Dallas Area Rapid Transit
Arapaho Center Light Rail Station (Top)
A DART NovaBus RTS (Bottom)
|Headquarters||1401 Pacific Avenue|
|Service area||Dallas and 12 nearby suburbs|
|Service type||Bus, light rail, commuter rail|
18 FLEX / shuttle
4 light rail
1 commuter rail
|Hubs||15 (transfer centers)|
|Stations||62 (light rail)
10 (commuter rail)
163 (light rail)
|Fuel type||DC Electric, Liquefied Natural Gas, Diesel|
The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority (or DART) is a transit agency based in Dallas, Texas. It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and 12 of its suburbs. With the extension of the Orange Line to DFW Airport station at DFW Airport on August 18, 2014, DART is the largest light rail operator in the United States, with 90 miles (144.8 km) of track.
- 1 Ridership
- 2 History
- 3 DART Light Rail
- 4 Streetcars
- 5 Commuter rail
- 6 Buses
- 7 On-Call service
- 8 Flex service
- 9 Fares
- 10 Member cities
- 11 Executive directors
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Average daily ridership for DART has been in the vicinity of 200,000 riders per day over the last couple decades. In the 1st quarter of 1998, DART's weekday ridership averaged 211,000 riders per day system-wide. Total ridership numbers have risen and fallen since then; total ridership, including Trinity Railway Express ridership, has been as high as 248,500 average weekday riders in the 3rd quarter of 2008, and as low as 194,700 average weekday riders in the 1st quarter of 2010. However, after a year-long study in 2012 that counted passenger counts through both the existing manual method and a new automated counting system, DART concluded that it has been underreporting rail ridership by more than 15 percent each year. In the 4th quarter of 2012, DART reported total ridership of 252,900 weekday riders on average.
DART reported the following ridership numbers in the 4th quarter of 2012:
- Bus: 136,500 average weekday riders
- Light rail: 103,100 average weekday riders
- Trinity Railway Express: 7,300 average weekday riders
- On-Call: 2,000 average weekday riders
- Vanpool: 4,000 average weekday riders
The Dallas Transit System (DTS) was the publicly owned mass transit service operated by the city of Dallas, from 1964 to 1988. DTS resulted from a consolidation of various privately owned transit companies and streetcar lines. Prior to DTS, the company was formerly known as the Dallas Railway and Terminal Company when Dallas had an extensive streetcar system that spanned from Oak Cliff to north Dallas. The name was changed shortly after the last streetcar ran in January 1956. DART formally took over operations of the DTS in 1988.
In 2000, DART employees restored a 1966 DTS bus to its original state.
Creation of DART
DART was created on August 13, 1983 as a regional replacement for the DTS (Although the name "Dallas Area Rapid Transit" was intended to reflect the new agency's coverage of the greater Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, its acronym DART almost immediately evoked comparisons to San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit system, known as BART). Citizens of 15 area cities had voted to levy a 1% sales tax to join the system by the time it began transit services in 1984 (though formal acquisition of the Dallas Transit System wouldn't be complete until 1988).
In 1985, member cities Carrollton and Farmers Branch held elections to pull out of DART, though the measures failed. But shifting suburban politics and a loss of confidence in DART management after voters declined to support DART's measure to incur long term debt in 1988 led to 7 more pullout votes, two of which (Flower Mound and Coppell) were successful. Just one suburb joined DART — the tiny community of Buckingham, which was later annexed by DART member city Richardson.
In December 2007, DART revealed that it was facing a $1 billion shortfall in funds earmarked for the Blue Line rail service to Rowlett and Orange Line service to Irving, and DFW Airport. In January 2008, DART announced that it would divert monies from rail lines being built in Dallas. When Dallas officials protested, DART president and executive director Gary Thomas—who had known about the shortfall for at least eight months—announced that the agency would borrow more money instead.
In late January 2008, DART Board chair Lynn Flint Shaw, who was also treasurer of Dallas Mayor Tom Leppert's "Friends of Tom Leppert" fund-raising committee, resigned from her DART post. In February, she surrendered to the police on charges of forgery. On March 10, Shaw and her husband, political analyst Rufus Shaw, were found dead in their home in what turned out to be a murder suicide.
DART Light Rail
The DART light rail system comprises 90 miles (144.8 km) between its four lines — the Red Line, the Blue Line, the Orange Line and the Green Line. According to NCTCOG transit statistics, DART's light rail system had a daily ridership of 109,511 average trips per weekday in October 2012 which is an increase of more than 81% since October 2010. The system utilizes light rail trains manufactured by Kinkisharyo, with all trains being converted to "Super" LRVs (SLRVs) which feature level boarding (especially convenient for strollers and wheelchairs) and higher passenger capacity. All 163 of DART's light rail vehicles have been converted and are now SLRVs.
