called "wall" coloring, and are considered a non-desirable trait in kennel club standards. Dappled eyes are also possible.

Wall-eye is permissible according to DCA standards. Piebald-patterned dachshunds will never have blue in their eyes, unless the dapple pattern is present.

Temperament[edit]

Dachshunds are playful, but as hunting dogs can be quite stubborn,[18] and are known for their propensity for chasing small animals, birds, and tennis balls with great determination and ferocity.[19][20][21] Many dachshunds are stubborn, making them a challenge to train.[20][22][23][24][25]

Being the owner of dachshunds, to me a book on dog discipline becomes a volume of inspired humor. Every sentence is a riot. Some day, if I ever get a chance, I shall write a book, or warning, on the character and temperament of the dachshund and why he can't be trained and shouldn't be. I would rather train a striped zebra to balance an Indian club than induce a dachshund to heed my slightest command. When I address Fred I never have to raise either my voice or my hopes. He even disobeys me when I instruct him in something he wants to do.

E. B. White[26][27]

Dachshunds are statistically more aggressive to both strangers and other dogs.[28] Despite this, they are rated in the intelligence of dogs as an average working dog with a persistent ability to follow trained commands 50% of the time or more.[29] They can have a loud bark. Some bark quite a lot and may need training to stop, while others will not bark much at all.[20][21] Dachshunds are known for their devotion and loyalty to their owners,[21][30] though they can be standoffish towards strangers.[19] If left alone, many dachshunds will whine until they have companionship. Like many dogs if left alone too frequently, some dachshunds are prone to separation anxiety and may chew objects in the house to relieve stress. They rank 49th in Stanley Coren's Intelligence of Dogs, being of average working and obedience intelligence.

Dachshunds are burrowers by nature and are likely to burrow in blankets and other items around the house, when bored or tired.

Dachshunds can be difficult to housebreak, and patience and consistency is often needed in this endeavor.[20][22][22][31]

A dachshund puppy

According to the American Kennel Club's breed standards, "the dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault."[32] Their temperament and body language give the impression that they do not know or care about their relatively small size. Like many small hunting dogs, they will challenge a larger dog. Indulged dachshunds may become snappy or extremely obstinate.[20][22][33]

Many dachshunds do not like unfamiliar people, and many will growl or bark at them.[19][34] Although the dachshund is generally an energetic dog, some are sedate. This dog's behavior is such that it is not the dog for everyone. A bored, untrained dachshund will become destructive.[19] If raised improperly and not socialized at a young age, dachshunds can become aggressive or fearful.[20] They require a caring, loving owner who understands their need for entertainment and exercise.

A double dapple Dachshund puppy sleeping

Dachshunds may not be the best pets for small children. Like any dog, dachshunds need a proper introduction at a young age. Well trained Dachshunds and well behaved children usually get along fine. Otherwise, they may be aggressive and bite an unfamiliar child, especially one that moves quickly around them or teases them.[20][21][22] However, many Dachshunds are very tolerant and loyal to children within their family, but these children should be mindful of the vulnerability of the breed's back.

A 2008 University of Pennsylvania study of 6,000 dog owners who were interviewed indicated that dogs of smaller breeds were more likely to be "genetically predisposed towards aggressive behaviour". Dachshunds were rated the most aggressive, with 20% having bitten strangers, as well as high rates of attacks on other dogs and their owners. The study noted that attacks by small dogs were unlikely to cause serious injuries and because of this were probably under-reported.[35][36]

Health[edit]

Two dachshund puppies
A Dachshund with a ball

The breed is known to have spinal problems, especially intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), due in part to an extremely long spinal column and short rib cage.[37] The risk of injury may be worsened by obesity, jumping, rough handling, or intense exercise, which place greater strain on the vertebrae. About 20-25% of Dachshunds will develop IVDD.[38]

Treatment consists of combinations of crate confinement and courses of anti-inflammatory medications (steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like carprofen and meloxicam), or chronic pain medications, like tramadol. Serious cases may require surgery to remove the troublesome disk contents.[39] A dog may need the aid of a cart to get around if paralysis occurs.

Short-haired dachshund begging

A new minimally invasive procedure called "percutaneous laser disk ablation" has been developed at the Oklahoma State University Veterinary Hospital.[40] Originally, the procedure[41] was used in clinical trials[41] only on dachshunds that had suffered previous back incidents. Since dachshunds are prone to back issues, the goal is to expand this treatment to dogs in a normal population.

