Dan Flavin

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Dan Flavin
Born (1933-04-01)April 1, 1933
Jamaica, New York
Died November 29, 1996(1996-11-29) (aged 63)
Riverhead, New York
Nationality American
Field Installation art, Sculpture
Training Columbia University
Site-specific installation by Dan Flavin, 1996, Menil Collection

Dan Flavin (April 1, 1933, Jamaica, New York – November 29, 1996, Riverhead, New York) was an American minimalist artist famous for creating sculptural objects and installations from commercially available fluorescent light fixtures.

Early life and career[edit]

Daniel Nicholas Flavin Jr. was born in New York of Irish Catholic descent and sent to Catholic schools.[1] He studied for the priesthood at the Immaculate Conception Preparatory Seminary in Brooklyn between 1947 and 1952 before leaving to join his fraternal twin brother, David John Flavin, and enlist United States Air Force.[2] During military service in 1954–55, Flavin was trained as an air weather meteorological technician[3] and studied art through the adult extension program of the University of Maryland in Korea.[4] Upon his return to New York in 1956, Flavin briefly attended the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts and studied art under Albert Urban. He later studied art history for a short time at the New School for Social Research, then moved on to Columbia University, where he studied painting and drawing.[5]

From 1959, Flavin was shortly employed as a mailroom clerk at the Guggenheim Museum and later as guard and elevator operator at the Museum of Modern Art, where he met Sol LeWitt, Lucy Lippard, and Robert Ryman.[6] Two years later, he married his first wife Sonja Severdija, an art history student at New York University and assistant office manager at the Museum of Modern Art.[7] Flavin's twin brother, David, died in 1962.[8]

Flavin married his second wife, the artist Tracy Harris, in a ceremony at the Guggenheim Museum, in 1992.[9]

Flavin died in Riverhead, New York of complications from diabetes.[10] A memorial for him was held at the Dia Center for the Arts, on January 23, 1997. Speakers included Brydon Smith, curator of 20th-century art at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa; Fariha Friedrich, a Dia trustee, and Michael Venezia, an artist.[11]

The artist's estate is represented by David Zwirner, New York.

Work[edit]

Early work[edit]

Flavin’s first works were drawings and paintings that reflected the influence of Abstract Expressionism. In 1959, he began to make assemblages and mixed media collages that included found objects from the streets, especially crushed cans.[12][13]

In the summer of 1961, while working as a guard at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, Flavin started to make sketches for sculptures that incorporated electric lights.[14] The first works to incorporate electric light were his "Icons" series: eight colored shallow, boxlike square constructions made from various materials such as wood, Formica, or Masonite. Constructed by the artist and his then-wife Sonja, the Icons had fluorescent tubes with incandescent and fluorescent bulbs attached to their sides, and sometimes beveled edges. One of these icons was dedicated to Flavin's twin brother David, who died of polio in 1962.[15]

Mature work[edit]

One of Flavin's last works was the lighting for a glass-enclosed arcade (1996) at the Wissenschaftspark Rheinelbe (Rhine-Elbe Science Park) in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. The arcade was designed by Uwe Kiessler; it stretches 300 metres (980 ft), and connects nine buildings.[16]

The "Diagonal of Personal Ecstasy (the Diagonal of May 25, 1963)," a yellow fluorescent placed on a wall at a 45-degree angle from the floor and completed in 1963, was Flavin's first mature work; it is dedicated to Constantin Brâncuși and marks the beginning of Flavin's exclusive use of commercially available fluorescent light as a medium. A little later, The Nominal Three (to William of Ockham) (1963) consists of six vertical fluorescent tubes on a wall, one to the left, two in the center, three on the right, all emitting white light.[17] He confined himself to a limited palette (red, blue, green, pink, yellow, ultraviolet, and four different whites[18]) and form (straight two-, four-, six-, and eight-foot tubes, and, beginning in 1972, circles).[19] In the decades that followed, he continued to use fluorescent structures to explore color, light and sculptural space, in works that filled gallery interiors. He started to reject studio production in favor of site-specific “situations” or “proposals” (as the artist preferred to classify his work).[20] These structures cast both light and an eerily colored shade, while taking a variety of forms, including "corner pieces", "barriers," and "corridors." Most of Flavin's works were untitled, followed by a dedication in parenthesis to friends, artists, critics and others: the most famous of these include his "Monuments to V. Tatlin," an homage to the Russian constructivist sculptor Vladimir Tatlin, a series of a total of fifty pyramidal wall pieces[21] which he continued to work on between 1964 and 1990.

