Dandong

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Dandong
丹东市
Prefecture-level city
View of Dandong's skyline on the Yalu River
View of Dandong's skyline on the Yalu River
Location of Dandong City jurisdiction in Liaoning
Location of Dandong City jurisdiction in Liaoning
Dandong is located in Liaoning
Dandong
Dandong
Location of the city centre in Liaoning
Coordinates (city(2410000)): 40°07′N 124°23′E / 40.117°N 124.383°E / 40.117; 124.383
Country People's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Municipal seat Zhenxing District
Districts and Counties
Government
 • CPC Dandong Committee Secretary
 • Mayor Chen Tiexin
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 15,030 km2 (5,800 sq mi)
 • Urban 830 km2 (320 sq mi)
Elevation 8 m (27 ft)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 2,444,697
 • Urban 865,576
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 118000
Area code(s) 415
Licence plates F
Administrative division code 210600
ISO 3166-2 cn-21-06
Website dandong.gov.cn

Dandong (simplified Chinese: 丹东; traditional Chinese: 丹東; pinyin: Dāndōng), previously known as Andong and Antung, is a prefecture-level city in southeastern-eastern Liaoning province, and is the largest Chinese border city,[2] facing Sinuiju, North Korea across the Yalu River, which demarcates the Sino-Korean border. To the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay. Dandong has therefore had a dynamic history because of its strategic location for the northeast's rich natural resources and because of its convenient access to the ocean. It is designated as a major export production centre for the province, and is a port city connected by rail with Shenyang and Sinuiju. Much trade with North Korea flows through the city.[3]

The size of the administrative city (prefecture) is 14,981.4 square kilometres (5,784.4 sq mi);[4] as of 2010, the built-up area made of 3 urban districts is 830 square kilometres (320 sq mi) in size and had 865,576 inhabitants. The administrative city covers around 2.45 million inhabitants as of 2010 census. The Hushan (Tiger Mountain) Great Wall, the far eastern end of the Great Wall of China, is located here.[5]

History[edit]

Great Wall at Dandong
Andong Railway Station during the Manchukuo period

Maps and artifacts suggest that the area has been settled since the Zhou Dynasty.

In Xi-Han period (221B.C.-220A.D.), Dandong region was under the jurisdiction of West Anping county.[6]

In the early period of Tang Dynasty (618-907), Dandong region was under the jurisdiction of Andong Prefecture, and in Liao Dynasty (916-1125), it was under the jurisdiction of Xuan state, Kai state and Mu state.[6]

In Jin Dynasty it was under the jurisdiction of Po-Su state, In Yuan Dynasty it was under the jurisdiction of Po-Sha state.[6]

In Ming Dynasty(1368-1644) it was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong state.[6]

The area became known as Andong County (安東縣) in 1876. "安東" means "pacifying the east", reflecting the power projection that China had over Korea at the time. It was occupied by Japan after the start of the first Sino-Japanese War in 1894. During the Manchukuo era it was the capital of Andong Province, one of the fourteen provinces established by Manchukuo. Then, in 1907, it was opened as a treaty port.

From November 1950 to February 1951, Dandong's Sino-Korean Friendship Bridge as well as an older iron bridge leading to North Korea, were bombed by the United States during the Korean War war. Whereas the Sino-Korean Friendship Bridge was rebuilt, the remains of the Japanese built iron bridge were left and are now open as a war monument.

Dandong adopted its present name on 20 January 1965, which means “red east,” to avoid connotation of its previous name, which was considered imperialistic by some. Recently, the city has been gaining influence in this region of China because of its market with North Korea and the government's future plans to develop the city into a special “Border Economic Cooperation Zone” for export and import, in order to expand the country's ability to conduct trade.

In 2001, Dandong was awarded "Best Tourism City" by the National Tourism Administration.[7]

In 2005, Dandong was awarded "National Clean City" by the National Tourism Administration.[7]

Geography[edit]

Dandong
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
7.1
 
−2
−11
 
 
9.5
 
1
−9
 
 
18
 
7
−2
 
 
46
 
15
4
 
 
73
 
20
10
 
 
108
 
24
16
 
 
252
 
27
20
 
 
218
 
28
20
 
 
105
 
24
14
 
 
49
 
17
6
 
 
28
 
8
−1
 
 
13
 
0
−8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: China Meteorological Administration [8]

Dandong is located on the western border of North Korea and the northwest (right) shore of the Yalu River, facing Sinuiju to the southeast. It is situated in the southeast corner of the Liaodong Peninsula, near the mouth of the Yalu River, which empties into the Korea Bay, which is part of the Yellow Sea. There is 120 kilometres (75 mi) of coastline and islands include Dalu Island (大鹿岛; lit. "great deer island") and Xiaomai Island (小麦岛).

Dandong City ranges in latitude from 39° 43' to 41° 09' N and in longitude from 123° 22' to 125° 41' E, and at its greatest spans 196 kilometres (122 mi) from east to west and 160 kilometres (99 mi) from south to north.[4] Bordering prefectures are Dalian (SW), Anshan (W), Liaoyang (NW), and Benxi (N).

