Daihatsu Charade

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Daihatsu Charade
1991 Daihatsu Charade SG Sedan cropped.JPG
1991–1993 Daihatsu Charade (G102) sedan
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Production 1977–2000
Body and chassis
Class Supermini
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Chronology
Predecessor Daihatsu Consorte
Successor Daihatsu Storia

The Daihatsu Charade is a supermini car produced by the Japanese manufacturer Daihatsu from 1977 to 2000. It is considered by Daihatsu as a "large compact" car, to differentiate it from the smaller compacts in its lineup, such as the Daihatsu Mira. It replaced the Daihatsu Consorte, although the Charmant took over from the bigger-engined Consortes.

In China, the Daihatsu Charade is called Xiali and is produced by FAW Tianjin, under the registered mark of "China FAW". From September 1986 to 2009, it sold over 1.5 million units in that country.

First generation (G10, G20; 1977–1983)[edit]

First generation (G10/G20)
Daihatsu Charade buying brandy improved.jpg
Overview
Production 1977–1983
Assembly Japan: Ikeda, Osaka
Greece: Thebes (Automeccanica)
Body and chassis
Body style 3/5-door hatchback
Powertrain
Engine 843 cc CD I3 (petrol)
993 cc CB I3 (petrol)
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
2-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,300 mm (90.6 in)
Length 3,460–3,530 mm (136.2–139.0 in)
Width 1,520 mm (59.8 in)
Height 1,360 mm (53.5 in)

The first generation (G10) appeared in October 1977. It was a front-engined front-wheel drive car, originally available only as a five-door hatchback, powered by a 993 cc 3-cylinder, all-aluminum engine (CB20) with 50 PS (37 kW). Japanese market cars claimed 55 PS (40 kW) JIS at 5,500 rpm.[1] The three-door hatchback version ("Runabout"), introduced in the fall of 1978, received two little round "opera windows" in the C-pillars.[2] The Charade was a surprise bestseller in Japan, where ever tighter emissions standards had made many observers consider the 1 liter car dead in the marketplace. The Charade became an overnight success and also became the Japanese Car of the Year (1979).[3]

Facelift Daihatsu Charade G20 (850)

The early G10 (Series 1) had round headlights and the late G10 (Series 2) had square headlights. The Series 2 was introduced for 1981. Between the introduction in 1977 and December 1982, Daihatsu built 89,792 G10/G20 type Charades.[4]

The Daihatsu Charade was very popular in Chile and some other Latin American countries during the 1970s and 1980s. Originally the same as in the rest of the world, later Chilean Charades (called G20) came equipped with a downsleeved 843 cc version (CD) of Daihatsu's three-cylinder engine. This engine produced 41 PS (30 kW) at 5,500 rpm and has also appeared in export versions of the Daihatsu Hijet.[5] The G20 appeared in 1980 and was developed as a result of a Chilean decision to lower import tariffs on cars with engines of less than 850 cc.[6]

The G20 was also able to run on low-octane fuel or even Ethanol.[6] The first G20 version (1978–1981) had round headlights, while the second generation G20 (sold from 1981 to 1984) received the same facelift as did the G10, meaning square headlights and slightly different rear lights. The three-door "Runabout" retained the larger 1,000 cc CB20 engine, and also received a five-speed manual transmission and tachometer.

Greek production[edit]

The Greek Automeccanica company, founded in 1979, developed an off-road style torpedo design version of the Charade à la the Citroën Méhari. With a metal body, the "Zebra" used Daihatsu mechanicals, grille and headlights, and many other Daihatsu parts. Production began in 1981 and continued until 1985, by which point changing Greek tax laws meant that this "fun car" could no longer be registered as a commercial vehicle and the market evaporated.[7] The very first cars used the Series 1 round headlights; these were changed to the square Series 2 units before the first year of production had ended. Automeccanica also assembled regular Charades.[7]

Second generation (G11; 1983–1987)[edit]

