Daihatsu Hijet

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Daihatsu Hijet
DaihatsuHijet123.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Also called Daihatsu Atrai
Daihatsu Extol
Daihatsu Gran Max
Daihatsu Luxio
Daihatsu Zebra
Piaggio Porter
Subaru Dias Wagon
Toyota Sparky
Toyota Pixis
Toyota TownAce
Toyota LiteAce
Production 1960–present
Body and chassis
Class Kei truck
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Platform Mid-engined, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive

The Daihatsu Hijet is a microvan and pickup truck produced by the Japanese automaker Daihatsu. Despite the similarities between the Hijet name and Toyota's naming scheme for its trucks and vans (Hiace and Hilux), the name "Hijet" has been in use for Daihatsu's Kei trucks and vans since 1960, over two decades before Toyota took control. "Hijet", when transliterated into Japanese, is very similar to "Midget", one of Daihatsu's other mini-trucks. The Hijet competes in Japan with the Honda Acty, Subaru Sambar, Mitsubishi Minicab, and the Suzuki Carry.

History[edit]

The first Hijet received a 360 cc two-stroke engine, as was dictated by the kei car laws of the time. The Hijet's development has long followed the evolution of Japan's kei regulations, with an increase to 550 cc in 1976 and then 660 cc for 1990. Exterior dimensions have also increased somewhat, from 3 x 1.3 m originally to 3.4 x 1.475 m today. Export versions have usually been somewhat larger as bigger bumpers and sometimes wider bodies are fitted.

First generation (L35/L36)[edit]

series L35 (truck) L36 (van)
Daihatsu Hijet 1st.JPG
Daihatsu Hijet trucks (1963 & 1964)
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Production 1960-1966
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Layout front-engine, rear-wheel drive
Related Daihatsu Fellow (L37)
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Length 2,995 mm (118 in)
Width 1,295 mm (51 in)
Height 1,615 mm (64 in)

The first vehicle to bear the name Hijet from Daihatsu was a kei truck in November 1960, with the enclosed body van in May 1961. The first Hijet used a conventional front engine, rear drive format with the driver sitting behind the engine, in a similar pickup fashion. The exterior dimensions and engine displacement were in compliance with "kei class" regulations in Japan at its introduction. As a result, the ability to carry loads was very much reduced.

Second generation (S35/S36)[edit]

series S35 (truck) S36 (van)
Daihatsu Hijet 2nd.JPG
Daihatsu Hijet cabover truck (1965)
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Production 1964-1968
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Layout mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine 356 cc ZM two-stroke I2 (water-cooled)
Transmission 3-speed manual
Dimensions
Length 2,995 mm (118 in)
Width 1,295 mm (51 in)
Height 1,615 mm (64 in)

To maximize cargo carrying space while still staying in the "kei" class regulations, a cabover approach was adopted in 1964, offering buyers the choice between the first generation style or the cabover approach. This generation appearance was also introduced as the larger "New Line" Daihatsu cabover truck, shared with the Daihatsu Compagno.

The cabover bodystyle approach appeared after the 1950 Volkswagen Type 2, the 1961 Ford Econoline, the 1961 Chevrolet Greenbrier, and during the same year as the Dodge A100.

Third generation (S37)[edit]

series S35 (truck) S36 (van)
Hijet-S37.jpg
Daihatsu Hijet cabover truck (1968)
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Production 1968-1972
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
microvan
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Layout mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine 356 cc ZM two-stroke I2 (water-cooled)
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Length 2,995 mm (118 in)
Width 1,295 mm (51 in)
Height 1,615 mm (64 in)

First model change from previous generation saw minor improvements, to include installation of the front door hinges to a conventional implementation as opposed to the rear hinged door. This generation was also offered as an all electric truck and van.

