|32nd Mayor of Milwaukee Wisconsin|
|Preceded by||Gerhard Adolph Bading (D/R)|
|Succeeded by||Carl Zeidler (D)|
|Born||Daniel Webster Hoan
March 12, 1881
|Died||June 11, 1961
|Political party||Socialist (until 1940)
Democratic (to 1961)
Daniel Webster "Dan" Hoan (1881–1961) was a United States lawyer and politician. He became the second Socialist mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and his tenure is generally considered to be the longest continuous socialist administration in U.S. history. He was the second-longest serving mayor of Milwaukee.
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Daniel Webster Hoan was born in Waukesha, Wisconsin, on March 12, 1881. He left school early but he studied at evening classes and in 1908 qualified as a lawyer.
A member of the Socialist Party, Hoan moved to Milwaukee where he worked closely with Victor Berger, the editor of the Socialist daily the Milwaukee Leader, in trying to persuade the city to adopt radical reforms. This included municipal ownership of utilities, urban renewal programs and free legal, medical and educational services.
In 1910 Emil Seidel was elected mayor of Milwaukee and became the first socialist leader of a major city in the United States. The same year Hoan became Milwaukee's city attorney, winning election by a plurality of more than 7300 votes out of about 59,000 votes cast over Democratic and Republican opponents. Over the next six years Hoan clamped down on the corruption of public officials.
In 1916 Hoan was elected as mayor of Milwaukee. Unlike many members of the Socialist Party, Hoan did not oppose United States entry into the First World War. Hoan remained mayor for twenty-four years, the longest continuous Socialist administration in United States history.
He brought in a large number of progressive reforms including the country's first public housing project, Garden Homes, started in 1923. Hoan also led the successful drive towards municipal ownership of the stone quarry, street lighting, sewage disposal and water purification.
During his administration the first bus system in the United States came into being after a number of pedestrians were run over by street trolleys that ran down the middle of the road. Among the victims of such streetcar accidents was Milwaukee newspaper editor and Socialist Party founder and leading light Victor L. Berger, who was killed in 1929.
Hoan developed a reputation for honest and efficient government. In 1999, author Melvin Holli and a group of experts on local government, voted Hoan as the eighth best mayor in United States history. Holli wrote:
"Although this self-identified socialist had difficulty pushing progressive legislation through a nonpartisan city council, he experimented with the municipal marketing of food, backed city-built housing, and in providing public markets, city harbor improvements, and purging graft from Milwaukee politics. Perhaps Hoan's most important legacy was cleaning up the free-and-easy corruption that prevailed before he took office."
At the May 1932 convention of the Socialist Party, Hoan ran for National Chairman of the party against incumbent Morris Hillquit. In addition to the "constructive Socialists" from Wisconsin, Hoan garnered the support of the young Marxist "Militant" faction and the radicals around Norman Thomas, but this bloc was insufficient to unseat Hillquit, who won reelection by a vote of 105-86.
Hoan was defeated in the Milwaukee mayoral campaign of 1940 and the next year left the Socialist Party and joined the Democratic Party. He ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1944 and 1946. In 1948 he was unsuccessful in his attempt to once again become mayor of Milwaukee when he was defeated by the Socialist Party's candidate, Frank P. Zeidler. Hoan remains the last sitting mayor of Milwaukee to be defeated in a reelection bid.
A highway system was started under his administration, but federal funding was scarce. The system was later expanded to included the Hoan Bridge, which was completed in 1972 but not opened to the public until 1977.
Death and legacy
Hoan died on June 11, 1961 and was buried at Holy Cross Cemetery in Milwaukee. The Hoan papers reside with the Milwaukee County Historical Society, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Hoan Bridge on Milwaukee's lakefront is the most visible monument which bears his name.
- List of mayors of Milwaukee
- Sewer socialism
- Emil Seidel
- Frank P. Zeidler
- Social-Democratic Party of Wisconsin
- "The Official Figures," Social-Democratic Herald [Milwaukee], vol. 12, no. 51, whole no. 611 (April 16, 1910), pg. 6.
- Melvin G. Holli: The American Mayor
- Anna Bercowitz, "The Milwaukee Convention," The American Socialist Quarterly, v. 1, no. 3 (Summer 1932), p. 53.
- The Failure of Regulation. Chicago: Socialist Party of the United States, 1914.
- Lincoln, the Commoner: Helped in Fight for Education for Workers. Saginaw, MI: Saginaw County Socialist Party, n.d. [192-].
- Socialism and the City: How to Remove Chaos and Put Order and Beauty into American Cities. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1931.
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- Why a Farmer-Labor Progressive Federation? : Address Selivered to the Convention on Saturday, May 21, 1938, at Madison. Milwaukee: The Federation, 1938.
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- The St. Lawrence Seaway: Navigation Aspects. n.c.: Great Lakes Harbors Association n.d, [1948?].
- Benoit, Edward A., A Democracy of Its Own: Milwaukee's Socialisms, Difference and Pragmatism. MA thesis. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2009.
- Kerstein, Edward S. Milwaukee's All-American Mayor: Portrait of Daniel Webster Hoan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966.
- Reinders, Robert C. "Daniel W. Hoan and the Milwaukee Socialist Party during the First World War," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 36, no. 1 (Autumn 1952), pp. 48–55.
- Mayor Daniel Hoan of Milwaukee, Wisconsin Historical Society
- Daniel Hoan on the cover of Time magazine
Gerhard A. Bading
|Mayor of Milwaukee