Second generation (G11)
Daihatsu Charade CX G11.jpg
1983–1985 Daihatsu Charade CS 5-door (Australia; with honeycomb grille)
Overview
Production 1983–1987
Assembly Japan: Ikeda, Osaka
South Africa: Sandton, Johannesburg
Body and chassis
Body style 3/5-door hatchback
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
2-speed Daimatic automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,320 mm (91.3 in)
Length 3,550 mm (139.8 in)
Width 1,550 mm (61.0 in)
Daihatsu Charade model codes
Code Engine Note
G11 CB, 993 cc passenger car petrol
G11V commercial
G21[a] CD, 843 cc passenger car
G26 CE, 926 cc 926 Turbo/926R
G30 CL, 993 cc passenger car diesel
G30V commercial
a Latin America only
1983–1985 Daihatsu Charade CS 5-door (Europe; with slat grille)
1985–1987 Daihatsu Charade CX 5-door (Australia)

The second generation (G11) was released in March 1983, again as a three- or a five-door hatchback.[8] It featured several variations of the 3-cylinder 1.0 L engine, including a turbocharged version with 68 PS JIS and diesel and turbo-diesel versions. The turbo diesel first appeared in the fall of 1984.[9] The base Charades received the naturally aspirated, three cylinder, 993 cc CB23 engine with around 50–55 PS. 0–60 mph takes around 12–13 seconds. Japanese market models had twin carburettors as standard, while most export versions received a single unit which made marginally less power.[8]

The Charade Turbo and Charade DeTomaso models had the upgraded CB23 engine, called the CB60. The CB60 was also a 993 cc engine, but was fitted with a very small IHI turbocharger, which increased its power to 80 PS (59 kW) in Japanese market cars, 68 PS (50 kW) in export models. The tiny turbocharger meant that an intercooler was not necessary. The suspension was lightly upgraded, with thicker anti-roll bars and slightly stiffer suspension, and the car also received alloy wheels rather than the standard steel items.[10] The turbo version was available in both bodystyles.

There were also high roofed versions available in some markets, either with the three or five-door bodywork. The Japanese market "Van" version also received the higher roof. In Chile (and some other Latin American countries) this generation was called the G21 (although the labels on the trunk read "G20"), and like the G20 before it, it was equipped with the smaller CD-series 41 PS (30 kW) 843 cc three-cylinder engine.[11] The G21 was sold between 1985 and 1990 approximately.

The G11 was produced with two frontends, with square headlights (Series 1) and rectangular "cat's eye" shaped headlights (Series 2). The facelift was first presented in the summer of 1985.[9] In Europe, the G11 underbody and various engines and transmissions also formed the basis for the Innocenti Minitre after Innocenti's contract with British Leyland expired. The G11 underpinnings continued to be used by the Italian automaker until 1992. Aside from four and five-speed manuals a two-speed automatic option called the "Daimatic" was also available.

In Australia the range began with the high roofed two-seater, three-door CC model, while the rest of the range (CS, CX, CX-A, and turbo CX-T) had five-door bodywork.[12]

In 1985, at the Tokyo show, Daihatsu introduced the 926R, a prototype of a mid engine Charade, developed together with DeTomaso and designed to take part in the World Rally Championship for cars under 1,300 cc. With a 1.4 equivalence factor for forced induction engines, this meant that the downsized engine was classified as being of 1,296.4 cc. The 926R had a mid-mounted 926 cc twelve valve, twin-cam, turbocharged three-cylinder engine ("CE") – moving the rear wheels through a five-speed manual transmission and delivering 120 PS (88 kW). The 926R weighed 800 kg and had wider fenders to cover the 205/225 15" wheels. However, following significant crashes in the 1985 Championship, Group B was banned and the 926R project was called off. There was also a limited homologation series of 200 Charade 926 Turbos built, with the same 926 cc engine producing 73 PS (54 kW).

