|Also called||Daihatsu Atrai
Daihatsu Gran Max
Subaru Dias Wagon
|Platform||Mid-engined, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
The Daihatsu Hijet is a microvan and pickup truck produced by the Japanese automaker Daihatsu. Despite the similarities between the Hijet name and Toyota's naming scheme for its trucks and vans (Hiace and Hilux), the name "Hijet" has been in use for Daihatsu's Kei trucks and vans since 1960, over two decades before Toyota took control. "Hijet", when transliterated into Japanese, is very similar to "Midget", one of Daihatsu's other mini-trucks. The Hijet competes in Japan with the Honda Acty, Subaru Sambar, Mitsubishi Minicab, and the Suzuki Carry.
The first Hijet received a 360 cc two-stroke engine, as was dictated by the kei car laws of the time. The Hijet's development has long followed the evolution of Japan's kei regulations, with an increase to 550 cc in 1976 and then 660 cc for 1990. Exterior dimensions have also increased somewhat, from 3 x 1.3 m originally to 3.4 x 1.475 m today. Export versions have usually been somewhat larger as bigger bumpers and sometimes wider bodies are fitted.
The band Diehatzu Hijets, of similar spelling, pay homage to the vehicle.
Fourth generation (S38/S40) 
S40 series Van (550)
|Also called||Daihatsu 360/550 Cab|
|Layout||mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||356 cc ZM two-stroke I2
547 cc AB20 OHC I2
|Wheelbase||1,680 mm (66 in)|
|Length||2,995 mm (118 in) (until 1976)
3,045 mm (120 in) (post-1976 truck)
3,090 mm (122 in) (post-1976 Van)
|Width||1,295 mm (51 in)|
|Height||1,615 mm (64 in)|
In September 1971 the fourth generation Hijet appeared, with all-new sheetmetal, initially available only as a truck. The engine remained the ZM 360 cc two-stroke two-cylinder, while the rear suspension reverted to a live, leaf-sprung unit. In February 1972 a new Van was presented, originally marketed as the "Slide Van" as it now featured sliding doors on both sides in addition to a top-hinged tailgate. In September 1974 the front clip and rear bumper underwent light changes to accommodate full-size yellow license plates (hitherto, kei cars had been equipped with smaller plates than normal).
In October 1976 the four-stroke Hijet 550 appeared, with the new 550 cc AB20 engine taking full advantage of the recent new kei regulations. Bigger bumpers meant that all Hijets built after this date are slightly longer, as the 360 received the same external changes simultaneously, including a new front clip. To reflect the new engine, the 550 received the new chassis code S40. In export trim, where it was sold as the Daihatsu 550 Cab and Cab-Van, this engine has 30 PS (22 kW) at 5,500 rpm, and 4.2 kg·m (41 N·m; 30 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm. The 550 Van had an advantage of a higher carrying capacity than the 360 Van, at 350 rather than 300 kg (772 and 661 lb).
Less than a year after the introduction of the 550, the wider and longer Hijet Wide 55 (S60) appeared, but the Hijet 550 continued in production and even underwent a facelift in April 1979 and now carried a blacked out grille. In April 1981 the four-stroke S40 Hijet 550 was discontinued, but the two-stroke S38 continued to be available until August 1981 as a low-cost version (by which time the sixth generation Hijet was already on sale). The later ZM-engined versions had 24 PS (18 kW). The two-stroke was also popular in many Southeast Asian markets, where emissions regulations were more lax and its lower purchasing price had a bigger impact.
Fifth generation (S60) 
Facelifted Hijet 55 Wide (80-81)
|Also called||Daihatsu 55 Wide (export)
Daihatsu City-Bus (Austria)
|Layout||mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||547 cc AB20 OHC I2|
|Wheelbase||1,780 mm (70 in)|
|Length||3,195 mm (126 in)|
|Width||1,395 mm (55 in)|
|Height||1,625 mm (64 in)|
In April 1977, production of the truck version of the fifth generation began. Called the Hijet Wide 55, to draw attention to its wider body and bigger 550 cc engine, this was the first Hijet to reach export markets in any serious numbers. The 547 cc AB20 was a four-stroke, water-cooled two-cylinder unit with a single overhead camshaft and balance axle. Power output is 28 PS (21 kW) at 5,500 rpm, while max torque is 4.0 kg·m (39 N·m; 29 lb·ft) at 3,500 rpm. Export versions, which had to face less stringent emissions requirements, offered 30 PS (22 kW) at the same engine speed and 4.2 kg·m (41 N·m; 30 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm. The only transmission installed is a four-speed manual with a floor-mounted shifter; export versions could reach a claimed 105 km/h (65 mph) top speed.
The engine is mid-mounted just behind the front axle, and access is gained by simply lifting the front seats. Chassis code is S60, with the succeeding letter "P" signifying a simple pickup bed with one opening flap; "T" for the three-way dropside pickup; and "V" for the vans.
