|Chapters of the Book of Daniel|
Daniel 2 is a chapter of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible, written mostly in Aramaic and partly in Hebrew. It tells how Daniel interprets a dream of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, regarding a statue made of four metals, representing four kingdoms. Nebuchadnezzar demands that his wise men interpret the dream on pain of execution, but refuses to tell them what the dream is. Daniel requests a stay of execution, God reveals the dream and its interpretation to him, and Daniel is promoted over the whole province of Babylon.
- 1 Content and structure
- 2 Literary analysis
- 3 Narrative analysis
- 4 Interpretations of idol image
- 5 Criticism of vision
- 6 Dead sea scrolls
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
Content and structure
A. Introduction (v.1)
- B. The king and his unwise courtiers (vv.2-12)
- C. Daniel and Arioch (vv.13-16)
- D. Daniel and his friends pray to God (vv.17-23)
- C'. Daniel and Arioch (vv.24-25)
- C. Daniel and Arioch (vv.13-16)
- B'. The king and Daniel, the wise courtier (vv.26-47)
- B. The king and his unwise courtiers (vv.2-12)
A'. Result (vv.48-49)
Verse 1 introduces the setting as the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar,” king of Babylon. The king has dreams, his mind is troubled, and he is unable to sleep.
The king and his unwise courtiers (vv.2-12)
The king summons his courtiers and requires them to tell him the meaning of the dream.[vv.2-3] The courtiers ask the king to relate the dream to them, but he says they must both tell him his dream and interpret it. If they fail they will be executed, but if they succeed he promises gifts. The magicians protest that no-one can reveal the dream except the gods, who do not live among men. Nebuchadnezzar in his fury orders the execution of all the wise men in Babylon.
Daniel and Arioch (vv.13-16)
Arioch, the captain of the guard, begins arresting the wise men in order to carry out the king's order. Daniel asks why the king has issued such a harsh command, and Arioch explains the matter to him. Daniel goes to the king to ask for time to interpret the dream.
Daniel and his friends pray to God (vv.17-23)
Daniel asks his friends to pray to God for mercy so that they might not be executed, and in the night God reveals the dream and its meaning. Daniel praises God, affirming his power to raise up and put down kings and his role as the source of all wisdom and knowledge.
Daniel and Arioch (vv.24-25)
Daniel goes to Arioch and tells him not to execute the wise men, but to take him to the king. Arioch takes him at once to the king, telling him that he has found a wise man among the exiles of Judea who will interpret the dream.
The king and Daniel, the wise courtier (vv.26-47)
Nebuchadnezzar asks Daniel if he can tell and interpret the dream. Daniel replies that no wise man can do this, but only God, who has shown the king what will happen in days to come.
Daniel describes the dream. The king has seen a great image, its head made of gold, its chest and arms of silver, its belly and thighs of bronze, its legs of 'iron, and its feet partly of iron and partly of baked clay. A stone not cut by hands struck the image on its feet and smashed them, and the clay, iron, bronze, silver and gold shattered and were swept away by the wind, while the stone became a great mountain filling the whole Earth. and grows to fill the whole earth.
Daniel then gives the interpretation. Nebuchadnezzar is the head of gold: he has been given dominion by God. After him another kingdom who will arise, inferior to his, and it in turn will be followed by a kingdom of bronze which will rule over the whole earth. The a fourth kingdom of iron will come, but it will be a divided, partly strong like iron and partly brittle like clay. In that time God will set up a final kingdom, the rock not cut by human hands, which will smash all the others.
Daniel concludes with an affirmation of the truth of what he has said: "The dream is true and its interpretation is trustworthy."
Nebuchadnezzar prostrates himself before Daniel and orders offerings and incense to be presented to him, saying, "Surely your God is the God of gods and Lord of kings and revealer of mysteries." The king lavishes gifts on Daniel and makes him chief of all the wise men and ruler over the province of Babylon. At Daniel's request his friends are made administrators over the province, while Daniel remains at court.
The literary structure of the Book of Daniel illustrates the use of Aramaic in Daniel chapter 2. The first three verses of the source text are written in Hebrew. In verse 4, the Hebrew text says, "Then the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic"NKJV The actual source text is then written in Aramaic once they begin speaking to the king. It has been suggested that this was done on purpose to cue the reader, that what is to follow next in the reading, is now in Aramaic. It is also an indication that this was the language that the wise men spoke as this was, after all, the official language in use at that time. The text continues in Aramaic to the end of Chapter 7. Then starting with Chapter 8:1, the source text returns to being written in Hebraic Masoretic text to the end of the book.
