Dammar gum

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Dammar resin from the tree Canarium strictum

Dammar gum, or damar gum, is obtained from the Dipterocarpaceae family of trees in India and East Asia, principally those of the genera Shorea, Balanocarpus or Hopea. Most is produced by tapping trees; however, some is collected in fossilized form from the ground. The gum varies in colour from clear to pale yellow, while the fossilized form is grey-brown. Dammar gum is a triterpenoid resin, containing a large number of triterpenes and their oxidation products. Many of them are low molecular weight compounds (dammarane, dammarenolic acid, oleanane, oleanonic acid, etc.), but dammar also contains a polymeric fraction, composed of polycadinene.[1]

Uses[edit]

Damar is used in foods, as a clouding or glazing agent, and in incense, varnish, and other products. Dammar varnish, made from dammar gum mixed with turpentine, was introduced as a picture varnish in 1826.[2] is commonly used in oil painting, both during the painting process and after the painting is finished.[3]

Dammar crystals are also dissolved in molten paraffin wax to make batik, to prevent the wax from cracking when it is drawn onto silk or rayon.

The name is a Malay word meaning "resin" or "torch made from resin".

There are two further types of damar, besides the gum:

  • Mata kucing ("cat's eye") is a crystalline resin, usually in the form of round balls.
  • Batu ("stone") is stone or pebble-shaped, opaque damar collected from the ground.

Material safety[edit]

Physical data[edit]

Stability and toxicity[edit]

The gum is stable, probably combustible, and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Its toxicity is low, but inhalation of dust may cause allergies


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scalarone, D.; Duursma, M. C.; Boon, J. J.; Chiantoire, O. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry on cellulosic surfaces of fresh and photo-aged di- and triterpenoid varnish resins. J. Mass. Spec. 2005, 40, 1527-1535. doi:10.1002/jms.893
  2. ^ William Theodore Brannt (1893). Varnishes, lacquers, printing inks and sealing-waxes: their raw materials and their manufacture. H. C. Baird & co. p. 168. 
  3. ^ Mayer, Ralph (1991). The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques (5th ed.). Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-83701-6.