In addition to back problems, the breed is also prone to patellar luxation which is where the kneecap can become dislodged.[42] Dachshunds may also be affected by Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease). The condition seems to be mainly limited to wire-haired Dachshunds, with 17% being carriers.[43] A genetic test is available to allow breeders to avoid breeding carriers to carriers. In such pairings, each puppy will have a 25% chance of being affected.[44]

In some double dapples, there are varying degrees of vision and hearing loss, including reduced or absent eyes.[45] Not all double dapples have problems with their eyes and/or ears, which may include degrees of hearing loss, full deafness, malformed ears, congenital eye defects, reduced or absent eyes, partial or full blindness, or varying degrees of both vision and hearing problems; but heightened problems can occur due to the genetic process in which two dapple genes cross, particularly in certain breeding lines. Dapple genes, which are dominant genes, are considered "dilution" genes, meaning whatever color the dog would have originally carried is lightened, or diluted, randomly; two dominant "dilution" genes can cancel each other out, or "cross", removing all color and producing a white recessive gene, essentially a white mutation.[46] When this happens genetically within the eyes or ears, this white mutation can be lethal to their development, causing hearing or vision problems.

Other dachshund health problems include hereditary epilepsy,[47] granulomatous meningoencephalitis, dental issues, Cushing's syndrome, thyroid problems,[47] various allergies[48] and atopies, and various eye conditions including cataracts, glaucoma, progressive retinal atrophy,[47] corneal ulcers, nonucerative corneal disease, sudden acquired retinal degeneration, and cherry eye. Dachshunds are also 2.5 times more likely than other breeds of dogs to develop patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital heart defect. Dilute color dogs (Blue, Isabella, and Cream) are very susceptible to Color Dilution Alopecia, a skin disorder that can result in hair loss and extreme sensitivity to sun. Since the occurrence and severity of these health problems is largely hereditary, breeders are working to eliminate these.

History[edit]

Britannica Dog
Old-style dachshund showing the longer legs.
Illustration of dachshund baying a European badger

Some writers and dachshund experts[49] have theorized that the early roots of the dachshund go back to ancient Egypt, where engravings were made featuring short-legged hunting dogs.[50] Recent discoveries by the American University in Cairo of mummified dachshund-like dogs from ancient Egyptian burial urns may lend credibility to this theory. In its modern incarnation, the dachshund is a creation of German breeders and includes elements of German, French, and English hounds and terriers. Dachshunds have been kept by royal courts all over Europe, including that of Queen Victoria, who was particularly enamored of the breed.[51] They were originally bred for hunting badgers by trailing scent.

The first verifiable references to the dachshund, originally named the "Dachs Kriecher" ("badger crawler") or "Dachs Krieger" ("badger warrior"), came from books written in the early 18th century.[52] Prior to that, there exist references to "badger dogs" and "hole dogs", but these likely refer to purposes rather than to specific breeds. The original German dachshunds were larger than the modern full-size variety, weighing between 30 and 40 lb (14 and 18 kg), and originally came in straight-legged and crook-legged varieties (the modern dachshund is descended from the latter). Though the breed is famous for its use in exterminating badgers and badger-baiting, dachshunds were also commonly used for rabbit and fox hunting, for locating wounded deer, and in packs were known to hunt game as large as wild boar and as fierce as the wolverine.[citation needed]

There are huge differences of opinion as to when dachshunds were specifically bred for their purpose of badger hunting, as the American Kennel Club states the dachshund was bred in the 15th century, while the Dachshund Club of America states that foresters bred the dogs in the 18th or 19th century.