Climate[edit]

The area is home to long winters, and humid, somewhat hot summers, belonging to the humid continental climate regime (Köppen Dwa). Winter usually begins in late November and continues until the end of March (about 4 months), with the most severe cold only lasting for around three weeks in December, January or February. The coldest month, January, averages −7.4 °C (18.7 °F). Spring, though a period of quick warming, is delayed by one month compared to more inland parts of the province, and is somewhat dry until May. Summer heat is moderated by proximity to the coast; the city's warmest month, August, averages 23.4 °C (74.1 °F). Precipitation is generous, too, further exemplifying the maritime influence. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 35% in July to 67% in February, the city receives 2,459 hours of sunshine annually and is, outside of the summer months, generally sunny.

For the city proper, the annual mean temperature is 8.94 °C (48.1 °F), and the total precipitation is 926 millimetres (36 in), but within the prefecture, annual means can be as low as 6.8 °C (44.2 °F), while precipitation ranges from 881.3 to 1,087.5 millimetres (34.70 to 42.81 in).[4]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Dandong is divided into 3 districts, 2 towns and one autonomous county:

Map
Dandong mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Zhenxing District 振兴区 Zhènxīng Qū 380,000 80 4,750
2 Yuanbao District 元宝区 Yuánbǎo Qū 180,000 81 2,222
3 Zhen'an District 振安区 Zhèn'ān Qū 190,000 669 284
4 Fengcheng City 凤城市 Fèngchéng Shì 580,000 5,518 105
5 Donggang City 东港市 Dōnggǎng Shì 640,000 2,496 256
6 Kuandian Manchu
Autonomous County
宽甸满族自治县 Kuāndiàn Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
440,000 6,186 71

Demographics[edit]

In the latest official census of 2000, Dandong's total resident population (which includes the districts of Zhenxing, Yuanbao and Zhen'an) was 780,414 people, while Dandong proper had a total population of 2.4 million. In 2005, the resident population was approximated to be 751,914 with a floating population of 176,926, for a total of 928,840. However, the non-agricultural (urban) population is said to consist of only 79.52% of the resident population (597,930). It is unclear what the floating population consists of or where they live, but it is suspected that most of the migrant population is people from the country-side looking for work, local and foreign businessmen and students. In 2000, there were 244,430 family households (with a pop. of 741,882) and 4,955 collective households (with a pop. of 38,532). The demographic ratio of men to women was 99.52 males to every 100 females. Also, 81.61% of the population was above 15 years of age; thus, 18.39% of the population was under 15 in the year 2000.

The ethnic Han people make up approximately 87.6% of the city's population. The Manchus are the second most populous ethnic group and officially make up 9.6% of the population. The Manchu minority group has become so acculturated into the Han majority that there remains little or no distinction between the two, although a number of Manchu words have remained in the local lexicon. The Hui make up the next most populous minority at 1.5%. Although not recognised by the city's official census figures, there is a thriving Korean minority group estimated at 20-30,000 ethnic Koreans which makes them the second largest minority in the city (at around 2.16%+ of the total estimated pop. for 2004). A number of signs and advertisements are in both Mandarin and Korean and there are many Korean restaurants and shops as well as some Korean churches, schools and other cultural institutions.

Economy[edit]

The total GDP of the city of Dandong is 9.52 billion yuan in year 2009 (ranked 40th out of the 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province). The GDP per capita of the city of Dandong is 12414 Yuan in 2009 (ranked 52nd out of all 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province).[9]

China handles roughly 40% of North Korea's worldwide export trade ($1.58 of 4 billion USD) and roughly half of the bilateral commerce[10] with China goes through Dandong which imports $468 million [USD worth of product], according to its Ministry of Commerce.[citation needed] Dandong's annual resident per capita wage income for 2004 was somewhere between ¥9,500 and ¥12,237 RMB and the city's GDP was 3.77 billion USD.

Dandong is widely known in China for producing the Dandong Yellow Sea brand buses. The port of Dandong is being developed into the second major international logistics centre of Liaoning and has become a notable alternative to the port of Dalian.[citation needed]

The city had “5.86 million tourists” in 2004, of which 16,000 of those travelled into North Korea; another 81,000 of those were from overseas and contributed $27.54 million USD to the economy. During 2004, “the total tourism income was 4.02 billion Yuan [RMB],” and this was an increase of almost 33% from the previous year.[11]

Development Zones[edit]

Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved as a national-level development zone in 1992. It is located on the bank of Yalu River, opposite the North Korean city of Sinuiju. It encourages the following industries: electronic information, machine manufacturing, bio-pharmaceuticals, among others.[12]

Dandong Qianyang Economic Development Zone was first approved by Dandong City as a Special Economic Zone, in 1994 by Liaoning Province as Liaoning Dandong Qianyang Economic Development Zone (LDQEDZ). In July 2009, the development of the Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt was listed as a national strategy. Qianyang Town, situated at the eastern tip of the Belt is now an important component of Dandong's coastal development, and has an opportunity to demonstrate its strategic position.[13]

Infrastructure[edit]