Fourth generation (S38/S40)[edit]

Daihatsu Hijet S38/S40
Daihatsu Hijet S40 Van.jpg
S40 series Van (550)
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Also called Daihatsu 360/550 Cab
Production 1971.09-1981.08
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Layout mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Platform S38/S40
Powertrain
Engine 356 cc ZM two-stroke I2
547 cc AB20 OHC I2
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,680 mm (66 in)
Length 2,995 mm (118 in) (until 1976)
3,045 mm (120 in) (post-1976 truck)
3,090 mm (122 in) (post-1976 Van)
Width 1,295 mm (51 in)
Height 1,615 mm (64 in)

In September 1971 the fourth generation Hijet appeared, with all-new sheetmetal, initially available only as a truck.[1] The engine remained the ZM 360 cc two-stroke two-cylinder, while the rear suspension reverted to a live, leaf-sprung unit.[2] In February 1972 a new Van was presented, originally marketed as the "Slide Van" as it now featured sliding doors on both sides in addition to a top-hinged tailgate.[1] In September 1974 the front clip and rear bumper underwent light changes to accommodate full-size yellow license plates (hitherto, kei cars had been equipped with smaller plates than normal).

In October 1976 the four-stroke Hijet 550 appeared,[3] with the new 550 cc AB20 engine taking full advantage of the recent new kei regulations. Bigger bumpers meant that all Hijets built after this date are slightly longer, as the 360 received the same external changes simultaneously, including a new front clip.[4] To reflect the new engine, the 550 received the new chassis code S40. In export trim, where it was sold as the Daihatsu 550 Cab and Cab-Van, this engine has 30 PS (22 kW) at 5,500 rpm, and 4.2 kg·m (41 N·m; 30 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm.[5] The 550 Van had an advantage of a higher carrying capacity than the 360 Van, at 350 rather than 300 kg (772 and 661 lb respectively).

Less than a year after the introduction of the 550, the wider and longer Hijet Wide 55 (S60) appeared, but the Hijet 550 continued in production and even underwent a facelift in April 1979 and now carried a blacked out grille. In April 1981 the four-stroke S40 Hijet 550 was discontinued, but the two-stroke S38 continued to be available until August 1981[3][6] as a low-cost version (by which time the sixth generation Hijet was already on sale). The later ZM-engined versions had 24 PS (18 kW).[7] The two-stroke was also popular in many Southeast Asian markets, where emissions regulations were more lax and its lower purchasing price had a bigger impact.

Daihatsu Hijet 360 Van (S38)
Daihatsu Hijet 360 Truck (S38)

Fifth generation (S60)[edit]

Daihatsu Hijet Wide 55
Hijet 55 Wide front.jpg
Facelifted Hijet 55 Wide (1980-81)
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Also called Daihatsu 55 Wide (export)[8]
Daihatsu City-Bus (Austria)[9]
Production 1977-1981
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Layout mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Platform S60
Powertrain
Engine 547 cc AB20 OHC I2
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,780 mm (70 in)
Length 3,195 mm (126 in)
Width 1,395 mm (55 in)
Height 1,625 mm (64 in)

In April 1977, production of the truck version of the fifth generation began.[10] Called the Hijet Wide 55, to draw attention to its wider body and bigger 550 cc engine, this was the first Hijet to reach export markets in any serious numbers. The 547 cc AB20 was a four-stroke, water-cooled two-cylinder unit with a single overhead camshaft and balance axle. Power output is 28 PS (21 kW) at 5,500 rpm, while max torque is 4.0 kg·m (39 N·m; 29 lb·ft) at 3,500 rpm. Export versions, which had to face less stringent emissions requirements, offered 30 PS (22 kW) at the same engine speed and 4.2 kg·m (41 N·m; 30 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm.[8] The only transmission installed is a four-speed manual with a floor-mounted shifter; export versions could reach a claimed 105 km/h (65 mph) top speed.[9]

The engine is mid-mounted just behind the front axle, and access is gained by simply lifting the front seats. Chassis code is S60, with the succeeding letter "P" signifying a simple pickup bed with one opening flap; "T" for the three-way dropside pickup; and "V" for the vans.[11]