Flavin realized his first full installation piece, greens crossing greens (to Piet Mondrian who lacked green), for an exhibition at the Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, Netherlands, in 1966.[22] Flavin's "corridors", for example, control and impede the movement of the viewer through gallery space. They take various forms: some are bisected by two back-to-back rows of abutted fixtures, a divider that may be approached from either side but not penetrated (the color of the lamps differs from one side to the other). The first such corridor, untitled (to Jan and Ron Greenberg), was constructed for a 1973 solo exhibition at the St. Louis Art Museum, and is dedicated to a local gallerist and his wife. It is green and yellow; a gap (the width of a single "missing" fixture) reveals the cast glow of the color from beyond the divide. In subsequent barred corridors, Flavin would introduce regular spacing between the individual fixtures, thereby increasing the visibility of the light and allowing the colors to mix.[23]

By 1968, Flavin had developed his sculptures into room-size environments of light. That year, he outlined an entire gallery in ultraviolet light at documenta 4 in Kassel, Germany. In 1992, Flavin’s original conception for a 1971 piece was fully realized in a site-specific installation that filled the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum's entire rotunda on the occasion of the museum’s reopening.

Flavin generally conceived his sculptures in editions of three or five, but would wait to create individual works until they had been sold to avoid unnecessary production and storage costs. Until the point of sale, his sculptures existed as drawings or exhibition copies. As a result, the artist left behind more than 1,000 unrealized sculptures when he died in 1996.[24]

Permanent installations[edit]

From 1975, Flavin installed permanent works in Europe and the United States, including the Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands (1977); Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, New York (1979); United States Courthouse, Anchorage, Alaska (1979–89); the Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden, Germany (1989); the lobby of the MetroTech Center (with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), Brooklyn, New York (1992); seven lampposts outside the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich (1994); Hypovereinsbank, Munich (1995); Institut Arbeit und Technik/Wissenschaftspark, Gelsenkirchen, Germany (1996); and the Union Bank of Switzerland, Bern (1996). Additional sites for Flavin's architectural “interventions” became the Grand Central Station in New York (1976), Hamburger Bahnhof in Berlin (1996), and the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas (2000). His large-scale work in colored fluorescent light for six buildings at the Chinati Foundation was initiated in the early 1980s, although the final plans were not completed until 1996.[25] His last artwork was a site-specific work at Santa Maria Annunciata in Chiesa Rossa, Milan, Italy. The 1930s church was designed by Giovanni Muzio. The design for the piece was completed two days before Flavin's death on November 29, 1996. Its installation was completed one year later with the assistance of the Dia Center for the Arts and Fondazione Prada.[26]

The Menil Collection in Houston, Texas states that in 1990 Dominique de Menil approached Flavin to create a permanent, site-specific installation at Richmond Hall. Just two days before his death in November 1996 Flavin completed the design for the space. The artist’s studio completed the work.[27]

Drawing[edit]

Living in Wainscott and Garrison, Flavin often drew the surrounding landscape, whether it was the Hudson Valley or the waters off Long Island. He also created small portraits and kept about 20 volumes of journals. Flavin collected drawings too, including works by Hudson River School artists like John Frederick Kensett, Jasper Francis Cropsey, and Sanford Robinson Gifford, along with examples of works on paper by early-19th-century Japanese artists like Hokusai and 20th-century European masters like Piet Mondrian and George Grosz. Flavin also exchanged works with Minimalist colleagues like Donald Judd and Sol LeWitt.[28]

Exhibitions[edit]

Flavin's first one-person exhibition using only fluorescent light opened at the Green Gallery in 1964. Two years later, his first European show opened at Rudolf Zwirner's gallery in Cologne, Germany. The first major retrospective of Flavin’s work was organized by the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa in 1969. In 1973 the Saint Louis Art Museum presented concurrent exhibitions of his works on paper and fluorescent sculptures. Among Flavin’s many significant one-person exhibitions in Europe were shows at the Kunstmuseum Basel and Kunsthalle Basel (1975), the Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden (1989), and the Städel, Frankfurt (1993).

