Daišan

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Daišan
Prince Li of the First Rank
Daisan.jpg
Portrait of Daišan by an unknown Qing Dynasty painter
Spouse Primary spouses:
Lady Ligiya
Lady Yehenara
Lady Yehenara
Secondary spouses:
Lady Hadanara
Lady Borjigit
Princess Taisong
Concubines:
Lady Fuca
Issue Yoto
Šoto
Sahaliyen
Wakda
Balama
Majan
Mandahai
Huse
Full name
Aisin-Gioro Daišan
(愛新覺羅 代善)
Posthumous name
Prince Lilie of the First Rank
(禮烈親王)
House House of Aisin-Gioro
Father Nurhaci
Mother Lady Tunggiya
Born (1583-08-19)19 August 1583
Died 25 November 1648(1648-11-25) (aged 65)
Beijing, China
Daišan
Chinese 代善

Daišan (Manchu: Daišan1.png; 19 August 1583 - 25 November 1648) was an influential Manchu prince and statesman of the Qing Dynasty.

Family background[edit]

Daišan was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the second son of Nurhaci, founder of the Qing Dynasty. His mother was Nurhaci's first consort Lady Tunggiya (佟佳氏). He was an older half-brother of Nurhaci's successor, Hong Taiji.

Career[edit]

Nurhaci's reign[edit]

During Nurhaci's campaign against the Ula clan and its beile Bujantai in 1607, Daišan distinguished himself on the battlefield by assisting Šurhaci and Cuyen. For his efforts, he was granted the title of "Guyen Baturu" (Chinese: 古英巴圖魯) (literally: "exploring hero").

In 1613 Daišan again distinguished himself on the battlefield in Nurhaci's campaign against the Ula clan.

In 1616, when Nurhaci declared himself khan and established the Later Jin Dynasty, Daišan was the first selected as beile of a special rank by Nurhaci to assist in administration. These four beile would be known as the Four Senior Beiles the other places being filled by Amin, Manggūltai, and Hung Taiji .

From 1618, when the campaign against the Ming Dynasty began with the pronouncement of the Seven Grievances by Nurhaci, until 1622 Daišan was a leading general and as captain of the Plain Red Banner of the Eight Banners, played an important role in the capture of Fushun in 1618, in the victory at the Battle of Sarhū in 1619, and in the occupation of Shenyang in 1621. Starting in 1621 Daišan and the other three senior beiles served as assistants to Nurhaci on a monthly rotational basis in directing state affairs of the Later Jin Dynasty.

Hong Taiji's reign[edit]

After the death of Nurhaci at the Battle of Ningyuan in 1626, Daišan was able to use his influence to make the princes and generals come to an agreement on Hong Taiji's accession as khan. However even though Hong Taiji had become khan, Daišan, along with Manggūltai and Amin continued to take turns as assistant administrators until 1629 as Hong Taiji began to consolidate power.

Between 1629 and 1634, Daišan took part in most of the campaigns of Hong Taiji against the Ming Dynasty. In 1636 Hong Taiji declared himself emperor and renamed the Later Jin Dynasty to "Qing Dynasty". Daišan was conferred the title of "Prince Li of the First Rank" (和碩禮親王) and an additional title of "Elder Brother" (兄).

Shunzhi Emperor's reign[edit]

In 1643 Hong Taiji died and a successor was not named. At first Daišan named Hong Taiji's eldest son Hooge as the heir, but the latter declined the offer to succeed his father. Ajige and Dodo wanted Dorgon to take the throne, but Dorgon declined on the grounds that acceptance would be an act of disloyalty to the late emperor, who raised him. The issue was finally settled when many generals who followed Hong Taiji into battle declared that they wanted one of Hong Taiji's sons on the throne. As such, Hong Taiji's ninth son Fulin (the future Shunzhi Emperor), then at the age of six, was proclaimed emperor, with Dorgon and Jirgalang acting as co-regents. Yet even after the entire Qing court had swore an oath of allegiance to the throne, and there was a conspiracy by some nobles to let Dorgon replace Fulin. Daišan settled the dispute by supporting Fulin and exposing the conspirators, which included his own son Šoto and his grandson Adali (eldest son of Sahaliyen). Dorgon and Daišan had them both of them executed.

Death and legacy[edit]

According to historical records, it seemed that Daišan never attempted to seize power for himself, and instead worked for the benefits of the Aisin Gioro clan. In 1643 he led a council of princes to appoint Jirgalang and Dorgon as co-regents for the Shunzhi Emperor. In 1644 he followed Dorgon to Beijing, where he died four years later.