Three months after the introduction of the pickups (in June 1977), a glassed van with sliding doors and also a "panel van" version were released. The panel van was simply a truck with a box mounted on the rear; this version was not exported.[11] For export, a van version without windows or rear seats was preferred. A low floor dropside bed was added in December 1977, and a minor facelift took place in September 1978. The changes were limited to different colored bumpers and headlight surrounds, and a changed metal grille insert featuring a larger "D" logo. All versions were available in either Standard or Super DeLuxe trims, but in March 1979 a comparatively luxurious "Custom EX" version of the light van was added.[11]

In September 1979, the Hijet Wide 55 underwent a more thorough facelift: A new front clip with a single-piece grille was the most obvious change, while inside there was a new more sculpted dash as well as more comfortable seats which received adjustable backs. Production continued until replaced by the sixth generation Hijet in 1981.

First version of Hijet Wide 55 truck (S60P, 1977-78)
Rear view of late (export) panelled van version

Sixth generation (S65)[edit]

Daihatsu Hijet S65
S65Hijet660813 02.jpg
Daihatsu Hijet 4WD (S66)
Overview
Manufacturer Daihatsu
Also called Daihatsu 55 Wide (export)
Daihatsu 850/1000
Daihatsu Atrai
Daihatsu Sparcar (Germany)[12]
Production 1981-1986
Body and chassis
Class kei truck
Body style Van
Pickup truck
Layout mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
four-wheel drive
Platform S65/S66
Powertrain
Engine 547 cc AB20/50 I2
547 cc AB55 turbo I2
843 cc CD I3
993 cc CB I3
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 1,820 mm (72 in)
1,815 mm (71 in) (4WD)
Length 3,195 mm (126 in)
Width 1,395 mm (55 in)
Height 1,660–1,820 mm (65–72 in)

In March 1981 the all-new S65 Hijet appeared, now on a slightly longer wheelbase but with the same AB20 engine. New was a flat-floor option for the Vans, and also new was a high-roof option. Power output is 28 PS (21 kW) at 5500 rpm, while max torque is 41 N·m (4.2 kg·m; 30 lb·ft) at 3500 rpm.[12] Most mechanicals were originally the same as before, but in March 1982 the S66,[13] a new four-wheel drive (from October 1983 with optional free-wheel front hubs and front-wheel disc brakes) appeared. From 1982, export versions received a torquier 843 cc three-cylinder engine (CD20), called the Daihatsu 850 Cab. In 1983 a one-liter version was also made available.[14]

Also in 1983 the Hijet Jumbo appeared, a high-roofed extended cab pickup with a shorter bed. This meant that there was space for more comfortable seats, with considerable more travel and folding seatbacks. The resulting rear compartment offered small luggage spaces, a flat-folding passenger seat, and a small luggage rack above.[15] The two-wheel Jumbo was available with a fifth gear, as were some versions of the Atrai passenger van. There was also a Hijet Climber series (two- or four-wheel drive), these were fitted with bigger off-road tires and a limited-slip differential.[16]

The S65 was also sold as the Hijet Atrai Van from September 1981, a version specifically intended for passenger use. From October 1983 this became a separate badge in the Japanese market,[2] where the Atrai remains separate from the more workmanlike Hijets.[13] There was also a handicap accessible version of the Hijet S65V, which could accommodate a folding wheel chair.[17] The most surprising news was probably the addition of a turbocharged version in February 1984, also available with four-wheel drive.