In the late 1970s, he began a partnership with the Dia Art Foundation that resulted in the making of several permanent site-specific installations and led most recently to the organization of the traveling exhibition, Dan Flavin: A Retrospective (2004–2007).[29] Flavin’s retrospective exhibition traveled to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; the Museum of Modern Art, Fort Worth, Texas; Hayward Gallery, London; Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris; Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich; and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles.[30][31] This exhibition was the first comprehensive retrospective devoted to his minimalist work. The exhibition included nearly 45 light works, including his "icons" series. The MCA's presentation included the re-creation of the alternating pink and "gold" room from the original MCA exhibition in 1967, Flavin's first solo museum exhibition.[32]

His first solo exhibition in Latin America was held at Fundación Proa, Buenos Aires, in 1998, organized with the Dia Art Foundation (Dan Flavin. 1933-96).

Recognition[edit]

In 1964, Flavin received an award from the William and Norma Copley Foundation, Chicago, with a recommendation from Marcel Duchamp.[33] In 1973, he was named Albert Dorne Visiting Professor at the University of Bridgeport, Connecticut, and in 1976, he was given the Skowhegan Medal of Sculpture from Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine. In 1983, the Dia Center for the Arts opened the Dan Flavin Art Institute in Bridgehampton, New York, a permanent exhibition of his works, designed by the artist in a converted firehouse.[34] The Dan Flavin Art Institute is hidden away in an inconspicuous house, the address of which is unlisted on the Dia Center's website. Here, Flavin's works are exhibited in "rooms without windows or bearing an indirect relationship to its outside surroundings."[35]

In the 2011 film Tower Heist, the Estate of Dan Flavin sent an expert to oversee the construction of a Flavin light installation that was recreated on the set.[36]

Reception[edit]

In 2004, Ridinghouse and Thames & Hudson published It Is What It Is: Dan Flavin Since 1964, which assembles for the first time key essays on Flavin and reviews of his exhibitions. Spanning four decades, it charts the gradual evolution of consensus about the meaning of his art. Edited by Paula Feldman and Karsten Schubert, It Is What It Is includes texts by some of the most influential art historians and critics of today, such as Donald Judd, Dore Ashton, Rosalind Krauss, Lawrence Alloway, Germano Celant, Holland Cotter.[37]

Art market[edit]

Each of the more than 750 light sculptures that Dan Flavin designed - usually in editions of three or five - were listed on index cards and filed away. When one sold, the buyer received a certificate containing a diagram of the work, its title and the artist's signature and stamp. If someone showed up with a certificate and a damaged fixture, Flavin would replace it.[38]

When financial assistance for projects sponsored by the Dia Art Foundation were suspended in 1986, Flavin began, with the encouragement of the Leo Castelli Gallery, affiliations with a number of American and European galleries, including the Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles; the Donald Young Gallery, Chicago; the Texas Gallery, Houston; Annemarie Verna Galerie, Zürich; and Galerie Nikki Diana Marquardt, Paris. In 1991, he also began a brief affiliation with the Pace Gallery, New York.[39] In his later years, he was represented primarily by the Green Gallery, Kornblee Gallery, Dwan Gallery, John Weber Gallery, Leo Castelli Gallery, and PaceWildenstein. Since 2010, Dan Flavin's estate has been represented by David Zwirner.

In 2004, Flavin's work Untitled ("monument" for V. Tatlin) (1964–1965) was sold for $735,500 at Christie's, New York.

Collections[edit]

Sculptures in collections[40][41][edit]

United States[edit]

Arizona

  • untitled (in memory of "Sandy" Calder) V 1/5, 1977, Private Collector, Scottsdale

California

Colorado

  • untitled (for A. C.), 1992, Denver Art Museum, Denver

District of Columbia

  • untitled, 1980, Administered by United States General Services Administration, Art-in-Architecture Program, Washington
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin 1/5, 1968, National Gallery of Art, Washington
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin 4/5, 1969–70, National Gallery of Art, Washington
  • untitled (to Barnett Newman to commemorate his simple problem, red, yellow, and blue) 4/5, 1969–70, National Gallery of Art, Washington[42]

Illinois

  • untitled (monument for V. Tatlin), 1970, Private Collector, Chicago
  • the alternate diagonals of March 2, 1964 (to Don Judd), 1964, Private Collector, Chicago