Before the 1983 election, DART had a plan for 160 miles (257.5 km) of rail. After the election, the plan was pared down to 147 miles (236.6 km) miles when Duncanville, Grand Prairie and Mesquite, which would have had rail lines, didn't opt to join the agency. DART chose light rail transit as its primary mode of rail transportation in 1984. The plan was pared down again to 93 miles (149.7 km) miles before the 1988 bond vote. After the vote, the agency again pared down the regional rail system to 84 miles (135.2 km) miles; 66 miles (106.2 km) light rail miles and 18 miles of commuter rail. As of August 2014, DART boasts 4 lines and the extension of the,Orange line to DFW airport is complete.
The following lines are currently active:
- Red Line (Opened in 1996, completed in its current state in 2002)
- Blue Line (Opened in 1996, completed in its current state in 2012, additions scheduled for 2018)
- Green Line (Opened in 2009, completed in its current state on Dec. 4, 2010)
- Orange Line (Opened in 2012, completed in its current state on August 18, 2014)
McKinney Avenue Transit Authority
DART also assists in the operation of the M-line Streetcar, with a joint operating subsidy given to the McKinney Avenue Transit Authority along with the Uptown Improvement District.
Downtown Dallas Streetcar Project
Since May 2013, DART is constructing a 1.6-mile (2.6 km) streetcar line which will operate between downtown Dallas and Oak Cliff by way of the Houston Street Viaduct, with opening projected for March 2015. While its first phase is planned to operate from Union Station to Methodist Dallas Medical Center, additional funding will enable extending the line south to the Bishop Arts District and east from Union Station to the Dallas Convention Center.
The project, a collaborative endeavor between DART, the City of Dallas, the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG), and the Federal Railroad Administration, is being funded in part by a federal TIGER grant awarded to DART in December of 2010. DART reallocated $22 million in local funds to the streetcar project which were originally scheduled for a proposed people-mover between Inwood Love/Field station and Love Field. In January 2013, NCTCOG approved reallocating $31 million in state funds earmarked for the Love Field people-mover to the streetcar project. The combined funding will allow construction of both the first and second phases of the streetcar project.
In February 2013, an order was placed with Brookville Equipment Corporation for two low-floor streetcars to provide the service on the line. Brookville's "Liberty" model, the articulated, 67-foot (20 m) cars will have limited capability to operate away from the overhead trolley wire, on battery power. By September 2014, most track construction had been completed, and the two streetcars on order from Brookville were due for delivery in December 2014 and February 2015. Opening of the line was predicted for March 2015.
Trinity Railway Express
The Trinity Railway Express (TRE) commuter rail line connects downtown Dallas with downtown Fort Worth. The TRE, created in 1996 by an interlocal agreement between DART and the Fort Worth Transit Authority, "The T", connected the cities' centers by rail for the first time since the 1930s, excluding Amtrak's Texas Eagle.
The TRE commuter line has an average weekday ridership of 7,300 passengers per day and is the fifteenth most-ridden commuter rail system in the country. In 2012, the TRE carried a total of 2.3 million passengers.
The Denton County Transportation Authority (DCTA) built its A-train commuter rail service in partnership with DART and the TRE. The DCTA is leasing the right-of-way for its 21-mile commuter line from DART, and coordinated with DART to provide connecting service between the A-train and DART's Green Line. The DCTA also leased Budd diesel rail cars from the TRE for its initial service. The A-train currently operates between downtown Denton and Trinity Mills station, where a transfer to the Green Line is available. Through its partnerships with DART and TRE, DCTA sells "Regional" fare passes which include access to DART and TRE service.
Cotton Belt Rail Line
As part of the Cotton Belt Rail Line project, DART plans to construct a 26-mile commuter rail line connecting DFW International Airport with the Red Line in Plano or Richardson, TX. This line would be constructed along right-of-way formerly owned by the St. Louis Southwestern Railway (also known as the "Cotton Belt" railroad); DART purchased this right-of-way in 1990 for future transit use. While DART owns the right-of-way on the Cotton Belt corridor between Plano, TX and Fort Worth, TX, the The T would build the western portion of the Cotton Belt Rail Line as a separate commuter rail system connecting DFW International Airport to downtown Fort Worth, TX.