A subsidiary of FAW Tianjin began producing the S65 Hijet in 1984, originally as the Tianjin TJ110 but later as the Huali Dafa.[18] The Chinese-built trucklets were only available with two-wheel drive and the 843 cc three-cylinder CD engine, offering 41 PS (30 kW) at 5,500 rpm. The high roof was also available in China.[19]

Daihatsu Hijet Jumbo

Seventh generation (S80, S82)[edit]

Seventh generation Daihatsu Hijet Jumbo (S80)

The seventh generation Hijet (S80) was a gradual development of its predecessor, introduced in May 1986.[2] The biggest change was the switch to a more modern three-cylinder engine, the EB, although displacement remained just under 550 cc. It was also built in South Korea since 1992, by Asia Motors, as the "Towner". This version was later badged "Kia Towner", subsequent to Kia's takover. These vans were only exported to certain markets (such as Malta and Chile), according to the licensing agreement. Beginning in 1992, Innocenti also built this car for European markets as the "Porter", especially to circumvent restrictions on Japanese imports in some markets like Italy. This version has long outlived the original Hijet and is still in production. Unlike the Hijet, the Porter has also been available with a diesel option.

The Japanese market Hijet continued to also be available in the "Jumbo Cab" configuration, but new was the "Deck Van" - a version of the four-door van with a very short cargo bed in the rear. This version was also sold as the Daihatsu Atrai Deck.[2] Export market Hijets generally received Daihatsu's familiar 993 cc three-cylinder engine, while domestic versions had to make do with 550 cc due to the strict Kei rules. Following new Kei car regulations in early 1990, the Hijet was updated accordingly. As with all its brethren, it gained ten centimetres (3.9 in) in overall length and 110 cc in displacement. This was enough to give it a new chassis code, S82. This version continued in production until being replaced by the eight generation version in 1994.

In May 1987 a supercharged version with 44 PS (32 kW) appeared in the Hijet truck. This remained available until the introduction of the larger 660 cc engine in March 1990.[20] The supercharger's superior torque at low engine speeds made this a natural application for a truck such as the Hijet. Conversely, the Atrai passenger car version were available with a more powerful turbo engine right from the start.

Eighth generation (S100, S110, S120, S130)[edit]

Daihatsu Hijet Truck 4WD (S110P, Japan)

The eighth generation Hijet entered the marketplace in January 1994, after having first been shown at the 30th Tokyo Motor Show in October 1993, and continued to be built until replaced by the ninth generation in 1999. S100 was used for two-wheel drive versions, while four-wheel-drives were coded S110. The suffix P was for trucks, C for panel vans, and V for glazed vans. The passenger-oriented Atrai received S120 and S130 chassis codes. In May the Hijet EV, a fully electric version of the van, appeared - replacing the EV version of the seventh generation Hijet.[21]A fuel injected, SOHC 6-valve engine with 44 PS (32 kW) (EF-ES) was standard on automatic cars and optional on five-speed manuals, which otherwise received a carburetted version with two horsepower less. From January 1996, automatics received a twin-cam 12-valve carburetted version of the EF engine (EF-GS), still with the same power.

In 1995 a Hijet EV Truck appeared, complementing the Van version. Appearing in October 1997, the Hijet is was a youthful version with sporty design traits, including a blacked out front panel and various body cladding items. "is" stood for "Idol" and "Stylish".

The new Atrai was focussed more on passenger comfort than earlier generations, and has a three-link independent rear suspension rather than the leaf sprung, live axle of the Hijet. This is why the Atrai has its own chassis numbers (S120/130). The Atrai passenger van was available with more powerful turbocharged engines, such as the SOHC 6-valve EF-TS and the twin-cam, 12-valve EF-RS (from January 1997). Both of these engines nominally remained beneath the 64 PS (47 kW) limit set by Japanese regulators for Kei cars - but with 13.6 percent more torque than the lower tuned single-cam, it was clear to all that the EF-RS had considerably more power than acknowledged. The Turbo SR (and later RT) models received anti-lock brakes as standard. In October 1997 the Atrai Classic appeared; this model has a leather interior and keyless entry, among other equipment improvements.

Ninth generation (S200)[edit]

The ninth generation Hijet Cargo

When the ninth generation Hijet was introduced in 1999, a divergence between the truck and van versions (Cargo) occurred, with the vans now being of a front-engined "semicab" design rather than the mid-engined cabover design retained for the truck. A tenth generation of the Hijet Cargo has since appeared, but the ninth generation of the truck remains in production. A similar divergence took place in the Suzuki Carry lineup, necessitated by new crash protection legislations enacted for passenger cars. Since the Hijet Cargo also forms the basis for the passenger use Atrai, it too now has a front-mounted engine.