The lack of continuity with other portions of Daniel are sometimes cited as evidence of editorial activity. Danna N. Fewell suggests that the biblical text compromises the narrator’s reliability as an accurate storyteller. John E. Goldingay likewise suggests that these instances of repetitiveness and the lack of continuity in Daniel chapter 2, is the "responsibility of the author as a redactor".
With the second chapter being set in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign,[v.1] it appears to conflict with Chapter 1, where Daniel and his companions were supposed to go through a three-year training course in the Babylonian academy.[1:5] Their final examination wouldn’t be due until the end of that three-year period.[1:18] However, literary irony could be drawn from the narrative in that Daniel was a mere trainee in the Babylonian academy, who was able to outperform the king’s full-fledged experts. A common motif in similar stories of the same literary genre, is the novice making fools of the experts. From the perspective of redaction criticism, the focus would be on the theological motif in that attention is not given to Daniel’s gifts, nor his Chaldean education. Rather, events unfold due to the Divine Wisdom and power that belongs to God alone.[v.13-19] This is indicated when Daniel urged his companions to seek God’s mercy for the interpretation of the king’s dreams and from Daniel’s doxology.[v.20-23] Numerous other solutions have been proposed for the seeming anachronism, as early as Flavius Josephus. Jerome and several others suggested the second year of Nebuchadnezzar was counted not from his rule over Babylon alone, but from his universal rule following his conquest of Egypt. One recent study proposes the second year dates from the consolidation of the Babylonian kingdom when Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah, placing the dream in 595 BCE.
According to form critics, Daniel 2 is made up numerous literary subgenres: a court tale, a dream report, a legend, an aretalogy, a doxology, and a midrash. In regards to the theme of interpreting kings’ dreams and being promoted to prominence, parallels can be drawn between Daniel in Nebuchadnezzar’s court and Joseph in Pharaoh’s court. Form-critical scholars attribute this to a shared folklore pattern of a success story where the lower-class hero solves a problem for the higher-class person and is then rewarded for doing so.
The narrative plot of Daniel chapter 2 is one of contest on a human level and a spiritual level. On the human level of understanding, the narrative conflict is the king’s dreams that cause him to rival against his corps of royal advisors. Daniel’s role is one of contest against the royal advisors to interpret the king’s dream. On a spiritual level, the narrative plot is the conflict between Yahweh, the god of Israel as the true god, verses the pantheon of Babylonian gods. The cosmic dimension of the contest, to interpret the king’s dream, is the ultimate source of knowledge and wisdom: the god of the Hebrews or the occult lore of the Babylonian wise men.
Commentaries on verses
- Verses 1-12
Introduces Nebuchadnezzar’s volatile behavior. The king of Babylon experienced dreams that troubled him and kept him awake at nights. He demands an interpretation of the dreams and threatens a violent execution if he is not satisfied. The text implies a hint of distrust toward his magicians’ abilities to interpret his dreams. According to Artimedorus’s “Oneirocritica”: Dreams, especially those of kings, were regarded as portents. Because this class of servants failed to interpret his dreams, the king orders their deaths throughout all of Babylon. It is suggested that the king’s order to have these wise men of Babylon killed, foreshadows his irrational behavior in Daniel chapter 4.
- Verses 13-19
Daniel seeks divine aid, which suggests that he and his colleagues were not present at the earlier meeting with the king. The captain of the king’s guard, Arioch, is unattested in historical criticism. He is willing to disregard the king’s order to kill all the wise men of Babylon, in order to help Daniel. This appears to contrast with verse 24 where Daniel requires Arioch’s intervention in order to see the king. This discrepancy along with the reintroduction of Daniel’s companions in verse 17, suggests that verses 13-23 are later additions to the story. Daniel urged his companions to seek God’s mercy to reveal the mystery or secret of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. The term Mystery is frequently found in the scrolls from Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrolls, that often indicates a secret that can be learned through divine wisdom. Daniel receives a vision in the night, to interpret Nebuchadnezzar’s dream.
- Verses 20-23
The doxology of Daniel is a short psalm that emphasizes the Divine as a repository of wisdom. Hymns and prayers are frequently inserted into postexilic narratives. Daniel's praise of God and his ability to depose kings, serves to foreshadow the end of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.