In 2006, DART operates 120 fixed-regular bus routes and several circular and shuttle routes. There are 32 local routes, which serve downtown Dallas. Some locals link the suburbs with downtown Dallas. There are 11 express routes which ferry passengers between two areas with limited or no stops in between. These utilize HOV lanes on freeways when possible. There are 29 suburban routes, which link the suburban neighborhoods of DART to transit centers. DART has 18 crosstown routes which run through Dallas and its suburbs, but not downtown. The final fixed route category are the 30 rail-feeder routes that start and/or end at rail stations.
Most trips in the DART system are carried by the bus system. In the 1st quarter of 2010, DART had 125,500 bus trips per average weekday out of a total of 194,700 trips.
DART numbers its bus routes according to the type of route:
- Local routes, serving downtown: 1-183
- Express routes, limited-stop service using larger vehicles with reclining seats: 200s
- "Suburban" routes, local routes originating at a transit center: 300s
- Crosstown routes, local routes connecting widely separated areas: 400s
- Rail feeder routes, local routes originating at a rail station: 500s
In addition to the above regular fixed routes, DART will also contract with its neighbors or businesses and run circulators, like the Southern Methodist University or NorthPark Center circulators or shuttles for Texas Instruments or UT Southwestern Medical Center. The circulator routes are given number in the 700 range, while the shuttles are listed in the 800s.
DART runs its bus system similar to the hub and spoke model that some airlines use. DART has several bus-only facilities, which include transit centers, transfer centers, transfer locations, and Park & Rides.
DART has 7 transit centers, which are:
- Addison Transit Center in Addison, a future rail station on the Cotton Belt in the 2030 plan
- J.B. Jackson Transit Center in Dallas
- Lake Ray Hubbard Transit Center in Garland
- North Irving Transit Center in Irving (reopens December 3rd, 2012)
- Red Bird Transit Center in Dallas
- South Garland Transit Center in Garland
- Jack Hatchell Transit Center in Plano
There are 5 transfer locations/centers in the DART bus system, which are:
- Bernal/Singleton Transfer Location in Dallas, a possible future rail station on the west rail line toward Grand Prairie in DART's 2030 plan
- Cockrell Hill Transfer Location in Cockrell Hill
- East Transfer Center in downtown Dallas
- Malcolm X Boulevard Transfer Location in south Dallas
- West Transfer Center in downtown Dallas
Finally, DART has two Park and Ride locations:
- Glenn Heights Park and Ride in Glenn Heights
- Northwest Plano Park and Ride off the Dallas North Tollway just north of Spring Creek Parkway in Plano
In addition, to make transfers easier, most rail stations act as hubs for DART buses.
On October 2012, DART introduced a new fleet of 14 to 17-passenger buses for its on-call & Flex services, and beginning on October 22nd, some select bus routes that are less-traveled. Beginning in 2013, DART would replace most of bus fleet with NABI 40LFW buses running off CNG fuel. Voted unanimously, by state government to rapidly revise to a clean-air fleet over their existing diesel buses.
Prior to the bus and rail changes on October 6, 2003; DART has launched their premium on-call shuttle service to replace many low-productive DART bus routes. It was first opened in some North Dallas and Plano neighborhoods and in late 2005 has expanded to Glenn Heights in Northern Ellis County. DART On-Call currently operates on weekdays only, (except on holidays).
DART introduced a new service into its system called a "Flex" service in 2008. It is much similar to DART On-Call, except it combines the advantages of a fixed bus route along with curbside pick-up. It uses a local fare on stops at fixed routes and/or a premium fare on curbside pick-ups and drop-offs within the Flex zone if time permits. Customers in those areas who desire a pick-up at a specific location may do so by calling DART 1 h before their destination time or at stop.
The Flex service currently serves the following areas:
- East Plano (replaced routes 570, 760, and DART On-Call East Plano.)
- Garland/Rowlett (replaced route 557.)
- Pleasant Grove (replaced route 342.)
- South Irving (Clockwise/Counter-clockwise. Replaced portions of routes 302 & 306)
- South Plano (to replace busiest portions of Telecomm Corridor Flex Service during peak hours.)
- Telecomm Corridor (Bi-directional, weekday rush hours only) (replaced portions of route 316)
= See proposed service changes for February 16, 2009.
|DART Local Single Ride/2-Hour Pass||$2.50|
|DART Local Mid-Day Single Ride/Pass (09:30-14:30 weekdays)||$1.75|
|DART Local Day Pass||$5|
|DART Local 7 Day Pass||$25|
|DART Local Monthly Pass||$80|
|DART Annual Local Pass||$800|
|System Single Ride/2-Hour Pass||$3.50|
|System Day Pass||$7|
|System Monthly Pass||$100|
|Regional Single Ride/2-Hour Pass||$5|
|Regional Mid-Day Single Ride/Pass (09:30-14:30 weekdays)||$3.50|
|Regional Day Pass||$10|
|Regional 7 Day Pass||$50|
|Regional Monthly Pass||$160|
|Regional Annual Pass||$1,600|
|Reduced*/High School Single Ride/2-Hour Pass**||$1.25|
|Reduced*/High School Day Pass**||$2.50|
|Reduced*/High School Monthly Pass**||$40|
* Reduced fares are applicable on bus and rail for seniors and non-paratransit riders with disabilities; children, elementary through middle school; designated bus circulators, all of which are charged at the local rate.
