Dallas County, Alabama
|Dallas County, Alabama|
Dallas County Courthouse in Selma. Built in 1901, it was given an extensive modern makeover in 1960
Location in the state of Alabama
Alabama's location in the U.S.
|Founded||February 9, 1818|
|Named for||Alexander J. Dallas|
|• Total||994 sq mi (2,574 km2)|
|• Land||979 sq mi (2,536 km2)|
|• Water||15 sq mi (39 km2), 1.5%|
|• Density||45/sq mi (17/km²)|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
Dallas County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, its population was 43,820. The county seat is Selma. Its name is in honor of United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas, who served 1814-1816.
Dallas County comprises the Selma, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Transportation
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Communities
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Dallas County was created by the Alabama territorial legislature on February 9, 1818, from Montgomery County. This was a portion of the Creek cession of lands to the US government of August 9, 1814. The Creek were known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast. The county was named for U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander J. Dallas of Pennsylvania.
Dallas County is located in what has become known as the Black Belt region of the west-central portion of the state. The name referred to its fertile soil, and the area was largely developed for cotton plantations, worked first by enslaved African Americans. After emancipation, many of the African Americans who stayed in the area worked as sharecroppers and tenant farmers.
The county is traversed by the Alabama River, flowing from northeast to southwest across the county. It is bordered by Perry, Chilton, Autauga, Lowndes, Wilcox, and Marengo counties. Originally, the Dallas county seat was at Cahaba, which also served as the state capital for a brief period. In 1865, the county seat was transferred to Selma. Other towns and communities in the still mostly rural county include Marion Junction, Sardis, Orrville, Valley Grande, and Minter.
Cotton production suffered in the early 20th century due to infestation of boll weevil. The still mostly rural county reached a peak of population in 1960. Younger people have since left to seek work elsewhere. The county is working on new directions for economic development.
At the turn of the 20th century, the state legislature disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites through provisions of a new state constitution requiring payment of poll tax and passing a literacy test for voter registration. These largely survived legal challenges, but in the postwar era of the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans mounted new efforts across the South to be able to exercise their constitutional right as citizens to register and vote.
From 1963 through 1965, Selma and Dallas County were the sites of a renewed Voting Rights Campaign. It was organized by locals of the Dallas County Voting League, and joined by SNCC activists. In late 1964 they invited help by SCLC leaders. With Martin Luther King, Jr. participating, this campaign attracted national and international news in February and March 1965. Two activists were killed before the final march took place.
On March 7, several hundred peaceful marchers were beaten by state troopers and county posse after they passed over the Edmund Pettus Bridge and into the county, intending to march to the state capital of Montgomery. The events were covered by national media. The protesters renewed their walk on March 21, having been joined by thousands of sympathizers from across the country and gained federal protection, to complete the Selma to Montgomery March. Some 25,000 people entered Montgomery on the last day of the march. In August of that year, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Millions of African-American citizens across the South registered and voted in the subsequent years, participating again in the political system.
- Chilton County (north)
- Autauga County (northeast)
- Lowndes County (southeast)
- Wilcox County (south)
- Marengo County (west)
- Perry County (northwest)
National protected areas
Residents identified by the following ethnicities, according to the 2010 U.S. Census:
- 69.4% Black
- 29.1% White
- 0.2% Native American
- 0.3% Asian
- 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
- 0.7% Two or more races
- 0.7% Hispanic or Latino (of any race)
As of the census of 2000, there were 46,365 people, 17,841 households, and 12,488 families residing in the county. The population density was 47 people per square mile (18/km2). There were 20,450 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile (8/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 63.26% Black or African American, 35.58% White, 0.11% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, and 0.55% from two or more races. 0.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 17,841 households, out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.40% were married couples living together, 25.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.00% were non-families. Nearly 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.15.
In the county, the population was spread out with 28.60% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $23,370, and the median income for a family was $29,906. Males had a median income of $31,568 versus $18,683 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,638. About 27.20% of families and 31.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.70% of those under age 18 and 27.60% of those age 65 or over.
It has a five-member county commission, elected from single-member districts.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Dallas County, Alabama
- Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Dallas County, Alabama
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Gary May, Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy (Basic Books, 2013)
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
||Perry County||Chilton County||Autauga County|
|Wilcox County||Lowndes County|