- Verses 31-35
The personified giant image in the king's dream, was made up of metals of decreasing worth, starting from the head to the toes. They represent the Golden Age through the Silver, Bronze and Iron periods. Parallels can also be drawn from Greek (Hesiod, Works and Days), Latin (Ovid, Metamorphosis) and Persian (Bahman Yasht) writings. The mention of clay however is unexpected due to its weakness in substance. There is an irony, or potential humor, that can be drawn by the description of the clay serving as a support for the weightier metals.
- Verses 46-49
Nebuchadnezzar prostrated himself and worshiped Daniel, commanding offerings and incense to him. This suggests that the king viewed Daniel as divine. The king acknowledges the god of Daniel and honors him. However, Nebuchadnezzar never converts. This parallels the narrative of Antiochus IV Epiphanes who made death-bed promises, as indicated in 2 Maccabees 9:17. Daniel is then given gifts and is promoted to rule over the whole province of Babylon as Chief Governor over the wise men. Daniel takes this opportunity to have his companions: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego appointed over the affairs of the province. The mention and promotion of the companions builds anticipation for the events they will face in the proceeding chapter, where their allegiance is tested.
Image of kingdoms
Daniel's interpretation of the body parts, of the personified image, are symbolic of nations. These kingdoms will be world empires who “will rule over the whole earth”. The identification of the kingdoms, following Nebuchadnezzar, are symbolized by inferior metals: silver, bronze, iron/clay, which imply gradual decline.
John Phillips even compares each of the metal’s specific gravity as being significant to the prophecy. Gold has a specific gravity of 19.3, silver at 10.51, brass at 8.5, iron at 7.6 and clay at 1.9.
Head of gold
The king, Nebuchadnezzar, is the head of gold.[v.37-38]
- As Babylon
David P. Jeremiah points out that the chief deity of Babylon was Marduk who was considered to be the “god of gold”. The historian Herodotus described the image of Marduk as a golden statue seated upon a golden throne before a golden table and a golden altar. Pliny also notes that the robes of Marduk’s priests were interlaced with gold.
Mark Mangano points out that the use of the word “another”, in v.39, suggests that the Neo-Babylonian Empire had been implied in the identification of Nebuchadnezzar with the “head of gold”. The Neo-Babylonian Empire had been founded by Nabopolassar (626-605 BCE), the father of Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar was followed by Amel-Marduk (562-560 BCE), the Evil-Merodach of the Book of 2 Kings 25:27-30, Neriglissar (560-556 BCE), Labashi-Marduk (556 BCE), and Nabonidus (556-539 BCE), the final king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
However, John Phillips contests that it was only Nebuchadnezzar who was the head of gold. He rejects the idea that the Babylonian empire was part of the head of gold, because he points out the following: The father, Nabopolassar didn't achieve what his son Nebuchadnezzar did, and that was conquering Jerusalem. Evil-Merodach only sat on the Babylonian throne for two years. Neriglassar only had the kingdom for three years and accomplished little beyond building a palace that ended up falling into Persian hands. Though Nabonidus reigned fifteen years, his reign was overshadowed by the Medes and Persians. Finally, Phillips views Belshazzar as being a dissolute young prince who imagined Babylon to be impregnable.
Chest and arms of silver
This will be another kingdom who will rise, succeeding Nebuchadnezzar, but inferior.[v.39]
Belly and thighs of bronze
This is the third kingdom who will rule over the whole earth.[v.39]
Legs of iron
A fourth kingdom will be as strong as iron and will crush all others.[v.40]
Feet of iron and clay
The feet made of iron and clay show that this kingdom becomes divided,[v.41] being partly strong like iron, and partly weak like clay.[v.42] The intermarriage between the two parts will fail.[v.43]
Jerome postulates that since clay and iron do not bond together, this kingdom is intrinsically weak. Unity is impossible and the kingdom is vulnerable because it seeks to unite elements that do not coalesce.
Vision of the stone
God will set up a kingdom that will shatter the other kingdoms and it will stand forever.[v.44] The stone is described as being cut out of the mountain without hands and reiterates how it will break all at once into pieces the image of metal: the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold. It concludes with an affirmation of divine revelation and a certainty of the interpretation.[v.45]
Interpretations of idol image
Over the centuries, scholars have proposed two alternative interpretations regarding the identification of the four kingdoms in Daniel 2. The oldest view holds that the second kingdom of silver represents the Persian Achaemenid Empire, which historically succeeded the Babylonian Empire. As the Persian empire already included the Median Empire by this time, it is sometimes referred to as the "Medo-Persian Empire". An alternate view considers Median empire as a separate one in relation to the Daniel narrative, notwithstanding the fact that the Median Empire alone never historically succeeded the Babylonian one.