Indiana

    • untitled (to Katharina and Christoph), [from the series to European couples] a.p., 1971, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis

Iowa

Massachusetts

  • Barbara Roses, 1962–1965, Smith College, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton

Michigan

Minnesota

Nebraska

  • untitled, 1964, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery and Sculpture Garden, Lincoln

New Hampshire

  • untitled (To Elita and her baby, Cintra), 1970, Dartmouth College, Hood Museum of Art, Hanover

New York

  • gold, pink and red, red 2/3, 1964, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon
  • monument 4 for those who have been killed in ambush (to P.K. who reminded me about death) 2/3, 1966, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon
  • the diagonal of May 25, 1963 (to Constantin Brâncuși) 3/3, 1963, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon first entirely fluorescent work
  • the nominal three (to William of Ockham) 2/3, 1963, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon
  • untitled (to a man, George McGovern) 2 2/3, 1972, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon
  • untitled (to the real Dan Hill) 1b 1/5, 1978, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon
  • untitled, 1996, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon
  • red out of a corner (to Annina) 3/3, 1963, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled 2/3, 1976, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (to Robert, Joe and Michael) 2/3, 1975–81, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (to Jan and Ron Greenberg) 2/3, 1972–73, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (in honor of Harold Joachim) 3 1/3, 1977, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (to Katharina and Christoph), [from the series to European couples] 1/5, 1971, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (to Jim Schaeufele) 1 1/3, 1972, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (to Jim Schaeufele) 2 1/3, 1972, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • untitled (to Jim Schaeufele) 3 1/3, 1972, Dan Flavin Art Institute, Bridgehampton
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1964, Museum of Modern Art, New York
  • pink out of a corner - to Jasper Johns, 1963, Museum of Modern Art, New York
  • untitled (to the "Innovator" of Wheeling Peachblow) 2/3, 1968, Museum of Modern Art, New York
  • untitled, 1968, Museum of Modern Art, New York
  • three fluorescent tubes, 1963, Private Collector, New York
  • icon V (Coran's Broadway flesh), 1962, Private Collector, New York
  • icon VIII (to Blind Melon Jefferson), 1962, Private Collector, New York
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin 1/5, 1964, Private Collector, New York
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin 4/5, 1964, Private Collector, New York
  • untitled (to Henri Matisse) 3/3, 1964, Private Collector, New York
  • untitled (for Ad Reinhardt) 1b 1/5, 1990, Private Collector, New York
  • greens crossing greens (to Piet Mondrian who lacked green), 1966, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • the nominal three (to William of Ockham), 1963, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • untitled (to Tracy, to celebrate the love of a lifetime), 1992, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • untitled (to Ward Jackson, and old friend and colleague who, during the Fall of 1957 when I finally returned to New York from Washington and joined him to work together in this museum, kindly communicated), 1971, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • untitled (for Robert, with fond regards), 1977, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
  • untitled, 1966, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
  • untitled, 1966, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

North Carolina

  • untitled, 1971, Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte

Ohio

  • untitled (to Janie Lee) one, 1971, Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus
  • untitled (Fondly to Helen), 1976, Private Collector, Cincinnati
  • untitled (to Ellen Johnson, fondly), 1975, Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin

Oregon

  • untitled (To Donna) II , 1971, Portland Art Museum
  • untitled (for Robert Ryman) 2/5, 1996, Miller-Meigs Collection, Portland

Texas

  • alternate diagonals of March 2, 1964 (to Don Judd) 2/3, 1964, Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas
  • diagonal of May 25, 1963 (to Constantin Brâncuși) 2/3, 1963, Fort Worth Art Museum, Fort Worth
  • monument 1 for V. Tatlin, 1964, Menil Collection, Houston
  • untitled (to Barbara Wood), 1970, Menil Collection, Houston
  • untitled frieze, 1996, Menil Collection, Richmond Hall, Houston
  • untitled foyer, 1996, Menil Collection, Richmond Hall, Houston
  • untitled interior, 1996, Menil Collection, Richmond Hall, Houston
  • icon III, 1962, Chinati Foundation, Marfa
  • icon VI (Ireland dying)(to Louis Sullivan), 1962, Chinati Foundation, Marfa

Washington

  • untitled (To Donna), 1973, Private Collector, Seattle

International[edit]