At the time of his death, special posthumous honours were not awarded to him, except that the sum of 10,000 taels instead of the usual 5,000 was given to his family for his funeral and a memorial tablet was erected. Later emperors of the Qing Dynasty would come to recognise and appreciate the work he did for the dynasty and the imperial clan. The Kangxi Emperor awarded Daišan a posthumous name "Lie" (烈) in 1671. In 1754 the Qianlong Emperor ordered that Daišan be given a place in the Temple of Princes at Mukden and in 1778, lauded him and Jirgalang, Dorgon, Haoge and Yoto for their illustrious accomplishments in the early days of the dynasty and ordered that their names be listed in the Imperial Ancestral Temple.

At the same time the titles of these five, as well as those of Dodo, Šurhaci, and Lekedehun, were given rights of perpetual inheritance. The designation of Daišan's title, which, after his death, had been twice altered under his brother Mandahai and grandson Giyesu, was then restored to Li, and the inheritor ranked higher in court ceremonies than any other prince.

Daišan had a total of eight sons. The seventh, Mandahai, inherited the rank of Prince of the First Rank, which was passed to his son. However in 1659 the princedom was taken from Mandahai's descendants and given to Daišan's grandson, Giyesu, whose descendants held it until the fall of the Qing Dynasty.

The eldest son, Yoto, was granted the title of "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" (克勤郡王) and the third, Sahaliyen, held the rank of "Prince Ying of the First Rank" (穎親王). Sahaliyen's son, Lekedehun, was named "Prince Shuncheng of the Second Rank" (順承郡王) in 1648. Daišan's fourth son, Wakda, held the title of "Prince Qian of the Second Rank" (謙郡王). Wakda was canonised as Xiang (襄), but this title was not accorded the right of perpetual inheritance.

Family[edit]

  • Father: Nurhaci, founder of the Qing Dynasty.
  • Mother: Lady Tunggiya (佟佳氏), personal name Hahana Jacing (哈哈納扎青), daughter of Tabonbayan (塔木巴晏). She married Nurhaci in 1577 as his first wife and consort. After the founding of the Qing Dynasty, she was posthumously honored as the "First Consort" (元妃).
  • Spouses:
    • Primary spouses:
      • Lady Ligiya (李佳氏), daughter of Dachuhabayan (達褚祜巴晏). She was the mother of Yoto and Šoto.
      • Lady Yehenara (葉赫納喇氏), mother of Sahaliyen, Wakda, and Balama.
      • Lady Yehenara (葉赫納喇氏), mother of Mandahai and Huse.
    • Secondary spouses:
      • Lady Hadanara (哈達納喇氏), mother of Majan.
      • Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏)
      • Princess Taisong (泰松公主)
    • Concubines:
      • Lady Fuca (富察氏)
  • Sons:
    • Yoto (岳託; d. 1638), granted the title of "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" (克勤郡王), was one of the Qing Dynasty's 12 Iron-cap Princes; married the second daughter of Hadanara Worgudai (哈達部納喇.吳爾古代) and Mangguji, Princess Hada (third daughter of Nurhaci).
    • Šoto (碩託), granted the title of a beile (貝勒).
    • Sahaliyen (薩哈璘; 1604–1636), granted the title of "Prince Ying of the First Rank" (穎親王), granted the posthumous name "Yi" (毅).
    • Wakda (瓦克達), granted the title of "Prince Qian of the Second Rank" (謙郡王), granted the posthumous name "Xiang" (襄).
    • Balama (巴喇瑪)
    • Majan (瑪佔), granted the title of a "Duke of the Sixth Rank" (奉恩輔國公).
    • Mandahai (滿達海) (1622–1652), initially granted the title of a beile (貝勒), later conferred the title of "Prince Xun of the First Rank" (巽親王), granted the posthumous name "Jian" (簡).
    • Huse (祜塞), granted the title of "Prince Hui of the First Rank" (惠親王), granted the posthumous name "Shun" (順).

Descendants[edit]

Yoto line[edit]