** Reduced high school fare is valid Monday through Friday for students with valid photo ID from a high school within the DART service area.
Fares effective: 3 December 2012
In addition to the cities that voted to join DART at its creation, the legislation that created DART specifies that any city adjoining Dallas may join the agency. In addition, any city that adjoins a DART member city becomes eligible to join. Member cities fund DART with a 1% sales tax. This levy prevents some cities from joining, due to Texas laws that cap the total sales tax that may be charged.
In 2003, the Texas Legislature enacted new legislation enabling countywide transit districts in areas adjacent to major metropolitan areas (such as the Denton County Transportation Authority), but DART's membership rules were not affected.
List of DART member cities
In addition to the city of Dallas, the following cities are also DART members:
- Addison planned a vote to withdraw from DART but cancelled the measure in January 1990.
- Carrollton voted to remain a DART member in January 1985 by a 69-31 percent margin, again voted in August 1989 to remain a member, and yet again voted to remain a member in August 1996 by a 77-23 percent margin.
- Farmers Branch voted to remain a DART member in January 1985 by a 61-39 percent margin, and again voted in November 1989 to remain a member.
- Garland voted to remain a DART member in November 1989 and again in January 1996 (the latter by a 2-1 margin).
- Glenn Heights is the only suburb in the southern section of the Dallas area that is a DART member (although Cockrell Hill is also in the southern section, it is technically an enclave of Dallas).
- Irving voted to remain a DART member in August 1989, and again voted to remain a member in August 1996 by a 57-43 percent margin.
- Plano voted to remain a DART member in August 1989, and again voted to remain a member in August 1996 by a 77-23 percent margin.
- Richardson annexed the former city of Buckingham in 1996; Buckingham was (and, as of 2008, remains) the only city to join DART subsequent to the 1983 charter election. Also, Buckingham planned a withdrawal vote but cancelled it in July 1989.
- Rowlett voted to remain a DART member in August 1989, and again voted to remain a member in August 1996 by a 67-33 percent margin.
All the suburbs listed joined DART as charter members in 1983 (except for Buckingham, no other cities have joined DART subsequent to 1983, and two cities later withdrew as shown below). Glenn Heights is the only suburb which, had it not joined DART in 1983, would be ineligible for membership today, as it does not border either Dallas or another DART member city.
Original cities that declined DART
The cities of Duncanville, Grand Prairie, Lancaster, Mesquite, The Colony, and Wilmer had a proposal to join DART on the ballot in 1983, but voters declined to join. The Colony is the only suburb in the northern portion of Dallas which declined to join DART, yet is still eligible to join, as it borders Carrollton, a DART member. (The Colony is also eligible to join DCTA, as it is located in Denton County.) Wilmer is no longer eligible to join DART, as it is not bordered by a DART member city.
Former DART member cities
The cities of Coppell and Flower Mound were original members of DART. However, after voters in the DART service area rejected a 1988 ballot measure plan which would have allowed DART to take on long-term debt, the cities placed measures on the 1989 ballot to withdraw from DART, and the voters approved the measures.
Coppell remains eligible to rejoin DART, as it borders three DART member cities (Dallas, Irving, and Carrollton).
Flower Mound is no longer eligible to rejoin DART as it does not border a DART member city. Flower Mound voters were asked to join DCTA in 2003 but rejected that measure as well.