Three months after the introduction of the pickups (in June 1977), a glassed van with sliding doors and also a "panel van" version were released. The panel van was simply a truck with a box mounted on the rear; this version was not exported. For export, a van version without windows or rear seats was preferred. A low floor dropside bed was added in December 1977, and a minor facelift took place in September 1978. The changes were limited to different colored bumpers and headlight surrounds, and a changed metal grille insert featuring a larger "D" logo. All versions were available in either Standard or Super DeLuxe trims, but in March 1979 a comparatively luxurious "Custom EX" version of the light van was added.
In September 1979, the Hijet Wide 55 underwent a more thorough facelift: A new front clip with a single-piece grille was the most obvious change, while inside there was a new more sculpted dash as well as more comfortable seats which received adjustable backs. Production continued until replaced by the sixth generation Hijet in 1981.
Sixth generation (S65) 
Daihatsu Hijet 4WD (S66)
|Also called||Daihatsu 55 Wide (export)
Daihatsu Sparcar (Germany)
|Layout||mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
|Engine||547 cc AB20/50 I2
547 cc AB55 turbo I2
843 cc CD I3
993 cc CB I3
|Wheelbase||1,820 mm (72 in)
1,815 mm (71 in) (4WD)
|Length||3,195 mm (126 in)|
|Width||1,395 mm (55 in)|
|Height||1,660–1,820 mm (65–72 in)|
In March 1981 the all-new S65 Hijet appeared, now on a slightly longer wheelbase but with the same AB20 engine. New was a flat-floor option for the Vans, and also new was a high-roof option. Power output is 28 PS (21 kW) at 5,500 rpm, while max torque is 41 N·m (4.2 kg·m; 30 lb·ft) at 3,500 rpm. Most mechanicals were originally the same as before, but in March 1982 the S66, a new four-wheel drive (from October 1983 with optional free-wheel front hubs and front-wheel disc brakes) appeared. From 1982, export versions received a torquier 843 cc three-cylinder engine, called the Daihatsu 850 Cab. In 1983 a one-liter version was also made available.
Also in 1983 the Hijet Jumbo appeared, a high-roofed extended cab pickup with a shorter bed. This meant that there was space for more comfortable seats, with considerable more travel and folding seatbacks. The resulting rear compartment offered small luggage spaces, a flat-folding passenger seat, and a small luggage rack above. The two-wheel Jumbo was available with a fifth gear, as were some versions of the Atrai passenger van. There was also a Hijet Climber series (two- or four-wheel drive), these were fitted with bigger off-road tires and a limited-slip differential.
The S65 was also sold as the Hijet Atrai Van from September 1981, a version specifically intended for passenger use. From October 1983 this became a separate badge in the Japanese market, where the Atrai remains separate from the more workmanlike Hijets. There was also a handicap accessible version of the Hijet S65V, which could accommodate a folding wheel chair. The most surprising news was probably the addition of a turbocharged version in February 1984, also available with four-wheel drive.
A subsidiary of FAW Tianjin began producing the S65 Hijet in 1984, originally as the Tianjin TJ110 but later as the Huali Dafa. The Chinese-built trucklets were only available with two-wheel drive and the 843 cc three-cylinder CD engine, offering 41 PS (30 kW) at 5,500 rpm. The high roof was also available in China.
Ninth generation (S200) 
When the ninth generation Hijet was introduced in 1999, a divergence between the truck and van versions (Cargo) occurred, with the vans now being of a front-engined "semicab" design rather than the mid-engined cabover design retained for the truck. A tenth generation of the Hijet Cargo has since appeared, but the ninth generation of the truck remains in production. A similar divergence took place in the Suzuki Carry lineup, necessitated by new crash protection legislations enacted for passenger cars. Since the Hijet Cargo also forms the basis for the passenger use Atrai, it too now has a front-mounted engine.
Tenth generation (S320) 
The tenth generation is only available in van form, with the trucks remaining the ninth generation cabover model. In Japan, the passenger car version of the Hijet is known as the Daihatsu Atrai, which is also powered by a 660 cc Turbo engine producing 64 PS (47 kW). Available engines for 2006 include the DVVT equipped 660 cc EF-VE, making 39 kW (53 PS) at 7,000 rpm and 63 N·m (46 lb·ft) of torque at 4,000 rpm, and the 660 cc EF-SE, making 33 kW (45 PS) at 5,900 rpm and 57 N·m (42 lb·ft) of torque at 3,600 rpm. The base model is mid-engined with rear-wheel drive, but four-wheel drive versions are also available.
The tenth generation Van/Microbus as well as the ninth generation truck have also been marketed In Japan by Toyota in Japan since December 2011. They are called Toyota Pixis Van and Truck respecitvely. As for the Hijet, they have the new KF engine of 660 cc.
There are also versions of the Hijet sold outside Japan, available with 1.0 and 1.3-litre engines. These are no longer considered kei cars, as they are wider and longer than allowed by these narrowly defined regulations. The Hijet Maxx/Hijet Jumbo is a pick-up truck or chassis cab which can be set up for other uses such as a moving stall. The Daihatsu Zebra (also known as the Daihatsu Citivan, Daihatsu Devan, and Daihatsu Zebra Espass) is a van version of the Hijet Maxx. The Perodua Rusa is a rebadged Zebra sold by Daihatsu's Malaysian partner, Perodua. In the Japanese market, there was also a larger version of the ninth generation Hijet, sold as the Hijet Gran Cargo. This car has been exported as the Extol as well.