Canada

  • the alternate diagonals of March 2, 1964 (To Don Judd), 1964, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario
  • untitled corner piece, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1969–1970, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1968, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
  • untitled (to Barnett Newman to commemorate his simple problem, red, yellow and blue), 1970, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
  • untitled, 1971, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba

France

  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1975, Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges-Pompidou, Paris
  • untitled (To Donna) 5a, 1971, Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges-Pompidou, Paris

Holland

  • untitled (to Barnett Newman to commemorate his simple problem, red, yellow, and blue), 1970, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
  • monument for V. Tatlin, 1969, Stedelijk museum, Amsterdam
  • untitleld (to Piet Mondrian through his preferred colors, red, yellow and blue, Stedelijk museum, Amsterdam
  • Projects 1963-1995, 1996, Stedelijk museum, Amsterdam
  • Untitled, 1968, Museum Boymans van Beuningen, Rotterdam
  • Untitled (to Karin), 1966, Museum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo
  • Untitled (to Ingrid Nibbe), Museum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo
  • Untitled (to a man, George McGovern) (1972), Van Abbe museum, Eindhoven
  • Untittled, (quietly, to the memory of Mia Visser),1977, Museum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo

1966

Switzerland

United Kingdom

  • "monument" to V. Tatlin, 1975, Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland
  • monument for V. Tatlin, 1966–1969, Tate Gallery, London
  • untitled, 1969, Tate Gallery, London
  • a primary picture 2/3, 1964, Hermes Trust U.K., London
  • untitled (to Lucie Rie, master potter) 1c 2/5, 1990, Waddington Galleries Ltd., London
  • untitled (to Lucie Rie, master potter) 1jjj 2/5, 1990, Waddington Galleries Ltd., London
  • untitled (to Lucie Rie, master potter) 1o 1/5, 1990, Waddington Galleries Ltd., London

Estate Collection[edit]

  • icon I (the heart) (to the light of Sean McGovern which blesses everyone), 1961
  • icon II (the mystery) (to John Reeves), 1961
  • pink out of a corner - to Jasper Johns, 1963
  • "monument" 1 for V. Tatlin, 1964, Sonja Flavin collection
  • Corner Monument 4, 1966
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1967
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1967
  • untitled (to Janie Lee) one, 1971
  • untitled (to Emily), 1973
  • untitled (to you, Heiner, with admiration and affection), 1973
  • untitled (in honor of Harold Joachim) 3, 1977
  • "monument" for V. Tatlin, 1981
  • untitled (to Piet Mondrian), 1985
  • untitled (for Donald Judd, colorist) 1, 1987
  • untitled (for Donald Judd, colorist) 2, 1987
  • untitled (for Donald Judd, colorist) 3, 1987
  • untitled (for Donald Judd, colorist) 4, 1987
  • untitled (for Donald Judd, colorist) 5, 1987
  • untitled, 1989
  • untitled (for Ad Reinhardt) 2b, 1990

