Distinguished Prof. Dan Shechtman, 2011 Nobel Laureate, at Stockholm University in 2011.
January 24, 1941 |
Tel Aviv, British Mandate of Palestine
|Institutions||Wright Patterson Air Force Base
Johns Hopkins University
Iowa State University
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
|Alma mater||Technion - Israel Institute of Technology|
|Notable awards||Israel Prize (1998)
Wolf Prize in Physics (1999)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2011)
Dan Shechtman (Hebrew: דן שכטמן; born January 24, 1941 in Tel Aviv) is the Philip Tobias Professor of Materials Science at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, an Associate of the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, and Professor of Materials Science at Iowa State University. On April 8, 1982, while on sabbatical at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., Shechtman discovered the icosahedral phase, which opened the new field of quasiperiodic crystals. He was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery of quasicrystals". In 2011, Shechtman was the fourth Israeli to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in under a decade.
Dan Shechtman was born in Tel Aviv, Israel. He is married to Prof. Tzipora Shechtman, Head of the Department of Counseling and Human Development at Haifa University, and author of two books on psychotherapy. They have a son Yoav Shechtman (a PhD student in physics) and three daughters: Tamar Finkelstein (an organizational psychologist at the Israeli police leadership center), Ella Shechtman-Cory (a PhD in clinical psychology), and Ruth Dougoud-Nevo (also a PhD in clinical psychology).
After receiving his Ph.D. in Materials Engineering from the Technion in 1972, where he also obtained his B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering in 1966 and M.Sc. in Materials Engineering in 1968, Prof. Shechtman was an NRC fellow at the Aerospace Research Laboratories at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio, where he studied for three years the microstructure and physical metallurgy of titanium aluminides. In 1975 he joined the department of materials engineering at Technion. In 1981–1983 he was on Sabbatical at Johns Hopkins University, where he studied rapidly solidified aluminum transition metal alloys, in a joint program with NBS. During this study he discovered the Icosahedral Phase which opened the new field of quasiperiodic crystals.
In 1992–1994 he was on sabbatical at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he studied the effect of the defect structure of CVD diamond on its growth and properties. Shechtman's Technion research is conducted in the Louis Edelstein Center, and in the Wolfson Centre which is headed by him. He served on several Technion Senate Committees and headed one of them.
Work on quasicrystals
From the day Shechtman published his findings on quasicrystals in 1984 to the day Linus Pauling died (1994), Shechtman experienced hostility from him toward the non-periodic interpretation. "For a long time it was me against the world," he said. "I was a subject of ridicule and lectures about the basics of crystallography. The leader of the opposition to my findings was the two-time Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, the idol of the American Chemical Society and one of the most famous scientists in the world. For years, 'til his last day, he fought against quasi-periodicity in crystals. He was wrong, and after a while, I enjoyed every moment of this scientific battle, knowing that he was wrong."
Linus Pauling is noted saying "There is no such thing as quasicrystals, only quasi-scientists." Pauling was apparently unaware of a paper in 1981 by H. Kleinert and K. Maki which had pointed out the possibility of a non-periodic Icosahedral Phase in quasicrystals (see the historical notes). The head of Shechtman's research group told him to "go back and read the textbook" and a couple of days later "asked him to leave for 'bringing disgrace' on the team." Shechtman felt rejected. On publication of his paper, other scientists began to confirm and accept empirical findings of the existence of quasicrystals.
The Nobel Committee at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said that "his discovery was extremely controversial," but that his work "eventually forced scientists to reconsider their conception of the very nature of matter." Through Shechtman's discovery, several other groups were able to form similar quasicrystals,[when?] finding these materials to have low thermal and electrical conductivity, while possessing high structural stability. Quasicrystals have also been found naturally.
Quasicrystalline materials could be used in a large number of applications, including the formation of durable steel used for fine instrumentation, and non-stick insulation for electrical wires and cooking equipment.
- 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of quasicrystals
- 2008 European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) 25th Anniversary Award
- 2002 EMET Prize in Chemistry
- 2000 Muriel & David Jacknow Technion Award for Excellence in Teaching
- 2000 Gregori Aminoff Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
- 1999 Wolf Prize in Physics.
- 1998 Israel Prize, for Physics.
