Willd. ex Schult.
Turnera microphylla Ham.
Turnera diffusa, known as damiana, is a shrub native to southwestern Texas in the United States, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean. It belongs to the family Passifloraceae.
Damiana is a relatively small shrub that produces small, aromatic flowers. It blossoms in early to late summer and is followed by fruits that taste similar to figs. The shrub is said to have a strong spice-like odor somewhat like chamomile, due to the essential oils present in the plant. The leaves have traditionally been made into a tea and an incense which was used by native people of Central and South America for its relaxing effects. Spanish missionaries first recorded that the Mexican Indians drank Damiana tea mixed with sugar for use as an aphrodisiac.
Damiana has long been claimed to have a stimulating effect on libido, and its use as an aphrodisiac has continued into modern times. More recently, some corroborating scientific evidence in support of its long history of use has emerged. Damiana has been shown to be particularly stimulating for sexually exhausted or impotent male rats as well as generally increased sexual activity in rats of both sexes. It has also been shown that damiana may function as an aromatase inhibitor, which has been suggested as a possible method of action for its reputed effects.
Damiana is an ingredient in a traditional Mexican liqueur, which is sometimes used in lieu of triple sec in margaritas. Mexican folklore claims that it was used in the "original" margarita. The damiana margarita is popular in the Los Cabos region of Mexico.
Damiana contains damianin; tetraphyllin B; gonzalitosin I; arbutin; tricosan-2-one; acacetin; p-cymene; β-sitosterol; 1,8-cineole; apigenin; α-pinene; β-carotene; β-pinene; eucalyptol; tannins; thymol; and hexacosanol. In total, 22 flavonoids, maltol glucoside, phenolics, seven cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera.
- "Turnera diffusa". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
- "Taxon: Turnera diffusa Willd.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
- Everitt, J. H.; Dale Lynn Drawe; Robert I. Lonard (2002). Trees, Shrubs, and Cacti of South Texas. Texas Tech University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-89672-473-0.
- Gildemeister, Eduard; Friedrich Hoffmann (1922). Edward Kremers, ed. The Volatile Oils. Volume 3 (2 ed.). Wiley. p. 183.
- Arletti, R., Benelli, A., Cavazzuti, E., Scarpetta, G., & Bertolini, A. (September 1998), "Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual behavior of male rats", Psychopharmacology 143: 15–19, doi:10.1007/s002130050913, PMID 10227074 Check date values in:
|year= / |date= mismatch(help)
- Estrada-Reyesb, K.R., Ortiz-Lópeza, P., Gutiérrez-Ortíza, J., & Martínez-Mota, L. (June 2009), "Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males", Journal of Ethnopharmacology 123: 423–429, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.032
- Kumar, S., Madaan, R., & Sharma, A. (2009), "Evaluation of Aphrodisiac Activity of Turnera aphrodisiaca", International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 1: 1–4
- Zhao, J., Dasmahapatra, A.K., Khan, S.I., & Khan, I.A. (December 2008), "Anti-aromatase activity of the constituents from damiana (Turnera diffusa)", Journal of Ethnopharmacology 120: 387–393, doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.09.016, PMID 18948180
- Kumar, Suresh (February 9, 2005). "Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh069. PMC 1062162. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Damiana Liqueur at Damiana.net
- Perry, Charles (2007-06-20). "The unexpected thrill". Los Angeles Times.
- Pendergrast, Mark (2000). For God, Country, and Coca Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes It (2 ed.). Basic Books. pp. 24–30. ISBN 978-0-46505-468-8.
- Balch, Phyllis A. (2002). Prescription for Nutritional Healing: the A to Z Guide to Supplements (2 ed.). Penguin. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-58333-143-9.
- "Pharmacological evaluation of Bioactive Principle of Turnera aphrodisiaca", Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008, doi:10.4103/0250-474X.49095, PMC 3040867
- Szewczyk, K; Zidorn, C (2014). "Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of the genus Turnera (Passifloraceae) with a focus on damiana – Turnera diffusa". Journal of Ethobotany 152: 424–443. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.019. ISSN 0378-8741. PMID 24468305.
- "Pharmacognostic Standardization of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward", Journal of Medicinal Food 9 (2), 2006, doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.254, PMID 16822212
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Turnera diffusa.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Turnera diffusa|