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul Levy (February 3, 2006), A radiant Dan Flavin retrospective Wall Street Journal.
  2. ^ Paul Levy (February 3, 2006), A radiant Dan Flavin retrospective Wall Street Journal.
  3. ^ Dan Flavin: A Retrospective, October 3, 2004–January 9, 2005 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  4. ^ http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-full/bio/?artist_name=Dan%20Flavin&page=1&f=Name&cr=3
  5. ^ Daniel Marzona and Uta Grosenick. Minimal Art," Taschen, 2004, p14
  6. ^ http://www.davidzwirner.com/danflavin/
  7. ^ diacenter.org accessed August 25, 2007
  8. ^ Roberta Smith (December 4, 1996), Dan Flavin, 63, Sculptor Of Fluorescent Light, Dies New York Times.
  9. ^ New York Times, June 26, 1992. Abstract available at nytimes.com
  10. ^ "New York Times", December 4, 1996
  11. ^ Dan Flavin Memorial New York Times, January 23, 1997.
  12. ^ http://www.paulacoopergallery.com/exhibitions/391
  13. ^ Dan Flavin: A Retrospective, October 3, 2004–January 9, 2005 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  14. ^ http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/show-full/bio/?artist_name=Dan%20Flavin&page=1&f=Name&cr=3
  15. ^ Tiffany Bell, diacenter.org accessed August 25, 2007
  16. ^ Bell, Tiffany; Govan, Michael; Powell, Earl A.; Smith, Brydon; Weiss, Jeffrey (2004). Dan Flavin: the complete lights, 1961-1996. Yale University Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-300-10633-6. "For a large complex of office buildings called Wissenschaftspark Rheinelbe in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, designed by Uwe Kiessler of the architectural firm Kiessler + Partner, Flavin was commissioned to light an enclosed arcade. This passageway, which has a large glass facade with sections that can be opened in warm weather, connects nine buildings. On three unobstructed walls that enclose elevator shafts, Flavin placed vertical structures made of two parallel, adjacent rows of six 4-foot (122 cm) fixtures each, all with blue lamps. Intersecting at the 4-foot intervals, six 4-foot fixtures with green lamps were placed horizontally to form a cross-like pattern. At the top of one large wall, near the main entrance but after the first elevator shaft, is a horizontal row of thirteen 4-foot fixtures with green lamps. They are mounted on the wall at the ceiling joint. This work was installed shortly before Flavin's death, although the building did not open officially until 1997." 
  17. ^ Holland Cotter (December 4, 2009), Golden Oldies All Over Chelsea New York Times.
  18. ^ Adrian Searle (January 24, 2006), Strip tease The Guardian.
  19. ^ Dan Flavin: A Retrospective, October 3, 2004–January 9, 2005 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  20. ^ Dan Flavin, untitled (to Ward Jackson, an old friend and colleague who, during the Fall of 1957 when I finally returned to New York from Washington and joined him to work together in this museum, kindly communicated) (1971) Guggenheim Collection.
  21. ^ Roberta Smith (December 4, 1996), Dan Flavin, 63, Sculptor Of Fluorescent Light, Dies New York Times.
  22. ^ Dan Flavin, untitled (to Jan and Ron Greenberg) (1972-73) Guggenheim Collection.
  23. ^ Dan Flavin, untitled (to Jan and Ron Greenberg) (1972-73) Guggenheim Collection.
  24. ^ Julia Halperin (June 6, 2013), Flavins will see the light of day The Art Newspaper.
  25. ^ Dan Flavin, untitled (Marfa project) (1996) Chinati Foundation, Marfa.
  26. ^ "Dan Flavin", brochure, S. Maria in Chiesa Rossa, Fondazione Prada, Dia Center for the Arts, 1997. Essay by Michael Govan.
  27. ^ Menil Collection at
  28. ^ Carol Vogel (December 22, 2011), The Morgan Will Show Another Side of Flavin New York Times.
  29. ^ THE ESTATE OF DAN FLAVIN IS NOW EXCLUSIVELY REPRESENTED BY DAVID ZWIRNER David Zwirner Gallery, September 2010.
  30. ^ "Dan Flavin: Series and Progressions". NY Art Beat. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  31. ^ "Dan Flavin: Series and Progressions". Press Release. David Zwirner Gallery. 2009-10-09. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  32. ^ Victor M. Cassidy (2005). "No Trespassing: The Art of Dan Flavin". Artnet. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  33. ^ Dan Flavin David Zwirner Gallery, New York.
  34. ^ http://www.diacenter.org/sites/main/danflavinartinstitute
  35. ^ Lindquist, Greg (June 2012). "Dan Flavin's Altering Light". The Brooklyn Rail. 
  36. ^ Patricia Cohen (April 24, 2012), Art Is Long; Copyrights Can Even Be Longer New York Times.
  37. ^ "It Is What It Is". Ridinghouse. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  38. ^ Greg Allen (January 2, 2005), The Dark Side of Success New York Times.
  39. ^ Dan Flavin David Zwirner Gallery, New York.
  40. ^ Govan and Bell, Dan Flavin: A Retrospective, Yale University Press, 2004
  41. ^ diacenter.org accessed June 6, 2008
  42. ^ Carol Vogel (February 13, 2004), National Gallery Adds to Collection New York Times.

Bibliography[edit]

  • It Is What It Is: Dan Flavin Since 1964, edited by Karsten Schubert and Paula Feldman. Ridinghouse in association with Thames & Hudson. 2004.
  • Dan Flavin: The Complete Lights, 1961-1996 by Michael Govan and Tiffany Bell. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. 2004.
  • Dan Flavin: Lights, edited by Rainer Fuchs. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern 2012. English ISBN 978-3-7757-3523-0.

External links[edit]