South Africa

In South Africa, Alfa Romeo's local subsidiary assembled Daihatsu Charades beginning in March 1983. The only model available was the naturally aspirated petrol 1.0, with five doors and the high roof. Power is 60 PS (44 kW), and either a four or five-speed manual transmission was available.[13] Interestingly these Charades were also exported to Italy to circumvent Italian laws hindering the import of Japanese cars.[14] South African assembly ended in 1985.

Third generation (G100,G102; 1987–1993)[edit]

Third generation (G100,G102)
1988-1991 Daihatsu Charade (G100) TS 3-door hatchback (2011-05-25) 01.jpg
1988–1991 Daihatsu Charade (G100) TS 3-door (Australia)
Overview
Also called Tianjin Xiali (China)
Production 1987–1993
Assembly Japan: Ikeda, Osaka
China: Tianjin
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door hatchback
3-door hatchback
4-door sedan
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,339.3 mm (92.1 in)
Length Hatchback: 3,680.5 mm (144.9 in)
Sedan: 4,053.8 mm (159.6 in)
Width 1,615.4 mm (63.6 in)
Height 1,384.3 mm (54.5 in)
Curb weight 740–760 kg (1,630–1,680 lb)
1988–1991 Daihatsu Charade (G100) TS 3-door (Australia)
1991–1993 Daihatsu Charade (G102) CS 5-door (Australia)
1991–1993 Daihatsu Charade (G102) SG Getaway Pack sedan (Australia)
1991–1993 Daihatsu Charade (G102) SG sedan (Australia)

The third generation of the Daihatsu Charade (G100) debuted in 1987. With styling by Daihatsu chief stylist Hiroshi Aoki and colleague Hideyuki Ueda,[15] it originally shipped with a carburetted 1.0 L three-cylinder engine (CB23), also available as a diesel and turbodiesel, or with a 1.3 L four-cylinder with single carburetor (HC-C). Featuring fully independent suspension front and rear, either three-door or five-door hatchback body styles were originally offered. A 1.0 L twin-cam fuel injected intercooled turbo (CB70/CB80), named GTti and delivering 105 PS JIS (77 kW) was later added, only available as a three-door hatch. Fuel injected versions of the 1.3 L four-cylinder (HC-E) and three-cylinder (CB90) were later added. A four-door sedan was released with the 1.3 L EFI engine in 1988. There were two different sport models available (both with G100S-FMVZ modelcodes), the GTti and the GTxx. Both versions are mechanically identical, but the GTxx features many added luxury items. These included full bodykit, lightweight 14" speedline alloys, Air-con, power steering, one-touch electric window down, electric sunroof. Some of these options were also available to buy as optional extras on the GTti, Side-skirts were also fitted to many GTti's, but in some countries they were ony sold as a dealer optional extra.

The GTxx is much rarer than the GTti, mainly being sold in Japan, although some were exported and sold in other countries in small numbers. All GTxx's have engine code CB70, whereas GTti's can have CB70 or CB80, depending on the country/region sold. There are no known differences with the actual engine internals, all CB70s featuring catalyst emissions control system. Even some CB80's for Europe also featured the catalyst, although UK cars did not. There are more than likely slight differences between the CB70 and CB80 ECU mapping, with CB70 cars quoted as producing 105 PS vs the CB80's 101 PS (74 kW). This is probably down to the CB70 having the ignition timing mapped more advanced to suit the higher octane fuel used in Japan.

A slight facelift in 1991 gave the cars smoother style rear lights/reflector panel, a slightly longer tailgate top spoiler, and a revised interior trim with fabric also on the door trim panels. There was also a four-wheel drive version of the fuel injected 1.3 (90 PS or 66 kW HC-E engine, G112 chassis code) sold at home and also exported to a few countries, for example in Scandinavia and Switzerland.

In the UK, the GTti had a fairly successful rally career competing in the RAC Lombard Rally in 1989 and 1990 and was highly competitive in the Safari Rally. The GTti won class honours many times and was able to mix it with some of the 2-litre cars and on occasion troubling some of the 4wd cars!

