(L.) Soó (1962)
The Early Marsh Orchid, (Dactylorhiza incarnata) is a perennial, temperate-climate species of orchid generally found growing in wet meadows, and generally on base-rich soils, up to about 2100m asl. The species occurs widely in Europe and Asia: its distribution is from Russia, Mongolia, Turkey and Romania in the east, through Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands to France, Britain and Ireland in the west. The Early Marsh Orchid is also found in Norway and Sweden[2, 3, 4].
There are several subspecies and also hybrids, rendering the identification of this species more difficult, but typically, the flowering spike is robust with a hollow stem, 25–60 cm tall, and bearing up to 50 flowers. Plants grow to a height of from 15 to 70 cm. The 4–7 erect yellowish-green leaves are hooded at the tip. The inflorescence is 4–12 cm long, with up to 50 blooms. The labellum appears long and narrow, since its sides are strongly reflexed (folded back). The tip is shallowly three-lobed. The flower is often flesh-coloured (the meaning of incarnata) and the labellum normally has loop-shaped markings.
The flowering period is from May to mid-July, dependent on latitude and subspecies.
o Dactylorhiza incarnata var. baumgartneriana (B.Baumann, H.Baumann, R.Lorenz & Ruedi Peter) P.Delforge
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. coccinea (flowers scarlet)
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. cruenta (Europe to Turkey; considered by some to be a full species, D. cruenta).
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. gemmana (W. Europe).
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. incarnata (Europe to Mongolia).
o Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. krylovii (W. Europe to Siberia).
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. lobelii (Norway to the Netherlands).
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. ochroleuca (Europe; pale yellow flowers; considered by some to be a full species, D. ochroleuca.
o Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. pulchella (Europe; flowers reddish purple).
o Dactylorhiza incarnata nothosubsp. versicolor (Europe)
Hybrids have been reported between D. incarnata and D. maculata, D. praetermissa, D. purpurella and D. kerryensis.
1. Turner Ettlinger, D.M. (1976) British and Irish Orchids: a field guide
2. Buttler, Karl Peter (1986) Orchideen: die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas.
3. Lang, David (1980) Orchids of Britain: a field guide.
4. Fitter, A.(1978) An Atlas of the Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe.
- Den virtuella floran - Distribution (excluding ssp. cruenta
- Dactylorhiza incarnata at the Encyclopedia of Life
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dactylorhiza incarnata.|