Daisy Bell

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"Bicycle Built for Two" redirects here. For the multi-rider bicycle, see Tandem bicycle.
"Daisy Bell"
Daisybell.jpg
Song
Released 1892
Composer Harry Dacre
Sung by Edward M. Favor. Recorded by the Edison Phonograph Company on brown wax cylinder in 1894

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"Daisy Bell (Bicycle Built for Two)" is a popular song, written in 1892 by Harry Dacre, with the well-known chorus "Daisy, Daisy / Give me your answer, do. / I'm half crazy / all for the love of you", ending with the words "a bicycle built for two".

It is the earliest known song sung using computer speech synthesis, as later referenced in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey.

History[edit]

"Daisy Bell" was composed by Harry Dacre in 1892. As David Ewen writes in American Popular Songs:[1]

When Dacre, an English popular composer, first came to the United States, he brought with him a bicycle, for which he was charged import duty. His friend William Jerome, another songwriter, remarked lightly: "It's lucky you didn't bring a bicycle built for two, otherwise you'd have to pay double duty." Dacre was so taken with the phrase "bicycle built for two" that he soon used it in a song. That song, Daisy Bell, first became successful in a London music hall, in a performance by Katie Lawrence. Tony Pastor was the first to sing it in the United States. Its success in America began when Jennie Lindsay brought down the house with it at the Atlantic Gardens on the Bowery early in 1892.

The song was originally recorded and released by Dan W. Quinn in 1893.[2]

Parody[edit]

Even in original form this light-hearted song contains several puns ("tandem" as describing both a tandem bicycle and matrimony; bell/belle; weal/wheel; etc.) And almost from the beginning the song lent itself to parody and satire, with a great number of additional verses having been penned, ranging from the mildly humouous to the outright obscene. For example, The same year the song was published, an "answer" chorus appeared:

Michael, Michael, here is my answer true
You're half crazy if you think that that will do
If you can't afford a carriage
There won't be any marriage
Cause I'll be switched if I'll get hitched
On a bicycle built for two

Sometimes the songwriter's name—"Harry"—was used instead of "Michael" in this chorus.[3]

In technology and culture[edit]

In 1961 an IBM 704 at Bell Labs was programmed to 'sing' "Daisy Bell" in the earliest known demonstration of computer speech synthesis.[4] Science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke witnessed the demonstration and referenced it in the 1968 novel and film 2001: A Space Odyssey, in which the HAL 9000 computer sings "Daisy Bell" during its gradual deactivation.[5]

In 1974 auditory researchers used the melody of "Daisy Bell" for the first demonstration of "pure dichotic" (two-ear only) perception: they encoded the melody in a stereophonic signal in such a way that it could be perceived when listening with both ears but not with either ear alone.[6]

Recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ewen, David (1966). American Popular Songs. Random House. ISBN 0-394-41705-4. 
  2. ^ Whitburn, Joel (1986). Pop Memories 1890–1954. Record Research. ISBN 0-89820-083-0. 
  3. ^ Cray, Ed; The Erotic Muse; University of Illinois Press; Champaign, IL: 1992 ISBN 0-2520-178-11
  4. ^ National Recording Registry Adds 25 – The Library Today (Library of Congress)
  5. ^ "Background: Bell Labs Text-to-Speech Synthesis". bell-labs.com. Lucent Technologies. March 1997. Archived from the original on 7 April 2000. 
  6. ^ Kubovy, M.; Cutting, J. E.; McGuire, R. M. . (1974). "Hearing with the Third Ear: Dichotic Perception of a Melody without Monaural Familiarity Cues". Science 186 (4160): 272–274. doi:10.1126/science.186.4160.272. PMID 4413641.  edit

External links[edit]