The Piaggio Porter is a licenced version manufactured in Italy since 1992 (originally as the "Innocenti Porter"), available also with diesel, LPG, CNG or electric motors. Originally equipped with a 1.0 petrol or a 1.2 litre diesel, more recent cars receive a 1,269 cc petrol/LPG engine or a 1,371 cc diesel. The 1.3 offers 65 PS (48 kW) in either configuration while the 1.4 diesel only manages 38 PS (28 kW). All of these Porter variants are based on the facelifted seventh generation of the Hijet (S82) which has its front wheel located below the front door and a mid-mounted engine. The S82 Hijet also provided the basis for Kia's Towner.
In 2007, Daihatsu Indonesia launched the new Daihatsu Gran Max which is based on the newest Hijet ("semicab", front wheels located forward of the door). It is powered by 1,300 and 1,500 cc engines and is both wider and longer than the kei car based Hijet. It replaces the previous Daihatsu Zebra of similar size. The Gran Max is available in minivan and pick-up bodystyles and since February 2008 it is exported to Japan where it is sold as the Toyota LiteAce (S402) for pickup and also Toyota Town Ace and Toyota Modelista for minivan.
Hybrid Hijet 
In 2002, Daihatsu debuted the Hijet Cargo Hybrid concept, a hybrid van, in Japan using a 660 cc engine. The car is based on the existing non-hybrid Hijet Cargo. Daihatsu calls it a mild hybrid design. Its design (called Daihatsu Mild Hybrid System or DMHS based on Toyota hybrid technology) is quite different from many existing hybrid design where as the gas and electric powered components assembled as one unit. The electric motor sits between the gasoline powered engine and the transmission unit. The car is 30% more fuel efficient than its gas-powered counterpart.
The hybrid minicars (called FEV - Ultra Fuel Economy - and Atrai Hybrid-IV) made its debut in 2002 as a concept minicar. Its production was announced in October 2004 but as of May 2006 had not been released.
See also 
- 360cc: Light Commercial Truck 1950-1975 (360cc 軽商用貨物自動車 1950-1975) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Yaesu Publishing. 2009. p. 65. ISBN 978-4-86144-139-4.
- Martin Schaefers. "Japanese Kei Minivans". Far East Auto Literature. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
- "４代目 ハイゼット" [Fourth generation Hijet] (in Japanese). アトレークラブ２ [Atrai Club 2]. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
- Kobori, Kazunori (2007). ダイハツ 日本最古の発動機メーカーの変遷 [Daihatsu: The History of Japan's Oldest Engine Company] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Miki Press. xv. ISBN 978-4-89522-505-2.
- Daihatsu 550 Cab Van (brochure), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, June 1976, p. 2, L-54/100/51006-F
- Kobori, p. 113
- 省エネルギー時代にこたえるダイハツ [Daihatsu responds to the age of energy saving] (brochure) (in Japanese), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, June 1980, p. 5, 10850 ① 200.55.6. OK
- Daihatsu 55 Wide Cab Van (brochure), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, August 1977, 2053/300/52008
- Daihatsu City-Bus (brochure) (in German), Vienna, Austria: Hans Heller, p. 2
- Kobori, p. 112
- Parts Catalog: Daihatsu Hijet Wide 55 S60, Daihatsu Motors, 1981, p. 1
- Daihatsu Sparcar Super S65 Serie (brochure) (in German), Munich, Germany: Inthelco, p. 2
- Kobori, p. 70
- Delta (brochure), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, p. 24, 1 098-00191
- ハイゼット [Hijet] (brochure) (in Japanese), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, pp. 7–8, 17420 ➂ 30A 6003KB
- ハイゼット [Hijet] (brochure), p. 10
- Kobori, p. 71
- "Daihatsu News: Terios to Be Produced in China Under New Technical Licence Agreement with FAW Huali". Daihatsu Motor Co. 2003-01-24. Retrieved 2011-01-10.
- Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 997.
- "新型軽商用車「ピクシス バン」「ピクシス トラック」を発売" [New light commercials Pixis Van and Pixis Truck released]. ニュース [News] (in Japanese). Toyota Motor Co. 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- Calin, Mihaela (2005-09-29), "O noua provocare pe piata auto constanteana" [A new challenge for Constanţa's auto market], Romania Libera (in Romanian)
- "Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. - Annual Report 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-31.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Daihatsu Hijet|
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- Daihatsu Hijet Information Page
|Daihatsu road vehicle timeline, 1960–1979 — next »|
|Kei car||Fellow/360||Fellow Max/360||Fellow Max/Max Cuore|
|Commercial vehicle||New Line||New Line||Delta 750|
|High Line||High Line||Delta Van/Wagon|