  • Eldest son: Yoto, married Lady Hadanara (哈達那拉氏).
    • Eldest son: Yueluohuan (岳洛歡)
    • Second son: Luoluokun (羅洛渾; 1616–1646), granted the title of "Prince Yanxi of the Second Rank" (衍僖郡王) in 1639, granted the posthumous name "Jie" (介).
      • Son: Luokeduo (羅科鐸; 1640–1682), granted the title of "Prince Ping of the Second Rank" (平郡王) in 1648, granted the posthumous name "Bi" (比).
        • Eldest son: Ne'ertu (訥爾圖; 1665–1687), became "Prince Ping of the Second Rank" in 1683, was later stripped of the title.
          • Son: Neqinge (訥清額; 1692–1765), posthumously granted the title of "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" (克勤郡王).
            • Son: Yalanga (雅朗阿; 1733–1794), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1780, granted the posthumous name "Zhuang" (莊).
              • Eldest son: Hengjin (恆謹; d. 1799), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1795, was later stripped of the title.
              • Second son: Hengyuan (恆元; 1750–1789), posthumously granted the title of "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank".
                • Son: Shangge (尚格; 1770–1833), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1799, granted the posthumous name "Jian" (簡).
                  • Son: Chengshuo (承碩; 1802–1839), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1833, granted the posthumous name "Ke" (恪).
                    • Son: Qinghui (慶惠; 1819–1861), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1842, granted the posthumous name "Min" (敏).
                      • Son: Jinqi (晉祺; 1840–1900), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1861, granted the posthumous name "Cheng" (誠)
                        • Son: Songjie (崧傑; 1879–1910), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1900, granted the posthumous name "Shun" (順).
                          • Son: Yansen (晏森; b. 1896), became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" in 1910.
                            • Son: Binyuan (彬沅; b. 1918)
        • Second son: Ne'erfu (訥爾福; 1671–1701), became "Prince Ping of the Second Rank" (平郡王) in 1687, granted the posthumous name "Dao" (悼).
          • Son: Ne'ersu (訥爾蘇; 1690–1740), became "Prince Ping of the Second Rank" in 1701, lost title in 1726.
            • Eldest son: Fupeng (福彭; 1708–1748), became "Prince Ping of the Second Rank" in 1726, granted the posthumous name "Min" (敏).
              • Son: Qingming (慶明; 1732–1750), became "Prince Ping of the Second Rank" in 1749, granted the posthumous name "Xi" (僖).
            • Second son: Fuxiu (福秀; 1710–1740), granted the title of a beizi (貝子).
              • Son: Qingheng (慶恆; 1733–1779), adopted by his uncle Fupeng, became "Prince Keqin of the Second Rank" (克勤郡王) in 1750 after the death of his cousin, granted the posthumous name "Liang" (良).
    • Third son: Kalcuhūn (喀爾楚諢), granted the title of "Beile Xianrong of the Third Rank" (多羅顯榮貝勒).
    • Fourth son: Balcuhūn (巴爾楚諢), granted the title of "Beile Hehui of the Third Rank" (多羅和惠貝勒).
    • Fifth son: Basiha (巴思哈), granted the title of "General of the Ninth Rank" (鎮國將軍).
    • Sixth son: Hulibu (祜里布), granted the title of "Beile Gangyi of the Third Rank" (多羅剛毅貝勒).
    • Seventh son: Fuyingwu (富英武)

Soto line[edit]

  • Second son: Šoto, granted the title of a beile (貝勒).
    • Eldest son: Laka (喇喀)
    • Second son: Kilanbu (齊蘭布)
    • Third son: Yosaibu (岳賽布)

Sahaliyen line[edit]

  • Third son: Sahaliyen, granted the title of "Prince Ying of the First Rank" (穎親王).
    • Eldest son: Adali (阿達禮)
    • Second son: Lekedehun (勒克德渾; 1619 - April/early May 1652), granted the title of a beile in 1644, became "Prince Shuncheng of the Second Rank" (順承郡王) in 1648, granted the posthumous name "Gonghui" (恭惠), was one of the Qing Dynasty's 12 Iron-cap Princes.
      • Norobu
      • Lergiyen (勒爾錦)
    • Third son: Dulan (杜蘭)

Wakda line[edit]

  • Fourth son: Wakda, granted the title of "Prince Qian of the Second Rank" (謙郡王).
    • Eldest son: Bakda (巴克達)
    • Second son: Lioyung (留雍)
    • Third son: Garse (噶爾塞)

Balama line[edit]

  • Fifth son: Balama (巴喇瑪)

Majan line[edit]

  • Sixth son: Majan, granted the title of "Duke of the Sixth Rank" (奉恩輔國公瑪佔).

Mandahai line[edit]

  • Seventh son: Mandahai, granted the title of "Prince Xun of the First Rank" (巽親王).
    • Eldest son: Canggadai (常阿岱), granted the title of "Beile Huaihan of the Third Rank" (多羅懷憨貝勒).
    • Second son: Lengsaiyi (楞塞宜)

Huse line[edit]

  • Eighth son: Huse, granted the title of "Prince Hui of the First Rank" (惠親王).
    • Eldest son: Alin (阿林)
    • Second son: Jinggi (精濟), granted the title of "Prince Huaihan of the Second Rank" (多羅懷憨郡王).
    • Third son: Giyesu (傑書; d. 1697), granted the title of "Prince Kang of the First Rank" (和碩康親王), granted the posthumous name "Liang" (良).

See also[edit]

References[edit]