A 1.3 liter seven-seat version (S221G) was also offered, sold as the "Daihatsu Atrai 7". It has bigger bumpers and does not qualify as a kei car. In an OEM deal, this car was also sold as the Toyota Sparky.

Tenth generation (S320)[edit]

The tenth generation is only available in van form, with the trucks remaining the ninth generation cabover model. In Japan, the passenger car version of the Hijet is known as the Daihatsu Atrai, which is also powered by a 660 cc Turbo engine producing 64 PS (47 kW). Available engines for 2006 include the DVVT equipped 660 cc EF-VE, making 39 kW (53 PS) at 7000 rpm and 63 N·m (46 lb·ft) of torque at 4000 rpm, and the 660 cc EF-SE, making 33 kW (45 PS) at 5900 rpm and 57 N·m (42 lb·ft) of torque at 3600 rpm. The base model is mid-engined with rear-wheel drive, but four-wheel drive versions are also available.

The tenth generation Van/Microbus as well as the ninth generation truck have also been marketed In Japan by Toyota in Japan since December 2011. They are called Toyota Pixis Van and Truck respectively. As for the Hijet, they have the new KF engine of 660 cc.[22]

Variants[edit]

Piaggio Porter, based on the seventh generation Hijet

There are also versions of the Hijet sold outside Japan, available with 1.0 and 1.3-litre engines. These are no longer considered kei cars, as they are wider and longer than allowed by these narrowly defined regulations. The Hijet Maxx/Hijet Jumbo is a pick-up truck or chassis cab which can be set up for other uses such as a moving stall. The Daihatsu Zebra (also known as the Daihatsu Citivan, Daihatsu Devan, and Daihatsu Zebra Espass) is a van version of the Hijet Maxx. The Zebra was originally a one-litre car but later became available with 1.3 and 1.6 engines. The 1.6 was replaced by a 1.5 liter model in January 2002.[23] The Perodua Rusa is a rebadged Zebra sold by Daihatsu's Malaysian partner, Perodua. In the Japanese market, there was also a larger version of the ninth generation Hijet, sold as the Hijet Gran Cargo. This car has been exported to other right-hand drive markets as the Extol as well.

Daihatsu Gran Max DLi pick-up in Indonesia

Piaggio Porter[edit]

The Piaggio Porter is a licenced version manufactured in Italy since 1992 (originally as the "Innocenti Porter"), available also with diesel, LPG, CNG or electric motors. Originally equipped with a 1.0 petrol or a 1.2 litre diesel, more recent cars receive a 1,269 cc petrol/LPG engine or a 1,371 cc diesel.[2] The 1.3 offers 65 PS (48 kW) in either configuration while the 1.4 diesel only manages 38 PS (28 kW).[24] All of these Porter variants are based on the facelifted seventh generation of the Hijet (S82) which has its front wheel located below the front door and a mid-mounted engine.

Daihatsu Gran Max[edit]

In 2007, Daihatsu Indonesia launched the new Daihatsu Gran Max which is based on the newest Hijet ("semicab", front wheels located forward of the door). It is powered by 1,300 and 1,500 cc engines and is both wider and longer than the kei car based Hijet. It replaces the previous Daihatsu Zebra of similar size. The Gran Max is available in minivan and pick-up bodystyles and since February 2008 it is exported to Japan where it is sold as the Toyota LiteAce (S402) for pickup and also Toyota Town Ace and Toyota Modelista for minivan.

Daihatsu Luxio[edit]

Main article: Daihatsu Luxio

Astra Daihatsu unveiled the new Daihatsu Luxio in 2009, which loosely based on Daihatsu Gran Max. It was intended to be the luxury version of the Gran Max minivan; with different body and interior. Currently only sold in Indonesia.