The following Historicist interpretation of the vision of the image has traditionally been prevalent among Christian scholars since the 1st CE.
- Head of gold - Babylon
- Breast and arms of silver- Medo-Persia
- Belly and thighs of brass- Hellenistic Greece
- Legs of iron - Rome
- Feet partly of iron and partly of molded clay - The divided Roman Empire
- Rock - Kingdom of God
The following table lists nearly every known Biblical scholar from the 1st to the 19th centuries who used the Historicist methodology to interpret the vision.
|List of Biblical Expositors who commented on Daniel 2
from the 1st to 19th centuries
The Historicist interpretation of the visions of Daniel was a major influence for the Protestant Reformation. "The Reformation ... was really born of a twofold discovery--first, the rediscovery of Christ and His salvation; and second, the discovery of the identity of Antichrist and his subversions." "The reformers were unanimous in its acceptance. And it was this interpretation of prophecy that lent emphasis to their reformatory action. It led them to protest against Rome with extraordinary strength and undaunted courage. ... This was the rallying point and the battle cry that made the Reformation unconquerable."
Seventh-day Adventist interpretation
The Seventh-day Adventists also follow the Historicist interpretation of the statue which they inherited from the Millerite movement.
|Chapter||Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by SDA Historicists|
|Chest & 2 arms
|Belly and thighs
|2 Feet with toes
Clay & Iron
God's unending kingdom
left to no other people
Since iron and clay are materials that cannot form a durable structure, Adventist scholars interpret this as the many short-lived attmepts throughout European history to form a large empire such as the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleonic France, Nazi Germany, The European Union. Some propose a future religo-political power developed and enforced by a global superpower—a Common Government.
Jehovah's Witnesses interpretation
- The gold head - Babylon
- The silver breast and arms - Medo-Persia
- The copper belly and thighs - Greece
- The iron legs - Rome
- The feet partly of iron and partly of molded clay - The Anglo-American World Power
The Anglo-American power is seen as the last dominant world power, emerging from a part of the Roman Empire (the iron legs) first as the British Empire, and then with the formation of the United States of America, to develop into the present-day special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom. However the prophecy comments on the general state of human rule in addition to the last dominant human world power. This state is represented by the iron-and-clay, feet and toes of the statue. The iron and clay represent three characteristics of human rule, in general, during the time of the end (Vss 41-43): 1) These are incompatible materials, in that they do not mix. This represents traditional authoritarian rule uneasily coexisting with democratic rule. 2) The "lack of sticking together" describes the political fragmentation throughout human rule in the last days. 3) The focus of the clay as "the offspring of mankind" represents the common people having a say in how they are ruled during this time.
The "kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and ... not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever", in verse 44 of the prophecy, is said by Witnesses to be the heavenly kingdom established by God, with Jesus as appointed king, which will ultimately bring to an end human rulership. This kingdom will rule the Earth. It is a special government sponsored by God's universal sovereignty (the mountain in vs 35) to restore humans to perfection and restore the physical earth to its original and intended state of paradise.
Jehovah's Witnesses also believe that the sequence of world powers in Nebuchadnezzar's dream parallels that given in the vision in the Book of Revelation Chapter 17, verse 10 which speaks of "seven kings: five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet arrived". (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece having "fallen" by the time Revelation was written; Rome was the world power at the time - "one is" - while the British Empire and subsequent emergence of the United States and their later alliance was then yet to come, hence "the other has not yet arrived".)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) interpretation
The story in Daniel 2 has significant meaning to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, who believe that the true church was restored to the earth in the "latter days" through a modern prophet, Joseph Smith, in 1830.
Spencer Kimball explained in 1976, "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was restored in 1830. ...This is the kingdom, set up by the god of heaven, that would never be destroyed nor superseded, and the stone cut out of the mountain without hands that would become a great mountain and would fill the whole earth." Kimball agreed with the view of most Christians that the third kingdom represented that of Alexander the Great, the fourth represented the Roman Empire, and the feet of iron and clay represented a group of European nations, which were the great political powers at the time the Latter Day Saint movement was founded.
Interpretation according to the Maccabean thesis
Adherents of the Maccabean thesis view the four successive empires as culminating with the Seleucid Greek period of king Antiochus IV Epiphanes. These scholars argue that Daniel had believed that the Median empire followed Babylon, and was then displaced by Persia. Therefore, in their analysis of the narrative, the Median and Persian Empires should be viewed as separate. Those who subscribe to the Maccabean thesis are: Hartman, Alexander Di Lella, Lacocque, Montgomery, Norman Porteous, and John J. Collins. Conservative Christian scholars who also share this view are: H. H. Rowley, Gurney, Ernest Lucas, and J. H. Walton.
