Dai Zhuang language
|Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang|
zhd – Dai Zhuang
tyl – Thu Lao (duplicate code)
Dai Zhuang is a Tai language spoken in Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan, China, in Yanshan, Wenshan, Maguan, Malipo, Guangnan counties. It is also spoken in Honghe Prefecture and Vietnam. The largest concentrations are in Wenshan (50% of total Zhuang population) and Yanshan (20% of total Zhuang population) counties (Johnson 2011b).
Below are various names (both autonyms and exonyms) for speakers of Dai Zhuang (Johnson 2011a:43).
- Pu Dai (濮岱)
- IPA: [pʰu˥ ʔdaːi˧˩, pʰu˨ taːi˩]
- Tuliao, Tulao (土僚、土老)
- Tuzu (土族)
- Pulao, Puliao (濮僚; ancient Chinese ethnonym)
Johnson (2011b) splits Dai Zhuang into 4 dialects according to tonal splitting patterns: Northern, Central, Southern, and Northeastern. They roughly correspond with the following ethnic subdivisions (Johnson 2011a).
- Northern: Piled Headdress Tu (Da Tou Tu, 搭头土, Daigelai, Black Tulao). Spoken in northern Wenshan and western Yanshan counties.
- Central: Flat Headdress Tu (Ping Tou Tu, 平头土, River Bank Tulao). Spoken around the city of Wenshan, and in central Wenshan County’s Panzhihua (攀枝花) Township.
- Southern: Pointed Headdress Tu (Jian Tou Tu, 尖头土). Spoken in Malipo and Maguan counties.
- Northeastern: Slanted Headdress Tu (Pian Tou Tu, 偏头土). Spoken in Guangnan and eastern Yanshan counties.
Many Dai Zhuang dialects preserve voiced stops inherited from Proto-Tai (L-Thongkum 1997). L-Thongkum calls the dialects with the voiced stops "Dai Tho," and the dialects without any voiced stops "Tai Tho."
- Dai Zhuang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Thu Lao (duplicate code) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Wenma–Southwestern Tai". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Dai Zhuang". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Johnson, Eric C. 2011a. "The Southern Zhuang Languages of Yunnan Province’s Wenshan Prefecture from a Sociolinguistic Perspective." [Working paper]. S.l.: s.n. 49 pages.
- Johnson, Eric C. 2011b. "A Lexical and Phonological Comparison of the Central Taic Languages of Wenshan Prefecture, China: Getting More Out of Language Survey Wordlists Than Just Lexical Similarity Percentages." SIL Electronic Working Papers 2011-005: 170.
- L.-Thongkum, Theraphan. 1997. "Implications of the retention of proto-voiced plosives and fricatives in the Dai Tho language of Yunnan Province for a theory of tonal development and Tai language classification." In Comparative Kadai: The Tai branch, Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.). pages 191-219. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 124. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
- Ngõ Đức Thịnh & Chu Thái Sơn (1975). "Mấy ý kiến góp phần xác minh người Thu Lao ở Lào Cai". In, Ủy ban khoa học xã hội Việt Nam: Viện dân tộc học. Về vấn đề xác định thánh phần các dân tộc thiểu số ở miền bắc Việt Nam, 256-273. Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội.
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