Damnatio ad bestias

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Panthers devouring a criminal, Roman floor mosaic, 3rd century AD, Archaeological Museum of Tunisia
"Caesar's Joy" by Vasiliy Polenov.

Damnatio ad bestias (Latin for "condemnation to beasts") was a form of capital punishment in which the condemned were maimed on the circus arena or thrown to a cage with wild animals, often lions. It was brought to ancient Rome around the 2nd century BC. In Rome, damnatio ad bestias was used as entertainment and was part of the inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre. From the 1st to 3rd centuries AD, this penalty was mainly applied to the worst criminals, slaves, and early Christians.

History[edit]

Asia[edit]

The exact purpose of the early damnatio ad bestias is not known and might have been a religious sacrifice rather than a legal punishment,[1] especially in the regions where lions existed naturally and were revered by the population, such as Africa and parts of Asia. For example, Egyptian mythology had a crocodile-lion-hippo-like god, Ammit, who devoured human's souls, as well as other lion-like deities. There are also accounts of feeding lions and crocodiles with humans, both dead and alive, in Ancient Egypt and Libya.[2][3]

As a punishment, damnatio ad bestias is mentioned by historians of Alexander's campaigns. For example, in Central Asia, a Macedonian named Lysimachus, who spoke before Alexander for a person condemned to death, was himself thrown to a lion, but overcame him with his bare hands and became one of Alexander's favorites.[4] During the Mercenary War, Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca threw prisoners to the beasts,[5] whereas Hannibal forced Romans captured in the Punic Wars to fight each other, and the survivors had to stand against elephants.[6]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Gladiators in the circus arena, Zliten mosaic, 1st century AD

Lions were rare in Ancient Rome, and human sacrifice was banned there by Numa Pompilius in the 7th century BC, according to legend. Damnatio ad bestias appeared there not as a spiritual practice but rather a spectacle. In addition to lions, other animals were used for this purpose, including bears, leopards, Caspian tigers, black panthers and bulls. It was combined with gladiatorial combat and was first featured at the Roman Forum and then transferred to the amphitheaters.

Terminology[edit]

Whereas the term damnatio ad bestias is usually used in a broad sense, historians distinguish two subtypes: objicĕre bestiis (to devour by beasts) where the humans are defenseless, and damnatio ad bestias, where the punished are both expected and prepared to fight.[7] In addition, there were professional beast fighters trained in special schools, such as the Roman Morning School, which received its name by the timing of the games.[8] These schools taught not only fighting but also the behavior and taming of animals.[9] The fighters were released into the arena dressed in a tunic and armed only with a spear (occasionally with a sword). They were sometimes assisted by venators (hunters),[10] who used bows, spears and whips. Such group fights were not human executions but rather staged animal fighting and hunting. Various animals were used, such as hyena, elephant, wild boar, buffalo, lynx, giraffe, ostrich, deer, hare, antelope and zebra. The first such staged hunting (Latin: venatio) featured lions and panthers, and was arranged by Marcus Fulvius Nobilior in 186 BC at the Circus Maximus on the occasion of the Greek conquest of Aetolia.[11][12] The Colosseum and other circuses still contain underground hallways that were used to lead the animals to the arena. See also bestiarii.

History and description[edit]

Christian Dirce by Henryk Siemiradzki (National Museum, Warsaw) shows the punishment of a Roman woman who converted to Christianity.[13] At the Emperor Nero's wish, the woman, like mythological Dirce, was tied to a wild bull and dragged around the arena.

The custom of submitting criminals to lions was brought to ancient Rome by two commanders, Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, who defeated the Macedonians in 186 BC, and his son Scipio Aemilianus, who conquered the African city of Carthage in 146 BC.[14] It was borrowed from the Carthaginians and was originally applied to such criminals as defectors and deserters in public, its aim being to prevent crime through intimidation. It was rated as extremely useful and soon became a common procedure in Roman criminal law.[1][15] The sentenced were tied to columns or thrown to the animals, practically defenseless (i.e. objicĕre bestiis).