Double-dapple dachshunds, which are prone to eye disease, blindness, or hearing problems, are generally believed to have been introduced to the United States between 1879 and 1885.[citation needed]

The flap-down ears and famous curved tail of the dachshund have deliberately been bred into the dog. In the case of the ears, this is to keep grass seeds, dirt, and other matter from entering the ear canal. The curved tail is dual-purposed: to be seen more easily in long grass and, in the case of burrowing dachshunds, to help haul the dog out if it becomes stuck in a burrow.[8] The smooth-haired dachshund, the oldest style, may be a cross between the German Shorthaired Pointer, a Pinscher, and a Bracke (a type of bloodhound), or to have been produced by crossing a short Bruno Jura Hound with a pinscher.[25] Others believe it was a cross from a miniature French pointer and a pinscher; others claim that is was developed from the St. Hubert Hound, also a bloodhound, in the 18th century,[53] and still others believe that they were descended from Basset Hounds, based upon their scent abilities and general appearance.[49]

The exact origins of the dachshund are therefore unknown. According to William Loeffler, from The American Book of the Dog (1891), in the chapter on Dachshunds: "The origin of the Dachshund is in doubt, our best authorities disagreeing as to the beginning of the breed."[49] What can be agreed on, however, is that the short-haired dachshund gave rise to both the long-haired and the wire-haired varieties.

There are two theories about how the standard longhair dachshund came about. One theory is that smooth Dachshunds would occasionally produce puppies which had slightly longer hair than their parents. By selectively breeding these animals, breeders eventually produced a dog which consistently produced longhair offspring, and the longhair dachshund was born. Another theory is that the standard longhair dachshund was developed by breeding smooth dachshunds with various land and water spaniels. The long-haired dachshund may be a cross among any of the small dog breeds in the spaniel group, including the German Stoberhund, and the smooth-haired dachshund.[25]

The wire-haired dachshund, the last to develop, was bred in the late 19th century. There is a possibility the wire-haired dachshund was a cross between the smooth dachshund and various hard-coated terriers and wire-haired pinschers, such as the Schnauzer, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier, the German Wirehaired Pointer, or perhaps the Scottish Terrier.[25][54]

Symbol of Germany[edit]

Waldi, the mascot of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games

Dachshunds have traditionally been viewed as a symbol of Germany. Political cartoonists commonly used the image of the dachshund to ridicule Germany.[55] During World War I the dachshunds' popularity in the United States plummeted because of this association and there are even anecdotes such as a Dachshund being stoned to death on the high street of Berkhamsted, England at this time because of its association with the enemy[citation needed]. As a result they were often called "liberty hounds" by their owners similar to "liberty cabbage" becoming a term for sauerkraut.[56] The stigma of the association was revived to a lesser extent during World War II, though it was comparatively short-lived. Kaiser Wilhelm II and German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel were known for keeping dachshunds.

Due to the association of the breed with Germany, the dachshund was chosen to be the first official mascot for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, with the name Waldi.[57]

Sports[edit]

A long-haired dachshund running
Dachshunds are popular with urban and apartment dwellers

Some people train and enter their dachshund to compete in dachshund races, such as the Wiener Nationals. Several races across the United States routinely draw several thousand attendees, including races in Buda, Texas; Davis, California; Phoenix, Arizona; Los Alamitos, California; Findlay, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Kansas City, Kansas; Palo Alto, California; and Shakopee, Minnesota. There is also an annual dachshund run in Kennywood, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, called the Wiener 100, and in Huntington, West Virginia called the Dachshund Dash.

Despite the popularity of these events, the Dachshund Club of America opposes "wiener racing", as many greyhound tracks use the events to draw large crowds to their facilities. The DCA is also worried about potential injuries to dogs, due to their predisposition to back injuries. Another favorite sport is earthdog trials, in which dachshunds enter tunnels with dead ends and obstacles attempting to locate an artificial bait or live but caged and protected rats.[58]

Dackel versus Teckel[edit]

In Germany, dachshunds are widely called Dackel (both singular and plural). Among hunters, they are mainly referred to as Teckel. There are kennels which specialize in breeding hunting dachshunds, the so-called jagdliche Leistungszucht ("hunting performance breed"), as opposed to breeding family dogs. Therefore it is sometimes believed that Teckel is either a name for the hunting breed or a mark for passing the test for a trained hunting dog (called "VGP", "Verband-Gebrauchsprüfung") in Germany. It is not.[59]

Popularity[edit]

Dachshunds are one of the most popular dogs in the United States, ranking 10th in the 2012 AKC registration statistics.[60] They are popular with urban and apartment dwellers, ranking among the top ten most popular breeds in 76 of 190 major US cities surveyed by the AKC.[61] One will find varying degrees of organized local dachshund clubs in most major American cities, including New York, New Orleans, Portland, Los Angeles, and Chicago. The breed is most popular in Europe.