- 1993 Weizmann Science Award
- 1990 Rothschild Prize in Engineering
- 1988 New England Academic Award of the Technion
- 1988 International Award for New Materials of the American Physical Society
- 1986 Physics Award of the Friedenberg Fund for the Advancement of Science and Education
- Shechtman, D.; Blech, I.; Gratias, D.; Cahn, J. (1984). "Metallic Phase with Long-Range Orientational Order and No Translational Symmetry". Physical Review Letters 53 (20): 1951. Bibcode:1984PhRvL..53.1951S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.1951.
- Swartzendruber, L.; Shechtman, D.; Bendersky, L.; Cahn, J. (1985). "Nuclear γ-ray resonance observations in an aluminum-based icosahedral quasicrystal". Physical Review B 32 (2): 1383. Bibcode:1985PhRvB..32.1383S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.32.1383.
- Cahn, John W.; Gratias, Denis; Shechtman, DAN (1986). "Pauling's model not universally accepted". Nature 319 (6049): 102. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..102C. doi:10.1038/319102a0.
- Shechtman, Dan (1988). "The Icosahedral Quasiperiodic Phase". Physica Scripta 49: 49. Bibcode:1988PhST...23...49S. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/1988/T23/008.
- Cahn, John W.; Shechtman, Dan; Gratias, Denis (1986). "Indexing of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals". Journal of Materials Research 1: 13. Bibcode:1986JMatR...1...13C. doi:10.1557/JMR.1986.0013.
- Dan Shechtman. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- "Israeli Wins Chemistry Nobel For Quasicrystals". npr.org. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Iowa State, Ames Laboratory, Technion Scientist Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Newswise.com (2011-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Tiny Israel a Nobel heavyweight, especially in chemistry
- Israel’s Shechtman vindicated with Nobel for chemistry AFP (in Al Arabiya News) Thursday, 06 October 2011
- Professor Zipora Shechtman. Edu.haifa.ac.il. Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- He deserves it, wife of 2011 Nobel Chemistry laureate says. Monstersandcritics.com (2011-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Shechtman Wins Chemistry Nobel for Crystal Find. Mobile.bloomberg.com (2011-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Genealogy of the Shechtman family. Geni.com (2010-08-12). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Iowa State prof wins Nobel in chemistry (Chicago Tribune, October 5, 2011)
- Ünal, B; V. Fournée, K.J. Schnitzenbaumer, C. Ghosh, C.J. Jenks, A.R. Ross, T.A. Lograsso, J.W. Evans, and P.A. Thiel (2007). "Nucleation and growth of Ag islands on ﬁvefold Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal surfaces: Dependence of island density on temperature and ﬂux". Physical Review B 75 (6): 064205. Bibcode:2007PhRvB..75f4205U. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064205.
- Lannin, Patrick (2011-10-05). "Ridiculed crystal work wins Nobel for Israeli". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
- Kleinert H., Maki K. (1981). "Lattice Textures in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals". Fortschritte der Physik 29 (5): 219–259. Bibcode:1981ForPh..29..219K. doi:10.1002/prop.19810290503.
- Jha, Alok (5 Jan 2013). "Dan Shechtman: 'Linus Pauling said I was talking nonsense'". Guardian.
- Bradley, David (Oct. 5, 2011). "Dan Shechtman discusses quasicrystals". ScienceBase. Retrieved 5 October 2011. Shechtman video interview
- "Clear as crystal". Haaretz. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
- Van Noorden, Richard (2011-10-05). "Impossible crystals snag chemistry Nobel". nature. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Carpenter, Jennifer (2011-10-05). "Nobel win for crystal discovery". BBC. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "Wolf Prize Recipients in Physics". Wolffund.org.il. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "Israel Prize Official Site – Recipients in 1998 (in Hebrew)".
- D. P. DiVincenzo and P. J. Steinhardt, eds. 1991. Quasicrystals: The State of the Art. Directions in Condensed Matter Physics, Vol 11. ISBN 981-02-0522-8.
- T. Janssen. 2007. Quasicrystals: Comparative dynamics. Nature Materials, Vol 6., 925-926.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dan Shechtman.|
- Nobel Laureates from Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
- Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy
- Story of quasicrystals as told by Shechtman to APS News in 2002.
- Biography/CV Page – Technion
- TechnionLIVE e-newsletter
- Dan Shechtman (Iowa State faculty page)
- 2012 interview with The Times of Israel
Richard F. Heck
|Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate||Succeeded by