Some documented examples of damnatio ad bestias in Ancient Rome include the following: Strabo witnessed[16] the execution of the rebel slaves' leader Selur.[12] The bandit Lavreol was crucified and then devoured by an eagle and a bear, as described by the poet Martial in his Book of Spectacles.[17] Such executions were also documented by Seneca the Younger (On anger, III 3), Apuleius (The Golden Ass, IV, 13), Titus Lucretius Carus (On the Nature of things) and Petronius Arbiter (Satyricon, XLV). Cicero was indignant that a man was thrown to the beasts to amuse the crowd just because he appeared ugly.[18][19] Suetonius wrote that when the price of meat was too high, Caligula ordered prisoners, with no discrimination as to their crimes, to be fed to circus animals.[20] Pompey used damnatio ad bestias for showcasing battles and, during his second consulate (55 BC), staged a fight between heavily armed gladiators and 18 elephants.[6][21][22]

The most popular animals were lions, which were imported to Rome in significant numbers specifically for damnatio ad bestias.[12] Bears, brought from Gaul, Germany and even Northern Africa, were less popular.[23][24] Local municipalities were ordered to provide food for animals in transit and not delay their stay for more than a week.[12][25] Some historians believe that the mass export of animals to Rome damaged wildlife in North Africa.[26]

Execution of Christians[edit]

"Faithful Unto Death" by Herbert Schmalz

The use of damnatio ad bestias against Christians began in the 1st century AD. Tacitus states that during the first persecution of Christians under the reign of Nero (after the Fire of Rome in 64), people were wrapped in animal skins (called tunica molesta) and thrown to dogs.[27] This practice was followed by other emperors who moved it into the arena and used larger animals. Application of damnatio ad bestias to Christians was intended to equate them with the worst criminals, who were usually punished this way.[28]

There is a widespread view among contemporary specialists that the prominence of Christians among those condemned to death in the Roman arena was greatly exaggerated in earlier times. Almost everyone who commented on the issue between the 4th and 19th centuries did so with the intention of celebrating the presumed moral superiority of early Christians and denegrating the paganism of the classical world, and there was comparatively neglible interest in the suffering of condemned persons of other kinds. There is no evidence for Christians being executed at the Colosseum in Rome. [29]

According to Roman laws, Christians were:[30]

  1. Offenders of their Majesty (majestatis rei)
    1. For their worship Christians gathered in secret and at night, making unlawful assembly, and participation in such collegium illicitum or coetus nocturni was equated with a riot.
    2. Refused to honor images of the emperor by libations and incense
  2. Dissenters from the state gods (άθεοι, sacrilegi)
  3. Followers of magic prohibited by law (magi, malefici)
  4. Confessors of a religion unauthorized by the law (religio nova, peregrina et illicita), according to the Twelve Tables).

The spread of the practice of throwing Christians to beasts was reflected by the Christian writer Tertullian (2nd century). He states that the general public blamed Christians for any general misfortune and after natural disasters would cry "Away with them to the lions!" This is the only reference from contemporaries mentioning Christians being thrown specifically to lions. Tertullian also wrote that Christians started avoiding theaters and circuses, which were associated with the place of their torture.[31] "The Passion of St. Perpetua, St. Felicitas, and their Companions", a text which purports to be an eyewitness account of a group of Christians condemned to damnatio ad bestias at Carthage in 203, states that the men were required to dress in the robes of a priest of the Roman god Saturn, the women as priestesses of Ceres and were shown to the crowd as such. The men and women were brought back out in separate groups and first the men, then the women, exposed to a variety of wild beasts. The victims were chained to poles or elevated platforms. Those who survived the first animal attacks were either brought back out for further exposure to the beasts or executed in public by a gladiator.[32]


The persecution of Christians ceased by the 4th century. The Edict of Milan (313) gave them freedom of religion.

Penalty for other crimes[edit]

Roman laws, which are known to us through the Byzantine collections, such as Code of Theodosius and Code of Justinian, defined which criminals could be thrown to beasts (or condemned by other means). They included

  • Deserters from the army[33]
  • Those who employed sorcerers to harm others, during the reign of Caracalla.[34] This law was re-established in 357 AD by Constantius II[35]
  • Poisoners; by the law of Cornelius, patricians were beheaded, plebeians thrown to lions and slaves crucified[33][36]
  • Counterfeiters, who could also be burned alive[33][37]
  • Political criminals. For example, after the overthrow and assassination of Commodus, the new emperor threw to lions both the servants of Commodus and Narcissus who strangled him – even though Narcissus brought the new emperor to power, he committed a crime of murdering the previous one[38] The same punishment was applied to Mnesteus who organized the assassination of Emperor Aurelian.[39]
  • Patricides, who were normally drowned in a leather bag filled with snakes (poena cullei), but could be thrown to beasts if a suitable body of water was not available[33]
  • Instigators of uprisings, who were either crucified, thrown to beasts or exiled, depending on their social status[40]
  • Those who kidnapped children for ransom, according to the law of 315 by the Emperor Constantine the Great,[35] were either thrown to beasts or beheaded.
Beast fighters and criminals being executed, the Zliten leopard, mosaic from c. 200 AD