Notable dogs and owners[edit]

  • John F. Kennedy bought a dachshund puppy while touring Europe in 1937 for his then girlfriend Olivia. The puppy, named Dunker, never left Germany after Kennedy started to get terrible allergies.[62]
  • Grover Cleveland, the 22nd and 24th President, had a dachshund in the White House.[63]
  • William Randolph Hearst was an avid lover of dachshunds. When his own dachshund Helena died, he eulogized her in his "In The News" column.[64]
  • Fred, E.B. White's dachshund, appeared in many of his famous essays.[65]
  • Lump, the pet of Pablo Picasso, who was thought to have inspired some of his artwork. (Pronounced: loomp; German for "Rascal") Picasso & Lump: A Dachshund's Odyssey tells the story of Picasso and Lump.
  • Jack Ruby, the killer of Lee Harvey Oswald, had a dachshund named Sheba, which he often referred to as his wife.[66] At the time he committed his infamous murder, he had four of them—although he once had as many as ten.[66]
  • Andy Warhol had a pair of dachshunds, Archie and Amos, whom he depicted in his paintings and mentioned frequently in his diaries.[67]
  • Adele has a Dachshund named Louie, named after Louis Armstrong.[68]
  • Stanley and Boodgie, immortalized on canvas by owner David Hockney, and published in the book David Hockney's Dog Days.[69]
  • Wadl and Hexl, Kaiser Wilhelm II's famous ferocious pair. Upon arriving at Archduke Franz Ferdinand's country seat, château Konopiště, on a semi-official visit, they promptly proceeded to do away with one of the Austro-Hungarian heir presumptive's priceless golden pheasants, thereby almost causing an international incident.[70] Another one of his beloved dachshunds, Senta, is currently buried at Huis Doorn, Wilhelm's manor in the Netherlands.[71]
  • Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and her husband own and have owned a large array of dachshunds, both smooth and wirehaired.[72]
  • Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was asked, in 2003, whether he has duct tape, plastic sheeting, and a three-day supply of bottled water at home. He replied, "I would like to say I did. I don't believe we do. But I do have a miniature dachshund named Reggie who looks out for us."[73]
  • In Zelenogorsk, Russia, is a Dachshund monument near which passes a parade of Dachshunds on City Day, July 25.[74]
  • Joe was the dachshund of General Claire Lee Chennault, commander of the Flying Tigers and then the China Air Task Force of the US Army Air Forces, and became the mascot of those organizations.[75]
  • Maxie, a dachshund owned by actress Marie Prevost, tried to awaken his dead mistress, who was found with small bites on her legs. Maxie's barking eventually summoned neighbours to the scene. The incident inspired the 1977 Nick Lowe song "Marie Prevost".[76]
  • Liliane Kaufmann, wife of Edgar J. Kaufmann who commissioned the home Fallingwater from Frank Lloyd Wright in 1935, was a well known breeder and owner of long-haired dachshunds. At the Fallingwater bookstore, visitors are able to purchase a book entitled "Moxie" which is about one of the dachshunds who lived at Fallingwater.[77] Liliane raised long haired dachshunds and they travelled from Pittsburgh to Bear Run with her.[citation needed]
  • Kevin Smith (director, podcaster) has a Miniature Dachshund named "Shecky"
  • Obie is a dachshund who became infamous for his obesity, weighing as much as 77 pounds (35 kilograms), more than twice a normal-weight standard dachshund.[78][79] He reached his target weight of 28 lb (13 kg) in July 2013.[80]
  • David Hockney produced a series of portraits of his two dachshunds.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Individual Breed Results for Purebred Dog Health Survey". The Kennel Club. 2006. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "Dachshund - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  3. ^ "AKC Dog Registration Statistics". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  4. ^ "Dachshund". Duden. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  5. ^ a b Nicholas, Anna (1987). Dachshund. Neptune City: TFH Publications. p. 10. ISBN 0-86622-158-1. 
  6. ^ "Fédération Cynologique Internationale Group 4 "Dachshund Group"". Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  7. ^ "American Kennel Club Dachshund Breed Information". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  8. ^ a b c "A Brief History of the Breed". AlmostHomeRescue.org. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  9. ^ "Dachshund Colors and Patterns". The Dachshund Magazine Online. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007. Retrieved July 2, 2007. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "Dachshund Breed Standard". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  11. ^ "Fédération Cynologique Internationale Official Website". Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  12. ^ "Dachshund". dogtime.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014. [better source needed]