The third-generation car was sold in the United States for just five years, from 1988 through 1992. The car sold poorly, despite construction "as tight as a frozen head bolt"[15] and attractive styling for the market segment,[15] perhaps because of its high price, few dealerships, rough-running three-cylinder, low performance (0-60 mph or 97 km/h in 15 seconds),[15] and the company withdrew its daihatsu-badged cars from the US market. Sales for 1989 were 15,118. Only the three-door hatchbacks and four-door sedans were available. The North American Charade appeared in three different trim levels until 1989; the CES (Base model), CLS, and CLX. The CES came with a 53 bhp, 1.0L three-cylinder, fuel injected engine called the CB90. The other two variants were available with the standard CB90 or the more powerful 1.3 L four-cylinder SOHC 16-valve fuel injected, all-aluminum HC-E engine. In 1990, the trim levels were reduced to just two, the SE (base) and more luxurious SX. 4-cylinder models were available with a 5-speed manual gearbox or a 3-speed automatic transmission, while 3-cylinder models were offered with the manual transmission only.

In the Australian market, the GTti was unavailable and the turbocharged petrol Charade used the lower powered carburetor engine (CB60/61) from the previous generation.[10] However, quite a few GTti's & GTxx's have been imported from Japan and so do have a good following. In Australia, the third generation was assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings as providing "worse than average" protection for its occupants in the event of a crash and the second generation was assessed as "significantly worse than average".[16]

The G100 Charade has been built by FAW Tianjin as the Tianjin Xiali since 1988, replacing brief CKD production of the previous generation model there. Heavily facelifted versions with more modern Toyota engines are still available, as well as copied versions like the Huali and various Geely products such as the Haoqing and its derivatives.

Fourth generation (G200; 1993–2000)[edit]

Fourth generation (G200)
Daihatsu Charade 4-door notchback sedan registered November 1995 1499cc.JPG
1994–1996 Daihatsu Charade GLXi sedan (UK)
Overview
Also called Daihatsu Valera (The Netherlands)
Production 1993–2000
Body and chassis
Body style 3/5-door hatchback
4-door sedan
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive / four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine 993 cc CB24 I3 (G202, Australia)
1.3 L I4 (G200)
1.5 L I4 (G203/213)
1.6 L I4 (G201)
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,339.3 mm (92.1 in)
Length Hatchback: 3,680.5 mm (144.9 in)
Sedan: 4,053.8 mm (159.6 in)
Width 1,615.4 mm (63.6 in)
Height 1,384.3 mm (54.5 in)
1993–1996 Daihatsu Charade TX 3-door (Germany)
1993–1996 Daihatsu Charade CS 5-door (Australia)
1994–1996 Daihatsu Charade GLXi sedan (UK)
1996–2000 Daihatsu Charade Social sedan (Japan)

The fourth generation was introduced in January 1993, again with hatchback and (later) sedan bodies. Being somewhat larger than the predecessor, the 1.0 L engines were no longer offered in most markets, although the 1.0 remained available in Australia in the G202 Charade. The SOHC 1.3 L became the base motor instead for most markets. The sedan, introduced in 1994, featured a 1.5 L engine with optional 4WD. The bigger engines were also available with hatchback bodywork. The diesel received the G213 chassis code, while all other models had codes in the G200 range. The diesel models were dropped in all markets where they had previously been available. An unusual version is the Australian market G202, which came equipped with the CB24 1.0 litre engine. The heads and emission hose layout are completely different from the earlier CB-23. In Australia, the fourth generation was assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings as providing "worse than average" protection for its occupants in the event of a crash and the second generation was assessed as "significantly worse than average".[16]

The turbocharged GTti version was replaced by a more conventional GTi with an SOHC 16-valve 1.6 L engine. In the Japanese domestic market this version was named in honor of Italian ex-racing driver Alessandro deTomaso (the previous owner of Innocenti, who had worked closely with Daihatsu), including a racing-derived camshaft, and was capable of 124 PS JIS (91 kW) in the Japanese market. The export version, simply called GTi, was detuned to 105 PS (77 kW) DIN. De Tomaso also added their own bodykit, Recaro seats, a Nardi Torino steering wheel, and Pirelli sports tyres. A total of 120,000 Charade GTi were produced following this joint effort.