The sentenced was deprived of civil rights; he could not write a will, and his property was confiscated.[41][42] Exception from damnatio ad bestias was given to military servants and their children.[33] Also, the law of Petronius (Lex Petronia) of 61 AD forbade employers to send their slaves to be eaten by animals without a judicial verdict. Local governors were required to consult a Roman deputy before staging a fight of skilled gladiators against animals.[43]

The practice of damnatio ad bestias was abolished in Rome only in 681 AD.[7] It was used once after that in the Byzantine Empire: in 1022, when a group of disgraced generals was arrested for plotting a conspiracy against emperor Basil II, they were imprisoned and their property seized, but the royal eunuch who assisted them was thrown to lions.[44] Also, a bishop of Saare-Lääne was sentencing criminals to damnatio ad bestias at the Bishop's Castle in modern Estonia in the Middle Ages.[45]

Notable victims, according to various Christian traditions[edit]

The Martyrdom of St. Euphemia

Survived, according to various legends[edit]

Saint Thecla and the Wild Beasts, probably from Egypt, 5th century AD, Nelson-Atkins Museum
  • An early description of escape from the death by devouring is in the story of Daniel in the Book of Daniel (c. 2nd century BC).
  • The Greek writer Apion (1st century AD) tells the story of a slave Androcles (during Caligula's rule) who was caught after fleeing his master and thrown to a lion. The lion spared him, which Androcles explained by saying that he pulled a thorn from the paw of the very same lion when hiding in Africa, and the lion remembered him.[48]
  • Paul (according to apocrypha and the medieval legends, based on his note "when I have fought with beasts at Ephesus", 1 Corinthians, 15:32)
  • Thecla, according to the apocryphal story Acts of Paul and Thecla
  • An anecdotal escape is reported in the biography of Emperor Gallienus (in the Augustan History).[49] A man was caught after selling the emperor's wife glass instead of gems. Gallienus sentenced him to face lions, but ordered that a capon rather than a lion be let into the arena. The emperor's herald then proclaimed "he has forged, and was treated the same". The merchant was then released.

Description in popular culture[edit]

Androcles pulling a thorn from the lion's paw

Literature[edit]

Music[edit]

Film[edit]

  • Fights against wild animals in the arena of the Roman Colosseum were displayed in Gladiator (2000) and other films.
Martyr in the Circus Arena by Fyodor Bronnikov, 1869
Martyrdom of Saint Marcienne, 15th-century miniature
Bear devouring a criminal. Roman mosaic
Ignatius of Antioch torn by lions