Railways[edit]

Crossing into North Korea over the Yalu River

Trains from Dandong to Shenyang are available several times a day with night trains to Beijing, Dalian, Changchun, Qingdao and Shanghai. From Dalian, the train takes a slow route of almost 10 hours, or from Beijing around 14 hours. Requiring visas, it is also possible to take the train to Pyongyang, North Korea and Moscow.[14]

Road[edit]

From the long-distance bus station it takes about 10 hours to get to Beijing, four hours to Dalian and Tonghua, and three hours to Shenyang.[15]

Air[edit]

Flights to and from Dandong Airport are limited, but one can always fly in/out of Dalian or Shenyang and then take the train or bus to/from Dandong. The airport is located 13 miles west of town and an airport shuttle is available. Domestic flights are available to Beijing, Qingdao, Sanya, Shanghai and Shenzhen.

Ports and waterways[edit]

The Port of Dandong is located on the right bank at the mouth of the Yalu River. It is bordered by the Yellow Sea in the south and is separated from the North Korea in the east. It was set up as a trading port in 1907. Since large-scale construction began in the mid 1980s, the Port, together with the ports at Dalian and Yingkou, has become an important distributing centre in northeast China.[5]

Landmarks[edit]

North Korean ferris wheel with "Short Bridge" in foreground
Friendship bridge view from Dandong

The city is across the river from Sinŭiju, North Korea. The two cities are connected by the Sino-Korea Friendship Bridge (中朝友谊桥, also called the China-Korea Friendship Bridge). Tourists can rent speed boats or passenger boats to approach the border and get a closer look at the North Korean city of Sinŭiju. North Koreans often gather close to the river's edge, waving to foreigners as they cruise by. There is a rarely used ferris wheel in Sinŭiju that tourists are able to see from across the Yalu River. This is a highlight for tourists wishing to catch a glimpse of North Korea.

Other tourist attractions include: a museum dedicated to the "War to resist US aggression and aid Korea" (also known as the Korean War) and Jinjiang Mountain (锦江山) that used to be a Chinese army lookout is now the city's biggest park.[citation needed]

Outside of central Dandong, there are other landmarks such as: the Dagushan Scenic Area in Donggang, Hushan Great Wall (虎山长城), which marks the eastern terminus of the Ming Dynasty's extension to the Great Wall, and Shuifeng Dam in Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County, and Fenghuang Mountain in Fengcheng.

The Yalu River bridge (the Sino-Korean friendship bridge), which spans the Yalu River from the revitalized District Riverside Road No. O country park to Sinŭiju, is just south o the Yalu River scenic area, and is one of the Jiang Fengjing central views.

Wulong mountain scenic area is located in Dandong City, 25 km (16 mi) northwest of the town of old village Zhen'an District, is located in Zhen'an District within Fengcheng's city borders, and includes five Longshan and wulongbei spa.

Black Creek Reservoir is located in the city of Dandong gold bullions District Town (the original toad town), located in 304 State Road (Dan Huo highway) on the left side, 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Dandong. Dandong is the only city in the area of the reservoir. The Black Creek Reservoir near the Shou artillery battalion has spas, sanatoriums and a summer resort to cater to tourism.

Pacific Bay Resort in Dandong City Zhen'an District Taiping Bay, and North Korea North Pyongan province Shuozhou County side of the mountains across the water, the Yalu River scenic area is the focus area of Jiang Fengjing. Taiping Bay is located downstream from the city of Dandong and Sinuiju about 40 km (25 mi), about 30 km (19 mi) from the upstream water Feng Hu, from the castle ditch scenic area 98 km (61 mi).

Dandong is also home to a remote outpost of UK supermarket Tesco, purportedly used by China's elite and visiting North Koreans.[16]

Friendship cities[edit]

Dandong is a Sister City with the following cities:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dandong China-Dandong Briefing-Population and Employment
  2. ^ Rogers, Jenny. "New group reaches out to China." Gold Coast Bulletin. October 2, 2012. Retrieved on October 23, 2012.
  3. ^ Kanto, Dick K. and Mark E. Manyin. China-North Korea Relations. DIANE Publishing. December 28, 2010. 10. Retrieved from Google Books on October 23, 2012. ISBN 1437985114, 9781437985115.
  4. ^ a b c "中国丹东-丹东概貌导航-自然地理" (in Simplified Chinese). Dandong Municipal Government. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  5. ^ a b "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  6. ^ a b c d Heidi English. "A Biref Introduction to Heidi English School". Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  7. ^ a b HKTDC (2011-09-12). "Dandong ( Liaoning ) City Information". Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  8. ^ a b "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-11-01. 
  9. ^ Liaoning Statistical Yearbook. []. 2009. 
  10. ^ Rabinovitch, Simon (15 May 2013). "Cooling China-N Korea ties hit border town". Financial Times. 
  11. ^ "China Briefing Guide". Dandong Municipal People's Government. 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  12. ^ RightSite.asia | Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone
  13. ^ China Liaoning Business Guide
  14. ^ "China Internet Information Center". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  15. ^ "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  16. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25452941

External links[edit]