Dalian dialect

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Dalian dialect
大连
Native to China
Region Liaodong Peninsula
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Dalian dialect (Chinese: 大连话, Pinyin: dalian hua, Romaji: Dairen-ben) is the dialect of Mandarin spoken on the Liaodong Peninsula, including the city of Dalian and parts of Dandong and Yingkou. Dalian dialect shares many similarities with the Qingdao dialect spoken on Shandong Peninsula (Jiaodong Peninsula) across Bohai Strait; hence the name Jiao Liao Mandarin (胶辽官话). Dalian dialect is notable among Chinese dialects for loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation.[1]

Notable words in the Dalian dialect include 臕 ("foolish") and 熊 ("to cheat or deceive").

Voice[edit]

Contrast of Dalianese and Mandarin on pronunciation[edit]

Contrast of Dalianese and Mandarin on pronunciation
Mandarin → Dalianese Example
zh,ch,sh,r → z,c,s,y 中國人 zhōng guó rén → Zong1-guo2-yin2
d,t,n,l,z,c,s+uei,uan,uen → d,t,n,l,z,c,s+êi,an,en 對 dù(e)i → dêi4
o and individual uo → e 胳膊 gē bo → ge3-be
脫 tuō → te3
suffix "子" → e 孩子 hái zi → hai2-e
w+a,ai,ei,an,en,ang,eng → v+a,ai,êi,an,en,ang,eng
wu and wo don't change
晚飯 wǎn fàn → van3-fan4
numeral "二" → ar4 王二小 wáng èr xiǎo → Vang2 Ar4-xiou3
瑞 → suêi4
崖 → ai2
瑞士 rùi shì → Suêi4-si
泡崖 pào yá → Pou4-ai2
n+i,iang,ie,ian,iao,iu,in,ing,ü,üe → gn+i,iang,iê,iên,iou,ieu,in,ing,ü,üê
nu doesn't change
你 nǐ → gni3
虐 nüè → gnüê4

Thirteen erhuayins[edit]

Basic vowels ai an ên i ü êi en a ê o e u ou eu ang (u)ang ong eng
Erhua vowels ar
[ ɑʅ ]
er
[ əʅ ]
ahr
[ ? ]
êr
[ ɛʅ ]
or
[ ɔʅ ]
ehr
[ ? ]
ur
[ uʯ ]
our
[ ɔʊʯ ]
eur
[ əʊʯ ]
angr
[ ɑŋʅ ]
(u)angr
[ ɔŋʅ ]
ongr
[ ʊŋʯ ]
engr
[ əŋʅ ]
  • "瓦" and "碗" are different; "歌" and "根" are different, vowel of "根" is a kind of retroflex mid-central vowel.
  • i of "zi, ci, si, zhi, chi, shi, ri" is an apical vowel. After erhua-ing, i turns into er, such as "字"zer4 and "事"sher4.
  • The rule of i, u, ü combining with the erhua vowels is the same as the rule of those combining with the basic vowels, so the tabulation of this part is omitted.

Tones[edit]

Tones of Dalianese
Tone No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not marked
Jiaoliao Mandarin
  • Dalian dialect
Yinping (LowMid falling) Yangping (Middle rising) Shangsheng (Middle concave) Yinqu (HighMid falling) Zhongqu (Middle level/Low rising) Yangqu (Low falling) Qingsheng
31 24 213 52 33/13 21 --
Jianghuai Mandarin Yinping (LowMid falling) Yangping (Low rising) Shangsheng (Low concave) Qusheng (HighMid level) Rusheng (High entering) Qingsheng
31 13 212 44 5 Variable
Northeastern Mandarin Yinping (High level) Yangping (High rising) Shangsheng (High concave) Qusheng (High falling) Qingsheng
55 35 214 51 --

In Dalianese,

  • When Tone No.1 meets another Tone No.1 or Tone No.4 meets Tone No.1, usually the previous tone turns to Tone No.5 and the next tone doesn't change, like “家家戶戶”jiahr5-jiahr1-hur6-hur4, “駕崩”jia5-beng1.[2]
  • When Tone No.1 meets Tone No.4, usually the previous tone doesn't change and the next tone turns to Tone No.6, like “蟋蟀”xi1-suê6 or xi3-suêr, “稀碎”xi1-sêi6.
  • When Tone No.4 meets another Tone No.4, usually the previous tone turns to Tone No.5 and the next tone turns to Tone No.6, like “畢恭畢敬”bi5-gongr1-bi5-jingr6, “客客氣氣”kehr4-kehr-qi5-qi6.[3]

Xuzi(Kana)[edit]

  • ai = a + i (吖), ei = e + i (厄), uai = u + ai (五吖乙), ui = u + ei (五厄乙), ie = i + ê (乙),
    ao = a + u (吖), ou = e + u (厄), iao = i + au (乙吖五), iu = i + eu (乙厄五), üe = ü + ê (于),
    an = a + n (吖), en = e + n (厄), in = i + n (乙), un = u + n (五), ün = ü + n (于),
    ang = a + ng (吖), eng = e + ng (厄), ing = i + ng (乙), ong = u + ng (五), iong = ü + ng (于).

The syllables that Dalianese has but Mandarin hasn't[edit]

  • biang3 (This Chinese character is not made out yet.) -【Prefix】often used in a derogatory term, to emphasize the role of mood
  • pia3 (This Chinese character is not made out yet.) -【Verb】to ridicule sb

Vocabulary[edit]

Dalianese of full oyster flavor
Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning Dalianese Meaning
xiê3 extremely chour2 stupid / outdated hui3-le Oh, no! bai2-hu extemporaneous / to blatter zuo3-suo to waste
lang4 coxcombry biou1 foolish kehr1-le can't help it guan2-duor1 always de4-se flighty
sheur4 piquant / Cool! bai4 don't zi1-shi natty gniên4-yang show dissatisfaction tactfully xiang2-hu not very gratified / to disdain
gan1-jing Great! vahr1 low level zhangr1-chengr capable ha3-hu dress sb down bu2-lai3-xüên2 understated
kai1-le expressing dissatisfaction xüên2-le too many sa2-me peep ge4-yang disgusting ci1-mour2-jüê1-ding6 rude

Classification[edit]

Dalianese belongs to Deng-Lian Area of Lai language, and there are 3 Subareas in Deng-Lian Area.

Others[edit]

The distribution of Lai language[edit]

The bopomofo of Lai language[edit]

  • Consonants: ㄅㄆㄇㄈㄪ, ㄉㄊㄋㄌ, ㄍㄎㄫㄏ, ㄐㄑㄬㄒ, ㄓㄔㄕㄖ, ㄗㄘㄙㄭ.
  • Vowels: ㄚㄛㄜㄝ, ㄞㄟㄠㄡ, ㄢㄣㄤㄥㆲ, ニㄦㄧㄨㄩ.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 大連方言について (Japanese)
  2. ^ Please note that the Tone No.1 in Dalianese is a kind of falling tone, not a high level tone in Mandarin.
  3. ^ Please note that the extraordinary nature of some reiteratives and some onomatopoeias.