The proposed identities are:
- Head of gold - Babylonian Empire
- Breast and arms of silver - Median Empire
- Belly and thighs of copper - Persian Empire
- Legs of iron - Greek Empire of Alexander
- Feet partly of iron and partly of molded clay - The Seleucids and the Ptolemies
Daniel 2:43 ("they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another") in the second view refers to the unsuccessful marriage alliances between the Seleucids and Ptolemies.(Daniel 11:6, 11:17) According to scholars who hold to this view, only these two successors to the Greek kingdom were of interest to the author and his Jewish readers since these two dynasties had direct relation to Jewish affairs. They often fought over the ownership of Judea and the control of Jews in the 2nd century BC (Daniel 11:2-35).
The challenge to this view is that in other places in the book of Daniel, the kingdoms of Media and Persia are nowhere separated into two different kingdoms, one coming after the other, but are rather the two are combined into one kingdom, Medio-Persia and are treated as one unit. Daniel 9:20 ("“ The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.") Daniel 5:28 ("PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians")
Criticism of vision
The criticism of the book of Daniel is that it is a pseudepigraph dated to the mid-2nd century BC, concerned primarily with the Maccabean era and the reign of the Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes. The vision of the four kingdoms: Babylon, Media, Persia, and Greece, are associated with the theory that the book of Daniel terminates in the Hellenist era, and the "kingdom" represented by the stone may refer to the Hasmonean dynasty. This dynasty was set up by the Maccabees after their defeat of the Seleucid forces.
However, many Christian scholars[clarification needed] do not accept this interpretation, largely because Jesus is said in Matthew 24 to have quoted Daniel as a prophet who foretold future events. Some scholars believe that Jesus placed the fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy at the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70,; others think he was describing the "end of the age" (Matt. 24:3), immediately preceding Judgement Day. Therefore, their identification of the metals in the statue with empires tends to differ somewhat from the above-mentioned view of the scholars. Instead, the vision is considered to be about the development of Babylon and its successors, from the time of Nebuchadnezzar all the way to the future day when God's eternal kingdom will be established.
The identification of the gold head is not disputed, as the text clearly indicates that it represents Nebuchadnezzar himself, and by extension, the Babylonian Empire. However, in this view, the second kingdom, represented by the chest and arms of silver, is identified with the combined Medo-Persian empire (which commenced when the Persian king Cyrus the Great defeated Babylon.) The third kingdom, represented by the belly of bronze, is thought to be the Hellenic empire of Alexander and his successors. The fourth kingdom of iron legs becomes the Roman Empire, and the feet and toes of part iron and part clay are sometimes said to be nations that arise from the ashes of the Roman Empire, that will still be ruling when the "end" comes (the rock representing God's kingdom that will strike the idol).
In Christian interpretations,[by whom?] the Kingdom of God (represented by the stone that destroys the statue) may be considered in a spiritual sense, as the kingdom set up by Jesus through his death and resurrection during the time of the Roman empire; or alternatively as the literal and physical kingdom that Jesus will set up at his second coming, in which case the feet and toes of part iron and part clay must represent the nations which take the place of the Roman empire until the end of time.
Aside from certain scholarly views[by whom?] that maintain the book was written in the time of Antiochus IV, the chapter itself claims to take place in the "second year of Nebuchadnezzar". This could refer to 604 BC, the second year he reigned in Babylon, or it might also possibly mean 587 BC, the second year of his reign over Judah after deposing his last puppet, king Zedekiah.
Dead sea scrolls
- 1QDana (2:2-6)
- 4QDana (2:9-11, 19-49)
- Mangano, p. 179.
- J. G. Baldwin, "Book of Daniel" in New Bible Dictionary3rd edition, IVP
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, pp. 1255, footnote 2.1–12
- Longman & Garland 2009, p. 57
- editor, Danna Nolan Fewell, (1992). Reading between texts : intertextuality and the Hebrew Bible (1st ed. ed.). Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-664-25393-6.
- Goldingay 1989, p. 44
- Seow, C.L. (2003). Daniel (1st ed. ed.). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-664-25675-9.
- The Times of Daniel, by George Duke of Manchester, 1845 p. 96.
