Damietta

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Damietta
Damietta's Corniche along the Nile.
Damietta's Corniche along the Nile.
Damietta is located in Lower Egypt
Damietta
Damietta
Location in the Nile Delta
Damietta is located in Egypt
Damietta
Damietta
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 31°25′N 31°49′E / 31.417°N 31.817°E / 31.417; 31.817
Country  Egypt
Governorate Damietta
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 337,303
 • Metro 1,100,000
Time zone EST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) (+20) 57
Market street in Damietta.
Amr Ibn Al-a'as Mosque (Al-Fateh).
Capture of Damietta by Frisian crusaders.
A 1911 postcard, titled The City of Damietta on the Nile.

Damietta (Egyptian Arabic: دمياط Dumyāṭ , IPA: [domˈjɑːtˤ]), also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt. It is located at the Damietta branch, a distributary of the Nile, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the Mediterranean Sea, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) north of Cairo.

History[edit]

In Ancient Egypt, the city was known as Tamiat, but it became less important in the Hellenic period after the construction of Alexandria.[1]

The Abbasids used Alexandria, Damietta, Aden and Siraf as entry ports to India and the Tang Empire of China.[2] Damietta was an important naval base during the Abbasid, Tulunid and Fatimid periods. This led to several attacks by the Byzantine Empire, most notably the sack and destruction of the city in May 853.

Damietta was again important in the 12th and 13th centuries during the time of the Crusades. In 1169, a fleet from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, with support from the Byzantine Empire, attacked the port, but it was defeated by Saladin.[3][4]

During preparations for the Fifth Crusade in 1217, it was decided that Damietta should be the focus of attack. Control of Damietta meant control of the Nile, and from there the crusaders believed they would be able to conquer Egypt. From Egypt they could then attack Palestine and recapture Jerusalem. When the port was besieged and occupied by Frisian crusaders in 1219, Francis of Assisi arrived to peaceably negotiate with the Muslim ruler.[5][6] The siege devastated the population of Damietta. In October 1218 reinforcements arrived including the Legate Pelagius with the English earls Ranulf of Chester, Saer of Winchester, and William Aubigny of Arundel together with Odonel Aubigny, Robert Fitzwalter, John Lacy of Chester, William Harcourt and Oliver the illegitimate son of King John.[7] In 1221 the Crusaders attempted to march to Cairo, but were destroyed by the combination of nature and Muslim defences.[8]

Damietta was also the object of the Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France. His fleet arrived there in 1249 and quickly captured the fort, though he refused to hand it over to the nominal king of Jerusalem, to whom it had been promised during the Fifth Crusade.[9] However, Louis too was eventually captured and defeated and was forced to give up the city.

Because of its importance to the Crusaders, the Mamluk Sultan Baibars destroyed the city and rebuilt it with stronger fortifications a few kilometres from the river in the early 1260s, making the mouth of the Nile at Damietta impassable for ships.[10]

Economy[edit]

Damietta is very famous for its furniture industry. In addition to the Egyptian market, its furniture is sold in Arab countries, Africa, Europe, US, and almost all over the world. Today, there is a canal connecting it to the Nile, which has made it an important port once again. Containers are transported through the new Damietta Port. The Damietta governorate has a population of about 1,093,580 (2006). It contains the SEGAS LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) plant,[11] which will ultimately have a capacity of 9.6 million ton/year through two trains. The plant is owned by Segas, a joint venture of the Spanish utility Unión Fenosa (40%), Italian oil company Eni (40%) and the Egyptian companies EGAS and EGPC (10% each).[12] The plant is unusual since it is not supplied from a dedicated field, but is supplied with gas from the Egyptian grid. As of 2010, EMethanex, the Egyptian division of Methanex Corporation a Canadian owned company, was building a 3600 MTPD methanol plant. Damietta also has a notable furniture and woodworking industries and is also noted for its White Domiati cheese and other dairy products and Pâtisserie and Egyptian desserts. It is also a fishing port.