  13. ^ Hutchinson, Robert (2005). For the Love of Dachshunds. BrownTrout Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 1-56313-903-0. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  14. ^ "Quote Daddy". Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  15. ^ "Dachshund Poetry". QuotesDaddy.com. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  16. ^ Larson, Gary (1990). Wiener Dog Art: A Far Side Collection. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-8362-1865-5. 
  17. ^ "The Double Dapple". The Dachshund Magazine Online. Retrieved June 25, 2007. 
  18. ^ "Dachshund". Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  19. ^ a b c d Stall, Sam (2005). The Good, the Bad, and the Furry. Quirk Books. pp. 93–94. ISBN 1-59474-021-6. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Kilcommons, Brian; Wilson, Sarah. Paws to Consider. pp. 156–157. ISBN 0-446-52151-5. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Dachshund info". Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Is a Dachshund Right For You". WienerDogRescue.com. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  23. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". DachshundRescue.org. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  24. ^ "Dachshund Facts". 3doxies.com. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  25. ^ a b c d "History and Development". Dachshund Club of America. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  26. ^ Goodman, Jack (1947). The Fireside Book of Dog Stories. University of California: Cassell and Co. p. 591. 
  27. ^ Busby, Mark; Dixon, Terrell (2007). "Of Dachshunds and Dashes: Subjects and Style in E.B. White and John Graves, by Dickie Maurice Heaberlin". John Graves, Writer. Published by University of Texas Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-292-71494-7. 
  28. ^ Duffy, Deborah, et al. (2008). "Breed Differences in Canine Aggression". Applied Animal Behavior Science. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.04.006. 
  29. ^ Coren, Stanley (2006). The intelligence of dogs. Free press. ISBN 0-7432-8087-3. 
  30. ^ "Physical Characteristics and Temperament". Dachshund Club of America. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  31. ^ "Things You Need To Know about Adopting a Dachshund!". Nebraska Dachshund Rescue. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  32. ^ "Dachshund Breed Standard". American Kennel Club. Retrieved May 14, 2007. 
  33. ^ "Dachshunds". Burke's Backyard with Don Burke. Retrieved May 14, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Disposition and temperament". Dachworld.com. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  35. ^ Levy, Andrew (2008-07-07). "Why Sausage dogs are really just four-legged fiends". London: Daily Mail, UK. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  36. ^ Dobson, Roger (2008-07-08). "Sausage dogs are the most aggressive dogs". London: Daily Telegraph, UK. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  37. ^ V. F. Jensen, A. K. Ersbøll (2000) "Mechanical Factors affecting the Occurrence of Intervertebral Disc Calcification in the Dachshund – a Population Study", Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 47 (5), 283–296.
  38. ^ "Genetic welfare problems of companion animals: Intervertebral Disc Disease". UFAW. 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  39. ^ BVSc, Dhupa; MPH, N; David, J. Waters DVM; PhD, Diplomate ACVS; -1#Sarit, Nita Glickman MS (1999). "Reoperative Neurosurgery in Dogs With Thoracolumbar Disc Disease". Veterinary Surgery 28 (6): 421–428. doi:10.1111/j.1532-950X.1999.00421.x. PMID 10582738. 
  40. ^ "On the Forefront: Prophylactic laser disk ablation in dogs at Oklahoma State University – Veterinary Medicine". 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  41. ^ a b Bartels, Kenneth E.; Higbee, Russell G.; Bahr, Robert J.; Galloway, David S.; Healey, Tiffany S.; Arnold, Christopher (June 15, 2003). "Outcome of and complications associated with prophylactic percutaneous laser disk ablation in dogs with thoracolumbar disk disease: 277 cases (1992–2001)". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222 (12): 1733–1739. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.1733. 