Eligible cities that are not members of DART
These cities are eligible to join DART as they are adjacent to either Dallas or another DART member city, but have not chosen to levy the required 1% sales tax required for membership and regular service. However, DART can establish service to non-member cities under certain conditions. In addition to the Trinity Railway Express interlocal agreements, DART serves destinations like Eastfield College, which is within the city limits of non-DART member Mesquite.
|Eligible City||Bordering DART Member City/Cities||Notes|
|Arlington||Irving||operated by Metro Arlington Xpress under a two-year pilot; start: August 19, 2013|
|Cedar Hill||Dallas, Glenn Heights|
|Coppell||Carrollton, Dallas, Irving||1983 charter member, but withdrew in 1989|
|DeSoto||Dallas, Glenn Heights|
|Duncanville||Dallas||declined membership in original 1983 ballot|
|Fort Worth||Irving||operated by the Fort Worth Transportation Authority|
|Grand Prairie||Dallas, Irving||declined membership in original 1983 ballot|
|Grapevine||Irving||November 2006 ballot measure to approve a sales tax to fund commuter rail service operated by the Fort Worth Transportation Authority passed with 75% of the vote, a 3-1 margin|
|Hutchins||Dallas||May 1992 ballot measure to join DART was rejected by 50 votes|
|Lancaster||Dallas, Glenn Heights||declined membership in original 1983 ballot|
|Lewisville||Carrollton||Lewisville voters approved membership in the Denton County Transportation Authority in 2003, which levies a 1/2 cent sales tax|
|McKinney||Plano||McKinney's border with Plano takes place at the corner of Texas State Highway 121 and Farm to Market Road 2478 (Custer Road), at one of the few places in the DFW Metroplex where four cities meet|
|Mesquite||Dallas, Garland||declined membership in original 1983 ballot|
|Murphy||Plano, Richardson||May 1992 ballot measure to join DART was rejected by a 2-1 margin|
|Oak Leaf||Glenn Heights|
|Red Oak||Glenn Heights|
|Sachse||Garland, Richardson, Rowlett|
|The Colony||Carrollton, Plano||declined membership in original 1983 ballot|
- Maurice Carter 1982-1984
- George Bonna (Interim) 1984-1985
- Ted Tedasco 1985-1986
- John Hoeft (Interim) 1986
- Charles Anderson 1986-1992
- Tony Venturato (Interim) 1992
- Jack Evans 1992
- Victor Burke (Interim) 1993
- Roger Snoble 1993-2001
- Gary Thomas 2001–present
- List of DART Light Rail stations
- McKinney Avenue Transit Authority
- Light rail in the United States
- List of United States light rail systems by ridership
- List of tram and light rail transit systems
- DART.org - About DART
- "PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RIDERSHIP REPORT - Fourth Quarter 2012". American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RIDERSHIP REPORT - First Quarter 1998". American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RIDERSHIP REPORT - Third Quarter 2008". American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RIDERSHIP REPORT - First Quarter 2010". American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "inMotion - The official newsletter of Dallas Area Rapid Transit - Spring 2013". DART. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- DART Breathes Life into Retired Dallas Transit System Bus DART.org - Site Information
- Dallas Area Rapid Transit Reference Book (Version 3.0). Dallas Area Rapid Transit. April 2012.
- Dallas Area Rapid Transit Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Final Compliance Review Report. Federal Transit Administration. September 2012.
- Ex-DART Chair Apparent Victim In Murder-Suicide Retrieved 10 November 2009, from cbs11tv.com
- Prominent Dallas Couple May Have Had Suicide Pact Retrieved 10 November 2009, from cbs11tv.com
- "DART.org - Super Light Rail Vehicles (SLRV) Facts". DART.org. October 29, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "DFW Airport Station triggers several DART train, bus changes". dallasnews.com. July 28, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "DART History: 2000". Dallas Area Rapid Transit. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, July 2013, p. 311.
- "Ground Breaking for Dallas Streetcar Project". Passenger Transport (American Public Transportation Association). May 17, 2013. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- "Fact Sheet: Downtown Dallas-Oak Cliff Streetcar". Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, October 2014, p. 440.
- Benning, Tom (2013-01-10). "Funding approved to expand Dallas streetcar line, link Bishop Arts and convention center". DallasNews.com Transportation Blog. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "Union Station to Oak Cliff Dallas Streetcar (TIGER Project)". Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "Dallas signs Liberty deal". Tramways & Urban Transit, May 2013, p. 166.
- "About Trinity Railway Express". Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "A-Train Breaks the Mold". Metro Magazine. March 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "Fare Information". DCTA.net. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "Cotton Belt Corridor Regional Rail Scoping Summary Report". Dallas Area Rapid Transit. January 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
- New, Smaller Buses Make Neighborhood Debut During October - DART (released October 22nd, 2012)
- DART News Release Regarding Bus Changes on October 6, 2003 Retrieved 22 September 2003.
- DART Service Change Information - Section I: New Flex Service
- "USA: Huge Net Gain for Public Transport in November 2006 Vote". Light Rail Now. November 2006. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- "Public Transportation - TEX Rail Commuter Rail". City of Grapevine Texas. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dallas Area Rapid Transit.|
- DART – official site
- DART – official site (Spanish)