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Alison Futrell (November 2000). Blood in the Arena: The Spectacle of Roman Power. University of Texas Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-292-72523-2. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  2. ^ Египет: история и современность. Достопримечательности Египта. E-gipet.ru. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  3. ^ Глава II. Гарама: возникновение и расцвет|Гарама|Древняя Ливия|Реконструкция. Rec.gerodot.ru. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  4. ^ Гаспаров М.Л. Занимательная Греция. Infoliolib.info. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  5. ^ Polybius. General History of I 82, 2
  6. ^ a b Pliny the Elder. Natural history. VIII, Sec. VII.
  7. ^ a b Тираспольский Г. И. Беседы с палачом. Казни, пытки и суровые наказания в Древнем Риме (Conversations with an executioner. Executions, torture and harsh punishment in ancient Rome). Moscow, 2003. (in Russian)
  8. ^ Библиотека. Invictory.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  9. ^ Гладиаторы. 4ygeca.com. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  10. ^ Venatio I
  11. ^ Livy. History of Rome from the founding of the city XXXIX 22, 2
  12. ^ a b c d Мария Ефимовна Сергеенко. Krotov.info. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  13. ^ Micke-Broniarek, Ewa (2006). Gallery of Polish painting. Muzeum Narodowe w Warzawie. p. 151. ISBN 83-71003-27-7. "Represented by Siemiradzki is the ancient Roman staging of the myth at the Emperor Nero's wish. He ordered that a young fair Christian woman be put to death in the same way as part of the games at the amphitheatre." 
  14. ^ Livy. Epitoma. "History of Rome from the founding of the city"
  15. ^ Совершение казни с помощью хищников. » Белая Калитва. Kalitva.ru. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  16. ^ Strabo, VI, II, 6
  17. ^ MARTIALIS.NET, М. Валерий Марциал. Martialis.net. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  18. ^ Cicero. Letters. Vol. 3. p. 461. Letter (Ad) Fam., VII, 1. (DCCCXCV, 3)
  19. ^ Cicero. Letters. Vol. 1. p. 258. Letter (Ad) Fam., VII, 1. (CXXVII, 3)
  20. ^ Suetonius. Lives of the Twelve Caesars. p. 118 (IV Gaius Caligula, 27, 1)
  21. ^ Dio Cassius. Roman history XXXIX in 1938, 2.
  22. ^ Plutarch. Pompey, 52.
  23. ^ Pliny the Elder. Natural History VIII, 64
  24. ^ Pliny the Elder. Natural history. VIII, 53.
  25. ^ Cod. Theod. XV; tit. XI. 1–2.
  26. ^ Немировский. История древнего мира. (The history of the ancient world) Ch. 1. p. 86 // Тираспольский Г. И. Беседы с палачом (Conversations with an executioner)
  27. ^ Tacitus. Annals, XV, 44
  28. ^ Murders. Murders.ru. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  29. ^ Hopkins, Keith (2011). The Colosseum. Profile Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-1846684708. 
  30. ^ Гонения на христиан в Римской империи. Ateismy.net. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  31. ^ О прескрипции против еретиков
  32. ^ Bomgardner, D.L. (October 10, 2002). The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. Routledge. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-0415301855. 
  33. ^ a b c d e The Civil Law, sps11
  34. ^ Волхвы (Volkhvy) (in Russian)
  35. ^ a b The Civil Law, sps15
  36. ^ (истории). www.diet.ru. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  37. ^ ГЛАВА 1. ИСТОРИЯ И ПРЕДПОСЫЛКИ ВОЗНИКНОВЕНИЯ ФАЛЬШИВОМОНЕТНИЧЕСТВА // Право России //. Allpravo.ru. Retrieved on 2011-02-02. (in Russian)
  38. ^ VI: Светлейший муж Вулкаций Галликан. АВИДИЙ КАССИЙ, Властелины Рима. Биографии римских императоров от Адриана до Диоклетиана. Krotov.info. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  39. ^ XXVI: Флавий Вописк Сиракузянин. БОЖЕСТВЕННЫЙ АВРЕЛИАН, Властелины Рима. Биографии римских императоров от Адриана до Диоклетиана. Krotov.info. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  40. ^ V. G. Grafsky. General History of Law and State (in Russian)
  41. ^ The Civil Law, sps6
  42. ^ Digests of Justinian. Vol. 7-2. Moscow 2005. p. 191, fragment 29
  43. ^ Digests of Justinian. Vol. 7-2. Moscow 2005. p. 191, fragment 31
  44. ^ История Византии. Том 2 (Сборник). Historic.ru (2005-06-02). Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  45. ^ Saaremaa Muuseum. Saaremaamuuseum.ee. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  46. ^ Frank Northen Magill; Christina J. Moose; Alison Aves (March 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The ancient world. Taylor & Francis. pp. 587–. ISBN 978-0-89356-313-4. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  47. ^ St. Glyceria, Virginmartyr, at Heraclea|Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese. Antiochian.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  48. ^ Aulus Gellius (2nd century), Attic Nights, Vol. 14
  49. ^ Властелины Рима. Krotov.info. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  50. ^ ГОРОД СОЛНЦА Томмазо Кампанелла. Krotov.info. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Donald G. Kyle. (1998). Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. ISBN 0-415-09678-2. 
  • Katherine E. Welch. The Roman Amphitheatre. From its Origins to the Colosseum. ISBN 978-0-521-80944-3. 
  • Boris A. Paschke (2006). "The Roman ad bestias Execution as a Possible Historical Background for 1 Peter 5.8". Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28 (4): 489–500. doi:10.1177/0142064x06065696.