Hybrid Hijet[edit]

In 2002, Daihatsu debuted the Hijet Cargo Hybrid concept, a hybrid van, in Japan using a 660 cc engine. The car is based on the existing non-hybrid Hijet Cargo. Daihatsu calls it a mild hybrid design. Its design (called Daihatsu Mild Hybrid System or DMHS based on Toyota hybrid technology) is quite different from many existing hybrid design where as the gas and electric powered components assembled as one unit. The electric motor sits between the gasoline powered engine and the transmission unit. The car is 30% more fuel efficient than its gasoline powered counterpart.

The hybrid minicars (called FEV and Atrai Hybrid-IV) made their debut in 2002 as a concept minicar.[25] Its production was announced in October 2004 but never entered production as Daihatsu chose to release hybrid versions of newer models instead.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kobori, Kazunori (2007). ダイハツ 日本最古の発動機メーカーの変遷 [Daihatsu: The History of Japan's Oldest Engine Company] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Miki Press. ISBN 978-4-89522-505-2. 
  1. ^ a b 360cc: Light Commercial Truck 1950-1975 (360cc 軽商用貨物自動車 1950-1975) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Yaesu Publishing. 2009. p. 65. ISBN 978-4-86144-139-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Martin Schaefers. "Japanese Kei Minivans". Far East Auto Literature. Retrieved 2012-08-27. 
  3. ^ a b 4代目 ハイゼット [Fourth generation Hijet] (in Japanese). アトレークラブ2 [Atrai Club 2]. Retrieved 2012-12-26. 
  4. ^ Kobori, at xv
  5. ^ Daihatsu 550 Cab Van (brochure), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, June 1976, p. 2, L-54/100/51006-F 
  6. ^ Kobori, p. 113
  7. ^ 省エネルギー時代にこたえるダイハツ [Daihatsu responds to the age of energy saving] (brochure) (in Japanese), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, June 1980, p. 5, 10850 ① 200.55.6. OK 
  8. ^ a b Daihatsu 55 Wide Cab Van (brochure), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, August 1977, 2053/300/52008 
  9. ^ a b Daihatsu City-Bus (brochure) (in German), Vienna, Austria: Hans Heller, p. 2 
  10. ^ Kobori, p. 112
  11. ^ a b c Parts Catalog: Daihatsu Hijet Wide 55 S60, Daihatsu Motors, 1981, p. 1 
  12. ^ a b Daihatsu Sparcar Super S65 Serie (brochure) (in German), Munich, Germany: Inthelco, p. 2 
  13. ^ a b Kobori, p. 70
  14. ^ Delta (brochure), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, p. 24, 1 098-00191 
  15. ^ ハイゼット [Hijet] (brochure) (in Japanese), Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motors, pp. 7–8, 17420 ➂ 30A 6003KB 
  16. ^ ハイゼット [Hijet] (brochure), p. 10
  17. ^ Kobori, p. 71
  18. ^ "Daihatsu News: Terios to Be Produced in China Under New Technical Licence Agreement with FAW Huali". Daihatsu Motor Co. 2003-01-24. Retrieved 2011-01-10. 
  19. ^ Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 997. 
  20. ^ Kobori, p. 75
  21. ^ "Daihatsu History - 1990s". Corporate info. Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motor Co. Retrieved 2014-11-03. 
  22. ^ 新型軽商用車「ピクシス バン」「ピクシス トラック」を発売 [New light commercials Pixis Van and Pixis Truck released]. ニュース [News] (in Japanese). Toyota Motor Co. 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  23. ^ "Annual Report 2002". Osaka, Japan: Daihatsu Motor Co. March 2002. p. 14. 
  24. ^ Calin, Mihaela (2005-09-29), O noua provocare pe piata auto constanteana [A new challenge for Constanţa's auto market], Romania Libera (in Romanian) 
  25. ^ Annual Report 2002, pp. 9, 14

External links[edit]