Main sights[edit]

  • Amr Ibn Al-a'as Mosque (Al-Fateh), the second mosque to be built in Egypt and Africa by the Arabs after entering Egypt. It has been converted to a church twice during occupation by the crusaders and Louis IX of France's son John Tristan, Count of Valois was baptized by a legate of the Pope in this mosque.
  • Al-Bahr Mosque, dating to the Ottoman rule era.
  • Al-Hadidy Mosque in Faraskour, 200 years old.
  • Al-Maainy Mosque, dating to the reign of Al-Naser Mohammed Ibn Qalawon.
  • Al-Matbuly Mosque, dating to the Mamluk era.
  • Al-Radwaniya Mosque, dating to the Mamluk era.
  • Tabiet Ahmed Urabi, ruins of Damietta Fort at Ezbet El-Borg.
  • The Old Bridge Elkobri Elqadeem, dating to the early 20th century.
  • Souk Al-Hesba, the old town centre, dating to the Abbasi rule era.

Notable natives[edit]

Climate[edit]

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh), but blowing winds from the Mediterranean Sea greatly moderate the temperatures, typical to the Egypt's north coast, making its summers moderately hot and humid while its winters mild and moderately wet when sleet and hail are also common.

Port Said, Kosseir, Ras El Bar, Baltim, Damietta and Alexandria have the least temperature variation in Egypt.

Climate data for Damietta, Egypt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
18.1
(64.6)
19.9
(67.8)
23.2
(73.8)
27.3
(81.1)
28.8
(83.8)
29.9
(85.8)
30.3
(86.5)
28.9
(84)
27.3
(81.1)
23.8
(74.8)
19.2
(66.6)
24.49
(76.08)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
13.8
(56.8)
15.4
(59.7)
18.4
(65.1)
22.2
(72)
24.2
(75.6)
25.9
(78.6)
26.3
(79.3)
24.8
(76.6)
23.3
(73.9)
19.8
(67.6)
15.2
(59.4)
20.21
(68.37)
Average low °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
9.6
(49.3)
11
(52)
13.6
(56.5)
17.1
(62.8)
19.7
(67.5)
22
(72)
22.3
(72.1)
20.7
(69.3)
19.3
(66.7)
15.8
(60.4)
11.3
(52.3)
15.97
(60.79)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
18
(0.71)
13
(0.51)
5
(0.2)
2
(0.08)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
7
(0.28)
15
(0.59)
25
(0.98)
111
(4.37)
Source: climate-data.org[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, Sir William (1857). Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography. Little, Brown and Co. p. 1086. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  2. ^ Donkin, Robin A (2003). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans. Diane Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87169-248-1. 
  3. ^ Dillon, Charles Raymond (30 April 2005). Templar Knights And the Crusades. iUniverse. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-595-34946-3. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Claster, Jill N. (1 October 2009). Sacred Violence: The European Crusades to the Middle East, 1095-1396. University of Toronto Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-4426-0060-7. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  5. ^ Bradbury, Jim (1992). The Medieval Siege. Boydell Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-85115-357-5. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Armstrong, Regis J.; Hellmann, J. A. Wayne; Short, William J. (1 April 2000). Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-56548-112-1. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  7. ^ Remfry, P.M., (1997). Buckenham Castles, 'The Aubignys and the Fifth Crusade, 1218 to 1221'. ISBN 1-899376-05-4[not in citation given]
  8. ^ Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Editions du Cerf. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Russell, William (1837). The History of Modern Europe: with an Account of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: And a View of the Progress of Society from the Rise of the Modern Kingdoms to the Peace of Paris, in 1763; in a Series of Letters from a Nobleman to His Son. Longman, Rees, & Company. p. 280. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  10. ^ Houtsma, M. Th (31 December 1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. BRILL. p. 911. ISBN 978-90-04-08265-6. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  11. ^ MEED.. Economic East Economic Digest, Limited. April 2008. p. 187. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  12. ^ The Petroleum Economist. Petroleum Press Bureau. 2008. p. 20. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  13. ^ Al-Damiri
  14. ^ "Climate: Dumiat - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°25′N 31°49′E / 31.417°N 31.817°E / 31.417; 31.817