  42. ^ Coile, D. Caroline; Earle-Bridges, Michelle (2005). The Dachshund Handbook. Barron's Educational Series. p. 126. ISBN 0-7641-2673-3. 
  43. ^ Eckardt, J.; Kluth, S.; Dierks, C.; Philipp, U.; Distl, O. (2013). "Population screening for the mutation associated with osteogenesis imperfecta in dachshunds". Veterinary Record 172 (14): 364. doi:10.1136/vr.101122.  edit
  44. ^ ""Brittle Bone" Gene in Dachshunds Discovered". Newsletter. Dachshund Club of America. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  45. ^ Parizo, Angie. "Double Dapple Warnings". Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  46. ^ "Recessive and Dominant Genes". Weatherly's Miniature Dachshunds. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  47. ^ a b c Adamson, Eve (2007). Dachshunds for Dummies (2nd ed.). For Dummies. p. 231. ISBN 0-470-22968-3. 
  48. ^ Adamson, Eve (2007). Dachshunds for Dummies (2nd ed.). For Dummies. p. 232. ISBN 0-470-22968-3. 
  49. ^ a b c Loeffler, William (1891). "Dachshunds". In Shields, George O. The American Book of the Dog. University of California: Cassell and Co. pp. 217–239. 
  50. ^ M. Zedda, P. Manca, V. Chisu, S. Gadau, G. Lepore, A. Genovese, V. Farina (2006) "Ancient Pompeian Dogs – Morphological and Morphometric Evidence for Different Canine Populations, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia", Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 35 (5), 319-324.
  51. ^ "Dachshund History Queen Victoria". Dachshund History Sub Category. Retrieved 2014-05-03. 
  52. ^ Der vollkommene teutsche Jäger (The Complete German Hunter), Johann Friedrich von Flemming, 1719–1724, Leipzig.
  53. ^ "Dachshund Dog Breed Origins". 5StarDog. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  54. ^ "Dachshund Breed Resources". FurryCritterNetwork. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  55. ^ "Political Cartoon for War Bonds". The New York Times. April 5, 1943. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  56. ^ Green, Graham. A Sort of Life. pp. 49–49. 
  57. ^ Whelliston, Kyle (2008-07-08). "Meet the Mascots: Waldi (Munich 1972)". Swifter Higher. Retrieved 2010-01-07. [dead link]
  58. ^ "Earthdog Den Trials". Canada's Guide to Dogs. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  59. ^ FAQ of the German Teckelclub on the naming issue (in German)
  60. ^ "AKC Dog Registration Statistics". American Kennel Club. 
  61. ^ "2006 AKC Top Breeds By City". American Kennel Club. 
  62. ^ John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum John F. Kennedy with "Dunker" during tour of Europe in the summer of 1937, The Hague, August 1937.
  63. ^ "White House Pets Menu 1850 to 1889". Presidential Pet Museum. Retrieved April 30, 2011. 
  64. ^ Belozerskaya, Marina The Medici Giraffe (2006) 371.
  65. ^ Lightness: E.B. White On Atomic Energy[dead link]
  66. ^ a b Bugliosi, Vincent Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy Norton. 2007 pg 8
  67. ^ "Dachshunds in Pop Culture: Andy Warhol". Dachshundlove.blogspot.com. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  68. ^ "Adele: My Louie". Adele.tv. Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  69. ^ College ArchaeologyArt History HistoryRome. "David Hockney's Dog Days". Thamesandhudsonusa.com. Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  70. ^ [1]
  71. ^ Paterson, Tony (18 November 2012). "End of the line for Germany's Last Emperor". The Independent. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  72. ^ "Wurst-Case Scenario for Dachshunds in Germany". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 2012-05-16. 
  73. ^ "Newsweek Article Perspectives". Newsweek Magazine. March 17, 2003. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  74. ^ "Зеленогорск отмечает 461-ю годовщину со дня основания" [Zelenogorsk are celebrates 461st anniversary from the date of the basis]. Society (in Russian) (fontanka.ru). 2009-07-25. 
  75. ^ Scott, Robert L. Jr., God Is My Co-Pilot (1943)
  76. ^ Golden, Eve; King, Bob (2001). Golden Images: 41 Essays on Silent Film Stars. McFarland. p. 140. ISBN 0-7864-0834-0. 
  77. ^ "Moxie: The Dachshund of Fallingwater". Mill Run, PA, USA: Fallingwater. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  78. ^ Nora Vanatta (2012-09-07). "Obese Dachshund takes on challenge of being Doxie version of 'Biggest Loser'". OregonLive.com. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  79. ^ Medina, Sarah (2012-09-10). "Obie The Obese Dachshund: One Adorable Doxie's Mission To Lose 40 Pounds (PHOTOS)". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  80. ^ Thompson, Jeff. "Obie the Dachshund reaches goal weight". KGW.com. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]