- Daniel: Absolutes in a Gray World, 2009 p.131
- Goldingay 1989, p. 36
- Longman & Garland 2009, p. 58
- Redditt, Paul L. (1999). Daniel : based on the New Revised Standard Version. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84127-009-8.
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1255, footnote 2.5
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1255, footnote 2.1
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.12
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.14
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.16
- Note: The companions were first introduced in Daniel 1:6-7 – Oxford annotated Bible. 2007. p. 1256, See footnote 2.17.
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.18
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.19
- Psalms 36:9, 41:13, 106:48, 139:11-12
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, pp. 1256, footnote 2.20–23
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.21
- Porteous, Norman W. (1965). Daniel : a commentary (null ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. pp. 45–6. ISBN 978-0-664-22317-5.
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, pp. 1257, footnote 2.32–33
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1257, footnote 2.33
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.46
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.47
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.48
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.49
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel (null ed.). Joplin, Mo.: College Press Pub. p. 188. ISBN 0-89900-885-2.
- Phillips, John (2004). Exploring the book of Daniel : an expository commentary (null ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. p. 53. ISBN 0-8254-3399-1.
- Jeremiah, David (2008). "3. Modern Europe...Ancient Rome". What in the world is going on? : 10 prophetic clues you cannot afford to ignore. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-7852-2887-X.
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel. College Press Pub. p. 323. ISBN 9780899008851.
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel. College Press Pub. pp. 187–8. ISBN 9780899008851.
- Walvoord, John F. (2010). "11: World History in Prophetic Outline". Major Bible Prophecies: 37 Crucial Prophecies That Affect You Today. Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-87311-8.
- Phillips, John (2004). Exploring the book of Daniel : an expository commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. pp. 53–4. ISBN 0-8254-3399-1.
- Collins 1984, p. 48
- Baldwin, Joyce G. (2009). Daniel : an introduction and commentary (null ed.). Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic. p. 93. ISBN 0-8308-4223-3.
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 456–7
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 894–5
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 528–9
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 784–5
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 252–3
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 744–5
- Froom 1948, p. 243
- Froom 1948, pp. 244, 245
- E. J. Young, The Messianic Prophecies of Daniel, 1952.
- Pfandl, Gerhard 2004, Daniel, the Seer of Babylon, Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 59.
- Mears, Henrietta (1999). What the Bible is all about (null ed.). Ventura, Calif.: Regal Books. p. 174. ISBN 0-8307-4329-4.
- Smith, U., 1944, Daniel and Revelation, Southern Publishing Association, Nashvill, TN
- Anderson, A., 1975, Pacific PRess Pub. Assoc., Unfolding Daniel's Prophecies, Mountain View, CA
- Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy! published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society
- The Stone Cut Without Hands, Spencer Kimball, Ensign, May 1976
- Daniel Among the Babylonians
- Miller, Stephen R. (1994). Daniel. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8054-0118-9.
- Miller, Stephen R. (1994). Daniel. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-0-8054-0118-9.
- Porteous, Norman W. (1965). Daniel: A Commentary. Westminster Press. p. 48.
- The apocalyptic imagination: an introduction to Jewish apocalyptic literature, John Joseph Collins, p. 95
- H. H. Rowley, Darius the Mede and the Four World empires in the Book of Daniel, 1935
- Ernest C. Lucas, Daniel, Apollos Old Testament Commentary
- J. H. Walton, "The Four Kingdoms of Daniel," JETS 29(1986):25-36.
- Collins, Daniel, p. 170
- Cf. H. H. Rowley: Darius the Mede and the Four World Empires, pp. 96
- Hartmann and DiLella, The Book of Daniel, p. 148
- Dillard and Longman, An Introduction to the Old Testament, Apollos 1995, pp. 329-350.
- Ronald Wallace (1979). The Message of Daniel. IVP. pp. 17–19, 58.
- H. H. Rowley (1935). Darius the Mede and the Four World empires in the Book of Daniel. p. 97.
- Craig Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels, Apollos 1997, pp.322-326
- N. T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God, Fortress 1996, p. 348ff.
- Reginald H. Fuller (1988). James L Mays, ed. Harper's Bible Commentary. p. 977.
- Ronald Wallace (1979). The Message of Daniel. IVP. p. 58.
- VanderKam 2002, p. 423
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Bar, Shaul (2001). A letter that has not been read: dreams in the Hebrew Bible. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 9780878204243.
- Beckwith, Carl L. (2012). Ezekiel, Daniel. IVP Academic.
- Biddle, Mark E. (2007). "Jeremiah". In Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Mark Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press.
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