Crippleware has been defined in realms of both software and hardware. In software crippleware "vital features of the program such as printing or the ability to save files are disabled until the user purchases a registration key. While crippleware allows consumers to see the software before they buy, they are unable to test its complete functionality because of the disabled functions." Hardware crippleware "is a hardware device that has not been designed to its full capability. The functionality of the hardware device is limited to encourage consumers to pay for a more expensive upgraded version. Usually the hardware device considered to be crippleware can be upgraded to better or its full potential by way of a trivial change, such as removing a jumper. The manufacturer would most likely release the crippleware as a low-end or economy version of their product."
In hackers' jargon, an antifeature "is functionality that a technology developer will charge users to not include", for example copy-protection, and "Like blackmail, users can sometimes pay technology providers to not include an antifeature in their technology."
Deliberately limited programs are usually freeware versions of computer programs that lack the most advanced (or even crucial) features of the original program. Limited versions are made available in order to increase the popularity of the full program without giving it away free. An example is a word processor that cannot save or print. However, crippleware programs can also differentiate between tiers of paying software customers.
The term "crippleware" is sometimes used to describe software products whose functions have been limited (or "crippled") with the sole purpose of encouraging or requiring the user to pay for those functions (either by paying a one-time fee or an on-going subscription fee).
The less derogatory term, from a shareware software producer's perspective, is feature-limited. Feature-limited is merely one mechanism for marketing shareware as a damaged good; others are time-limited, usage-limited, capacity-limited, nagware and output-limited. From the producer's standpoint, feature-limited allows customers to try software with no commitment instead of relying on questionable reviews and possibly staged reviews. Try-before-you-buy applications are very prevalent for mobile devices, with the additional damaged good of ad-displays as well as all of the other forms of damaged-good applications.
From an Open Source software providers perspective, there is the model of open core which includes a feature-limited version of the product and an open core version. The feature-limited version can be used widely; this approach is used by products like MySQL and Eucalyptus.
Several types of deliberately limited programs exist. The vendor includes a clause that features time limits to mar functionality. For example, the freeware version of Fraps has in-game video recording time restricted to 30 seconds, and with a Fraps logo on the video.
This product differentiation strategy has also been used in hardware products:
- The Intel 486SX which was a 486DX with the FPU removed or in early versions present but disabled.[dubious ]
- AMD disables defective cores on their quad-core Phenom and Phenom II X4 processor dies to make cheaper triple-core Phenom and Phenom II X3 and dual-core X2 models without the expense of designing new chips. Quad-core dies with one or two faulty cores can be used as triple- or dual-core processors rather than being discarded, increasing yield. Some users have managed to "unlock" these crippled cores, when not faulty.
- Casio fx-82es scientific calculator has the same ROM as fx-991es, but some functions are disabled.[unreliable source?]
- Apple announcing it would charge $4.99 in order to enable 802.11n functionality on some devices in 2007 (fee later reduced to $1.99) and blaming it on GAAP compliance, even though their interpretation of the accounting rules as mandating a fee was contradicted by a former chief accountant of the SEC and by a member of the Financial Accounting Standards Board.
- The more recent Intel Upgrade Service (2010-2011), which allowed select types of processors to be upgraded via a software activation code, has also been criticized in such terms.
Digital rights management
Digital rights management is another example of this product differentiation strategy. Digital files are inherently capable of being copied perfectly in unlimited quantities; digital rights management aims to remove the (from the producer's viewpoint) excess utility to the user from this capability by using hardware or cryptographic techniques to limit copying or playback.
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- "Antifeatures by Benjamin Mako Hill". fsf.org.
- "Crippleware — a definition from The New Hacker's Dictionary".[dead link]
- "Crippleware — a definition from Whatis.com".
- "Crippleware — a word definition from Webopedia".
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- Kim, Eddie. "The Best Book On Marketing Your Android App". Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- "FRAPS show FPS, record video games". Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- matt buchanan. "AMD Phenom X3 Triple Core Processors Are Crippled Quad Cores in Disguise". Gizmodo. Gawker Media.
- Hilbert Hagedoorn. "Phenom II X3 - Enable and unlock the 4th core". Guru3D.com.
- "How to upgrade your fx-82es, fx-83es and fx-85es to a fx991es".
- "Will Apple charge you to enable hardware you’ve already paid for?".
- Paul Miller. "Apple holds 802.11n capabilities hostage". Engadget. AOL.
- Kevin C. Tofel. "Want 802.11n in your Mac to work? For you: only $4.99". gigaom.com.
- "Is Apple getting ready to charge for 802.11n Mac enabling software?". ZDNet.
- "Apple Gets a Bruise by Blaming A $1.99 Fee on Accounting Rules". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Facepalm of the Day: Intel charges customers $50 to unlock CPU features".
this arbitrary software lock is odd in that Intel is offering to remove it for a fee. Basically it seems processors have become so powerful and so cheap, and the failure rates so low, that the only way that Intel can supply the low end demand is through artificially downgrading chips.
- Cory Doctorow. "Intel + DRM: a crippled processor that you have to pay extra to unlock".
- Andrew M. Odlyzko (July 27, 2003). "Privacy, Economics, and Price Discrimination on the Internet". Retrieved 2010-02-15.
- "Antifeatures". Blog entry, wikified list, talk and video by FSF-Board member Benjamin Mako Hill.
- Open source means freedom from 'anti-features', Norwegian magazine "Computerworld" reports on Benjamin Mako Hill's talk. (2010-02-08)
- "Court order denying motion to dismiss of Melanie Tucker v. Apple Computer Inc. in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, San Jose Division" (2006-12-20)
- Want an iPhone? Beware the iHandcuffs New York Times editorial labeling iPhone OS as "crippleware". (2007-01-14)
- "Stealth plan puts copy protection into every hard drive" The Register. (2000-12-20)
- "Western Digital drive is DRM-crippled for your safety" The Register. (2007-12-07)
- "Western Digital's 'crippleware': Some lessons from history" The Register. Follow-up to original article. (2007-12-12)