The Charade was restyled in 1996, only two years after release. It now had a ‘smiley face’ grille and changed headlights, looking more like its Toyota sibling the Starlet. It was produced until 2000, when it was replaced by the Sirion/Storia.

Nameplate use with other vehicles[edit]

In Australia, the name had previously been used for the L500 series of the Daihatsu Mira, which was sold there as the Daihatsu Charade Centro between March 1995 and 1998.

In 2003, the Charade name was resurrected in the UK and Australia, on a rebadged version of the most recent version of the Daihatsu Mira (the L250 series, marketed as the Cuore in other markets). It was positioned one market segment below its previous generations and was available as a three- or five-door hatchback with a 1.0-litre inline-four engine. It has since been discontinued in Australia, due to Toyota retiring the Daihatsu nameplate there. The L250 series of the Daihatsu Mira was produced until 2006.

In 2011, Daihatsu Europe brought the Thai- built Toyota Yaris second generation on the market as the Daihatsu Charade. This was to be the last model introduced under the Daihatsu nameplate in Europe, as Daihatsu left the market in January 2013.

1995–1998 Daihatsu Charade Centro  
2003–2006 Daihatsu Charade  
2011–2013 Daihatsu Charade  

References[edit]

  1. ^ Car Graphic: Car Archives Vol. 5, '70s Japanese Cars (in Japanese). Tokyo: Nigensha. 2007. p. 137. ISBN 978-4-544-09175-5. 
  2. ^ Costa, André & Georges-Michel Fraichard, ed. (September 1979). Salon 1979: Toutes les Voitures du Monde (in French) (Paris: l'Auto Journal) (14 & 15): 175. 
  3. ^ Yamaguchi, Jack K. (1979), "The Year of Uncertainty?", in Lösch, Annamaria, World Cars 1979 (Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books): 62, ISBN 0-910714-11-8 
  4. ^ Adam, Rainer. "Facts". Charade-G10.net. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 
  5. ^ Varela Romero, Wenceslao (1987), Manual de Automoviles: Daihatsu, Suzuki y Utilitarios [Car Manual: Daihatsu, Suzuki, and Minitrucks] (in Spanish), Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Mar del Plata, p. 14 
  6. ^ a b Adam, Rainer. "Daihatsu Charade G20". Charade Owners Club. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  7. ^ a b Skartsis, Labros S. (2012), Greek Vehicle & Machine Manufacturers 1800 to present: A Pictorial History, Patras, Greece: Marathon, p. 24, ISBN 978-960-93-4452-4 
  8. ^ a b Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1985). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 235. ISBN 88-7212-012-8. 
  9. ^ a b Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (5 March 1987). Automobil Revue 1987 (in German/French) 82. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 241. ISBN 3-444-00458-3. 
  10. ^ a b Knowling, Michael (18 September 2001). "Daihatsu Charade Turbo". AutoSpeed (Web Publications Pty Ltd) (18). 
  11. ^ W. Varela R., p. 7
  12. ^ Lever, R. (1986-02-05). "Little cars are big on economy". The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, Australia: Nationwide News Pty). 
  13. ^ Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985, pp. 30–31
  14. ^ Burford, Adrian, "A Sporting Heart Still Beats", Automotive Business Review (February, 2009): 30, archived from the original on 25 February 2009, retrieved 19 February 2009 
  15. ^ a b c d Assenza, Tony (January 1988). "Road Test: Daihatsu Charade CSX". In Sherman, Don. Car and Driver (Ann Arbor, MI USA: Diamandis Communications) 33 (7): 115–117. ISSN 0008-6002. 
  16. ^ a b "Used Car Safety Ratings (2008 update)". Department of Infrastructure and Transport of Australia. 14 July 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Daihatsu Charade at Wikimedia Commons